Animal breeding increasingly lays claim to the theoretical and practical knowledge of applied ethology. The authors’ aim was to evaluate and compare the temperaments of Charolais (CH, n= 10) and Hungarian Grey (HG, n= 10) steers, and also to determine the correlation between their temperament scores and flight speed scores. Temperament was ev...aluated by the results of the scale test (assessing of behaviour in a 1-5 score system, while the animal is standing on a scale for 30 seconds) and flight speed test (minutes it takes the animal to move a set distance of 1.7 m when leaving the scale), on three occasions (1, 2, 3). Data management was done by SPSS.10 (ANOVA, Mann-Whitney-test, Spearman-correlation). Results of the scale test differed significantly between breeds at the third measurement (CH: 2,9 scores; HG: 1,4 scores; P<0,01) and when evaluating the three measurements together (CH: 2,0 scores; HG: 1,37 scores; P<0,05). Concerning of flight speed score, there were significant differences between breeds of steers at each measurement (1. measurement CH: 2,77 s; HG: 4,09 s; P<0,05; 2. measurement CH: 2,89 s; HG: 5,01 s; P<0,01; 3. measurement CH: 2,46 s; HG: 5,33 s; P<0,01) and overall (CH: 2,71 s; HG: 4,81 s; P<0,001). In the case of both breeds, evaluated by measurements and overall, a negative correlation was calculated between temperament score and flight speed score, but this was significant only in three cases: CH1 (n=10) r= -0,75; P<0,01; CH1+2+3 (n=30) r= -0,44; P<0,05; CH+HG1+2+3 (n=60) r= -0,33; P<0,01). Results indicate that Hungarian Grey steers are calmer than individuals of Charolais. Animals behaving calmer on the scale left the scale, more slowly. The authors propose the use of these temperament tests in Hungarian breeding practice, in order to select too temperament animals.
Composting of sewage sludges makes easier the utilization of sewage sludge in the agriculture and the composts in good quality could increase the nutrient content of soil. Due to the composting process, the sewage sludge composts with high organic matter content can be utilized in the same way as other composts or farmyard manure.