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  • The impacts of spring basal and side dressing on maize yield

    The yield potential of maize is very high. According to Tollenaar (1983), maize yield potential is as high as 25 t ha-1 (absolute dry yield) which is the highest among all cereals. In order to fully utilise this high yield potential, proper nutrient replenishment is of chief importance among all agrotechnical factors.

    The aim of research was to examine the effect of nitrogen fertiliser applied as basal and side dressing on maize yield.

    The measurements were performed at the Látókép experiment site (47° 33’ N, 21° 26’ E, 111 m asl) of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen on mid-heavy calcareous chernozem soil with deep humus layer in an established experiment in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The trial design was split-split-plot with two replications.

    Based on the experiment results, it can be established that the nutrient uptake of maize is greatly dependent on the amount of water store in the soil. From the aspect of the development of the maize plant and water supply, the most determinant factor was the distribution of precipitation over the growing season and not the amount precipitation. This is shown by the fact there was only 276 mm precipitation – which was favourably distributed – in 2012 to increase the availability of nutrients and the main average was the highest in this year (14.394 t ha-1).

    Spring basal dressing helped maize development in all three years even on chernozem soil which is well supplied with nutrients. Although the effect of side dressing did not result in any yield increase, it could still contribute to mitigating the stress effects caused by environmental factors. Altogether, nutrient supply adapted to the various development stages of maize can favourably affect the success of maize production.

  • Long term researches regarding the irrigation influence on sugarbeet crop inthe Crisurilor Plain

    The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain in during 1976–2012.

    The soil water reserve in 0–75 cm depth decreased bellow easily available water content every year and in 32% of years the soil water reserve decreased bellow wilting point. For optimum water supply an irrigation rate of 2665 m3 ha-1 (variation interval 500–5090 m3 ha-1) was needed.

    The irrigation determined improving of water/temperature + light report (Domuta climate index) with 47.4% in average in the period May–September. A statistically very significant connection was quantified between this indicator and the yield.

    Daily water consumption increased in the irrigated variant, the biggest difference in comparison with unirrigated variant was registered in August, 86% in comparison with unirrigated variant. As consequence, the value of the total water consumption increased with 50%, variation interval was 11–154%. The irrigation covered 37.8% of total water consumption, the variation interval was 8.3%–67.9%.

    The yield level of the sugarbeet increased in average with 61%, the variation interval was 9–227%. Standard deviation was lower in the irrigated variant and this emphasizes an improve of the yield stability with 25.1%. The sugar content of the sugarbeet roots from irrigated variant increased statistically very significantly in the droughty years and differs significantly in the rainy years.

    Water use efficiency increased in the irrigated variant with 7% and irrigation water use efficiency was between 7.9 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water and 17.4 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water.

    The positive influence of the irrigation on microclimate, water consumption, yield level, stability and quality and on water use efficiency sustain the need of the irrigation in sugarbeet from Crisurilor Plain.

  • The Effect of Forecrop and Plant Protection on the Pathology Parameters and Yields of Winter Wheat

    We carried out our experiment in the cropyears of 2000/2001, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, on calcareous chernozem soil, at the experimental site of the Debrecen University Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. We examined the disease resistance and the yield quantity of Mv Magvas variety by adopting different forecrops and plant protection technologies, at 30+30 N level and at normal cereal row spacing. We applied two forecrops (wheat and pea) and two plant protection technologies (extensive and intensive). We measured the rate of infection by population survey in the first ten days of June.
    In the course of our examinations, we found, that the rate of powdery mildew infection was higher in the thicker population sown after pea forecrop in all three years, as powdery mildew is not a typical cereal disease.
    The infection rate of leaf mildew and DTR (Dreschlera tritici-repentis) was higher after wheat forecrop in all examined years, because these are typical wheat diseases and infection centres in the soil promote the spreading of these diseases. However, it was possible to parry the adverse effect of forecrops by intensive plant protection.
    Due to the chernozem soil, wich has good water management features, and due to the good preparation of the seedbed, the effect of forecrops on yield quantity did not appear in the examined years. The quantity of the yield was only slightly larger after pea forecrop in the cropyears of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 than after wheat. Nonetheless, the data of technical literatures state that the yield quantity can be larger, even by 15-20%, after pea forecrop.
    In the course of intensive plant protection technology, we applied systemic pesticides, while in the course of environmentally sound technology, we used contact pesticides of sulphur content. In those populations that were treated with environmentally sound plant protection technology, infection rate was higher in all three years.
    Yield quantities were somewhat lower in the course of applying extensive, environmentally sound technology, because diseases appeared in these populations to the higher degree. Powdery mildew does not, but leaf mildew and Dreschlera tritici-repentis have a significant yield decreasing effect. With appropriate, well-selected fungicides, we were able to keep every leaf diseases well in hand, and the rate of infection was almost independent of the influence of the breeding year.

  • Studies of plant density increase – on maize hybrids of various genotypes on chernozem soil

    The yield and crop safety of maize are influenced by numerous ecological, biological and agrotechnical factors. It is of special importance to study one of the agrotechnical elements, the plant density of maize hybrids, which is influenced by the growing area conditions and the selected hybrid.

    We have investigated the effects of three different plant numbers (50 thousand plants ha-1, 70 thousand plants ha-1 and 90 thousand plants ha-1) on the yield of 12 maize hybrids of different genotypes in Hajdúság, on calcareous chernozem soil, in the Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences, in 2013. The experiment was set in four replications, besides commonly applied agrotechnical actions. In the experiment, 1 hybrid of very early (Sarolta), 9 of early (P 9578, DKC 4014, DKC 4025, P 9175, NK Lucius, Reseda, P 37N01, DKC 4490, P 9494) and 2 of medium (Kenéz, SY Afinity) maturation were used.

    With the increase of the plant number, the number of individuals per unit area increases. According to our experimental results, we have concluded that with the increase of the plant number, the yield increased in the average of the hybrids. In the average of the hybrids, in the case of 50 thousand plants ha-1, the yield was 13 130 kg ha-1, in the case of 70 thousand plants ha-1, it was 13 824 kg ha-1, while in the case of 90 thousand plants ha-1, the yield became 13 877 kg ha-1.

    In addition to plant density increase, it is necessary to determine the optimal plant number that is the most favourable for the certain hybrid under the given conditions. To fulfil this aim, we have determined the optimal plant number corresponding to the maximum yield of the given hybrid, within the given plant number range. The optimal and applied plant numbers differ, since the optimal one could only be applied under ideal conditions. Since the agrotechnical actions cannot always be carried out in appropriate quality and one has to adapt to the weather conditions, thus we have determined a plant number range in the case of each hybrid. The hybrids were classified into categories of producible in narrow and broad plant number range.

  • Evaluation of the interaction between environmental factors, cultivation and fertilisation

    The effect of production factors on maize yield was examined in the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre of Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil between 2001 and 2003. The impact of environmental factors (precipitation, temperature, number of sunny hours), cultivation methods (autumn ploughing, spring shallow cultivation) and fertilisation (non-fertilised, 120 kg N + 90 kg P2O5 + 106 kg K2O, and 240 kg N + 180 kg P2O5 + 212 kg K2O) on maize yield was examined. During the three years, autumin ploughing significantly increased yield by 2.91 t ha-1 in comparison with spring shallow cultivation. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was observed in each year, although its extent depended on the given crop year and the applied cultivation method. The higher fertiliser dose (240 kg N ha-1) did not cause significantly higher yield in either year. After the evaluation of the observed correlations, it can be established that the yield increasing
    effect of fertilisation was higher in the case of autumn ploughing in comparison with spring shallow cultivation. The environmental factors (especially the extent of precipitation) significantly affected the maize yield. 

  • Effect of the plant density on different maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids yields and leaf area index (LAI) values

    We have investigated the plant number reactions of three maize hybrids of various genotypes in a small-plot field experiment. The plant numbers were 50, 70 and 90 thousand ha-1, while the row distances were 45 and 76 cm. The experiment was set on the Látókép Experimental Farm of Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen in four replications on calcareous chernozem soil.

    The assimilation area and the leaf area index have important role in development of the crop yield. The studied three different genotype maize hybrids reached its maximum leaf area index at flowering. The maximum leaf area index increased linearly with increasing plant density. The season-hybrids reached less yield and leaf area index. According to our experimental results, we have concluded that with the decrease of the row spacing, the yield increased in the average of the hybrids. The studied hybrids reached the maximum yield at 70 and 90 plants ha-1 plant density. We determined the optimal plant number that is the most favourable for the certain hybrid under the given conditions.The higher plant density was favourable at 45 cm row spacing than 76 cm. The hybrids reached the maximum grain yield at 45 cm row spacing between 76 712–84 938 plants ha-1, while the optimum plant density at 76 cm row spacing changed between 61 875–65 876 plants ha-1.

    The leaf area index values between the applied plant density for the flowering period (July 1, 24), we defined a significant differences. In the archived yields were significant differences at the 45 cm row spacing between 50 and 70, 90 thousand ha-1 plant density, while the number for the 76 cm row spacing used did not cause a significant differences in the yield. There were significant differences between the examined hybrids of yields.

  • Evaluation of the role of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) green manure in crop rotations

    Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is an annual legume, grown as green manure provide rapid soil cover, can increase soil moisture and organic matter content and reduce soil erosion during fall. During the fallow period, legumes grown as catch crops are known by releasing large amounts of mineral nitrogen (N) for the subsequent crop. By taking advantage of these benefits, it is possible to increase the yield of the next crop in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way. The goal of this study was to determine the value of common vetch as a green manure, considering its effect on soil conditions and the yield of next crops. We examined three different common vetch seed rate as a green manure in a crop rotation with triticale, oat and corn. Next to the green manured treatments, we used fertilized and bare fallow control treatment for comparison. In our study we evaluated the aboveground biomass weight of spring vetch green manure and its effect on the moisture content of the soil. We examined the green manure’s effect on the next crops plant height and yield. We found that the moisture content of the green manured plots was significantly higher during summer drought. On the green manured plots, 37.9% higher triticale yield, 50% higher oat yield and 44% higher corn yield were measured compared to the control plots. The insertion of spring vetch green manuring into crop rotations could be a good alternative to sustainable nutrient replenishment methods. It can be used to reduce the input needs of farming, reduce carbon footprint, contribute to the protection of soils and increase the organic matter content of the soil.

  • Productivity and Nutrient Reaction of Maize Hybrids

    Several factors influence the quantity and stability of maize yield, the most important being the nutrient supply, the hybrid and precipitation. In 2004, during the maize growing season the precipitation was more than the 30 year’s average, with 68.3 mm, but the distribution was unfavorable. The experiment was carried out in Debrecen at the Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production and Applied Ecology. We tested 10 various hybrids with their own genetic characteristics for five different fertilizer doses, in addition to the parcels without fertilization.
    The favorable results reached were due to the rainy season. The average yield varied between 7.78-9.67 tha-1. The DK 440, PR37M34, PR38A24, PR39D81 and PR36R10 of the hybrids reacted to higher fertilizer doses with significant growth yields, the yield (more than 11 tha-1) was the highest for N200, P125, K150 fertilizing. The other hybrids, DKC 5211, Mv Vilma and MV Maraton, gave similar results at the N120+PK fertilizer dose and the ensuing doses depressed the yield. Fertilization was more effective thanks to the precipitation. The fourth and fifth dose increased or decreased maize yield depending on the nutrient reaction of the hybrid. The agro-ecological optimum of NPK fertilization was N120, P75, K90 kgha-1.
    During the experiment we tested the moisture loss of five hybrids. The rainy crop year’s effect on the seed moisture content at harvest was higher than in previous years. The seed moisture content hybrids at harvest which have shorter crop years (FAO 300) was 18-19%, and hybrids with longer vegetation periods had more than 20% seed moisture content. DK 440 hybrid had the intensive moisture loss of the five hybrids, at the start of the measurement, the seed moisture content was higher than 40%, and it decreased to 18.6% by harvesting.

  • The Effect of Sowing Time and Nutrient Supply on the Yield Stability of Maize

    Sowing time, nutrient supply and plant number play crucial roles in the yield stability of maize. The productivity of various hybrids, each with its own genetic characteristics, was tested for three different sowing times and five different fertilizer doses. The highest yields were achieved at the third sowing time (17. V.), which is unusual, because the second half of the summer was rainy and was favourable for late sowing. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the optimal 14-15% at the third sowing time, the hybrids, which have intensive bleeding dynamics, couldn’t reach the lower seed moisture content at harvest of the early sowing. In that case we have to decision whether the plus yield of the third sowing time cover the drying costs.
    Some hybrids produced the highest yields by N 120, P2O5 75, K2O 90 kg/ha active agent but the higher fertilizer doses depress the yield. The other part of the hybrids were able to produce high yield by bigger fertilizer doses. On the whole the agro-ecological optimum of the NPK fertilization was N 120-160, P 25-100, K 90-120 kg/ha active agent, but the N 80, P2O5 50, K2O 60 kg/ha fertilizer doses was the most effective.

  • Examination of the Nutrient and Water Utilization of Different Corn Genotypes in the Hajdúság

    The research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép MÉK research area of the University of Debrecen in Hungary. We examined the following factors of the hybrid P9494, P9578, PR37N01 and PR37M81 in 2013.Yield, yield production per 1 kg fertilizer, water utilization and nutrient reaction. We found that the best yield results were achieved at level N120+PK in case of hybrid P9494 (17 132 kg ha-1) P9578 (16 838 kg ha-1) and PR37N01 (17 476 kg ha-1) and at level N150+PK for hybrid PR37M81 (16 754 kg ha-1). Results of yield per 1 kg NPK studies indicate that the most intense yield growth occurred at level N30+PK compared to the control treatment. This means that yield production per 1 kg NPK was 39.2 kg kg-1 in the case of hybrid P9494, 54.2 kg kg-1 in the case of P9578, 17.6 kg kg-1 for PR37N01 and 44.2 kg kg-1 in the case of PR37M81. After comparing corn hybrids’ water utilization, our conclusion was that the control treatment achieved the worst results in the case of each hybrid (P9494: 20.8 kg mm-1, P9578: 21.0 kg mm-1, PR37N01: 26.2 kg mm-1, PR37M81: 19.5 kg mm-1). For hybrid P9494, P9578 and P37N01, the best water utilization results were measured at level N120+PK (31.5 kg mm-1, 31,0 kg mm-1 and 32.1 kg mm-1), while PR37M81 reached the highest values at level N150+PK (30.8 kg mm-1). We determined the hybrids’ nutrient reaction and its optimum fertilizer values. The best nutrient reaction results were achieved by hybrid PR37N01, while that of hybrid PR37M81 proved to be the weakest.

  • Examination of the chlorophyll content of maize hybrids of different maturity groups at different N fertiliser doses

    Nitrogen fertilisation is a critical point of maize production. Five hybrids of different maturity dates were examined in a field experiment, three treatments (different application dates) and three basic fertiliser doses (0, 60, 120 kg ha-1 N) were used. At the 6-leaf-stage of maize, each fertilisation level of the 2nd and 3rd treatment was given 30 kg N ha-1 fertiliser active ingredient in addition to the basic fertiliser doses with the exception of the control plots and further 30 kg N ha-1 fertiliser was applied at the 12-leaf-stage. The final fertiliser doses were 0, 90 and 150 kg N ha-1 in the second treatment and 0, 120 and 180 kg N ha-1 in the 3rd treatment. The whole amount of the basic fertiliser (ammonium nitrate) was applied in the spring, one month before sowing.

    The relative chlorophyll content of the maize leaves was measured, with a Minolta SPAD-502 measurement device. The measurements were carried out at the 6-leaf growth stage (V6) of maize on the youngest fully developed leaf of the 6th, 7th and 8th plants from the second row of each plot.

    There were significant differences in the SPAD-readings measured at the V6 phenophase of maize between the hybrids (p<0.001) and the fertiliser treatments (p<0.05). The regression analysis did not show any correlation between the SPAD-values and fertilisation.

    The highest significant SPAD-reading and yield were obtained by applying 120 kg ha-1 N. As a result of the regression analysis performed on yield, it can be concluded that the correlation between fertilisation and yield in the 1st and 2nd treatment was moderately close (r=0.439, r=0.480) and it was close in the 3rd treatment (r=0.513). The correlation between the SPAD-readings and yield was the closes in the 2nd treatment (r=0.639), while the SPAD-value had a 40.9% influence on yield (p<0.001).

  • Agronomic bases of precision barley production

    To ascertain the importance of individual preciosion factors in achieving yield and quality of malting barley, we established a multifactor 
    experiment at the research station of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2009 and 2010. Four variants of fertilization, 2 ways of soil cultivation and four varieties 'Bojos’, 'Kangoo’, 'Marthe’ and 'Xanadu’ were observed. From the quality indicators the nitrogen content (%) was observed. The results were statistically analyzed by using a multifactor analysis of variance by using Statistica 8, the program Statgraphics. The difference between years was statistically significant (1.87 t ha-1) in favour of 2010. The difference was also significant between the varieties 'Bojos’ and ’Kangoo’(1.07 t ha-1), respectively. 'Martha’ and 'Xanadu’ as well as 'Kangoo’ (0.56 resp. 0.33 t ha-1). Conventional soil cultivation in
    comparison with a minimalization technology, demonstrated a  tatistically insignificant increase of yield. Significant differences were obtained between the variants of fertilization. Treatment by using Condit (b-var.) showed a very positive impact in climatic favorable year (2010) with a yield result of 7.42 t ha-1. In comparison with an untreated control, the difference in yield was 0.89 t ha-1. A significant increase of yield was achieved by using the combination of solid fertilizer with foliar fertilizer (LAV + Hakofyt, var.c) 0.47 t ha-1. The crude protein content was statistically influenced by a variety and year. In 2009, the crude protein content was above average (12.38%). Significantly lower attributes were achieved in 2010 (9.90%). From the studied/observed varieties the lowest crude protein content was showed by a variety 'Kangoo’ (1.68%).

  • The hydric stress influence on quantityand quality of the maize yield in the Crisurilor Plainconditions

    The paper is based on the researches carried out in an experiment placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain during 2008–2011in the following variants: V1=Irrigated, without irrigation suspending; V2=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in May; V3=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in June; V4=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in July; V5=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in August; V6=Unirrigated. The hybrid used: Fundulea 376. In the variant with optimum irrigation, water reserve on 0–75 cm depth was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity. Pedological drought was determined every year and the irrigation was also needed. The irrigation determined the increase of the total water consumption and yield gain in comparison with unirrigated variant. Irrigation suspending in different months determined the yield losses very significant statistically. The biggest protein content was registered in the variant without irrigation suspending; the values registered in the variants with irrigation suspending in May, June, July and August and in the unirrigated variant are smaller, with differences statistically assured. There was a direct link between de Martonne aridity index values and water consumption, yield and protein content and an inverse link between pedological drought and yield quantity and protein content. These are the arguments for irrigation opportunity in maize from Criurilor Plain.

  • Examination of French bean on organic and conventional farming of Research Centre of Nyíregyháza

    This study presents the yield results of some French bean varieties in organic and conventional farming. This study presents the advantage of organic farming in environmental point of view and in nutrition. Sale of organic products is insured, there is solvent demand rather in abroad than in Hungary.
    In Research Centre of Nyíregyháza had made organic farming since 1994, at present on 74 hectares.
    In the first trial, variety comparison with 9 yellow podded French beans in organic and conventional farming was conducted. Varieties: Carson, Cherokee, Debreceni sárga, Goldmine, Héliosz, Minidor, Sonesta, Sundance és Unidor. The following parameters were observed: the time of emergence and flowering, number of plants per plot, plant height and flowing green harvest. We weighed yield of the standardized, un-standardized and diseased pod fractions. The results were evaluated statistically with SPSS and Excell softwares.
    Emergence had all at once, but the plants of organic farming were 5 days earlier at flowering and maturity, than conventional farming.
    The plants in organic place were more developed than in conventional ones. Emergence was more uniform, the growth and the number of plant were square. Significant difference was not detected in plant height between two places. Most of the varieties examined had better total yield in organic place, than in conventional ones. Deviation depended on variety. ‘Sonesta’ and ‘Debreceni sárga’ had the best yield in both places. In
    conventional farming choice can be expanded with ‘Unidor’ and ‘Sundance’. In organic farming choice can be expanded with ‘Minidor’ and ‘Carson’.
    In both places the Sonesta, Debreceni sárga and Unidor varieties had the most standardized yield per hectare. In organic place Carson variety had good pod yield because it was infected less by diseases.
    In the another trial we studied inside content values of some varieties on organic and conventional places. The parameters were observed: dry matter-, starch-, crude fibre-, crude protein content and amino acid content.
    The rates of asparagin or glutamine acid were the highest, which was followed by serin or histidine. In asparagin content was the most deviation between conventional and organic farming.
    Significant differences were between varieties in dry matter-, starch-, crude fibre-, and crude protein content both on organic and conventional places. Each variety had significant differences between organic and conventional farming.
    Starch had strong and negative correlation with dry matter, crude fibre and crude protein content.
    Budai piaci and Minidor varieties and BU-16 variety candidate had higher starch content and lower dry matter, crude fibre and crude protein content on organic place. Sonesta variety had almost equal dry matter content on both places, but crude protein content was higher with 10% and starch content was lower with 6% on organic place, than on conventional place. Paridor variety had almost equal starch content, but it had higher dry matter and crude protein content on organic place. 

  • Effect of N, P and K fertilisers and their interactions in a long-term experiment on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of K, P and N supplies on the yield of winter barley in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment with clearly distinct soil nutrient supply levels in order to develop fertilisation guidelines for winter barley growers. The experiment was set up in 1989 on a chernozem meadow soil calcareous in the deeper layers, applying all possible combinations of 4 levels each of N, P and K fertiliser, giving a total of 64 treatments.

    The results of analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 can be summarised as follows:

    1. In 2011, when rainfall supplies were deficient in the shooting phase, improved K supplies (324 mg kg-1 AL-K2O) increased the grain yield, but in 2012, when rainfall supplies were more evenly distributed, K supply levels in the range 210–335 mg kg-1 AL-K2O had no significant influence on the yield of winter barley.
    2. An analysis of the P treatments revealed that, compared to the 119–133 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 level (P0), better P supplies (186–251 mg kg-1) led to a significant increase in the grain yield.
    3. In both years rising N rates significantly increased the yield up to an annual N rate of 160 kg ha-1.

          4. A K×N interaction could only be detected in the nutrient supplies of winter barley in 2011. The yield-increasing effect of N fertiliser was more    pronounced at better K supply levels, while K fertiliser led to higher yields in the case of better N supplies.

  • The scientific background of competitive maize production

    The effect and interaction of crop production factors on maize yield has been examined for nearly 40 years at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen in a long-term field experiment that is unique and acknowledged in Europe. The research aim is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, tillage, genotype, sowing, plant density, crop protection and irrigation. The analysis of the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate maize yield, as well as the effect of crop production factors and crop year, as well as the interaction between these factors.

    Based on the different tillage methods, it can be concluded that autumn ploughing provides the highest yield, but its effect significantly differed in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The periodical application of strip tillage is justified in areas with favourable soil conditions and free from compated layers (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening). Under conditions prone to drought, but especially in several consecutive years, a plant density of 70–80 thousand crops per hectare should be used in the case of favourable precipitation supply, but 60 thousand crops per hectare should not be exceeded in dry crop years. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation is significant both under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it is much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment.

    Selecting the optimum sowing date is of key importance from the aspect of maize yield, especially in dry crop years. Irrigation is not enough in itself without intensive nutrient management, since it may lead to yield decrease.

    The results of research, development and innovation, which are based on the performed long-term field experiment, contribute to the production technological methods which provide an opportunity to use sowing seeds, fertilisers and pesticides in a regionally tailored and differentiated way, adapted to the specific needs of the given plot, as well as to plan each operation and to implement precision maize production.

  • Using crop analysis in the precision nutrient supply system of maize

    The effect of the N, P and K supplies of soil on the grain yield and N, P and K status of maize was studied in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment between 2001 and 2008 and nutrient supply limit values were determined to plant analysis. Based on the interaction between the N concentrtion of maize leaves measured at the beginnig of tasseling and grain yield, the satisfactory limit value of N supply to reach 10–14 t ha-1 yield was between 2.0–4.0%. Leaf analysis at the beginning of tasselling indicated that better P and K supplies were associated with a higher P and K concentration in the maize leaves. Correlation analysis on the P concentration of the maize leaves and the grain yield showed that at a grain yield level of 10–14 t ha-1 a P concentration of 0.20–0.37% represented a satisfactory P supply level. The satisfactory K supply limit value to reach 10–14
    t ha-1 grain yield was 1.5–2.6%.

  • Comparing the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids in organic and conventional agriculture

    The European Green Deal was published by the European Commission in 2019. The main aim of the program is to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, making Europe the first climate-neutral continent in the world. To achieve this, criteria are also set for agriculture: increasing the share of land under organic farming to 25%, reducing the use of fertilisers and pesticides. However, the benefits of organic farming are widely debated. The aim of our study was to compare the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids bred in Martonvasar in two different cropping environments. The silage yields of 20 different maize hybrids were evaluated in a three replicate small plot experiment in an organic field and an adjacent conventional field. The average green mass yield of the hybrids was 36,58 t ha-1 in the organic field and 43,03 t ha-1 in the conventional. The green mass yield in the organic area was 20% lower than in the conventional area, and the dry matter yield and digestible dry matter yield were about 18% lower. Hybrids of different maturity groups responded differently to organic cultivation. The yields of early hybrids decreased more and late hybrids less in the organic farming compared to the conventional production.

  • The effect of crop protection and agrotechnical factors on sunflower in the Hajdúság region

    Extreme weather conditions are becoming more and more frequent in the crop years, thus increase the risk of sunflower production.
    The objective of researches into plant production is to minimize these effects as much as possible. In this sense, the optimization of
    agrotechnological factors is of high importance. Within these factors, the appropriate crop technology (sowing time, crop density)
    and optimized, rational crop protection technologies are important, especially in the highly sensitive sunflower cultures. The effect of
    sowing time, crop density, and fungicide treatments on the yield of sunflower hybrids was analysed in different crop years in 2008
    and 2009. In each case, the infection was highest with the early sowing time and at the highest crop density level (65000 ha-1). When
    one fungicide treatment was applied, the rate of infection decreased compared to the control treatment. The further decrease of the
    infection rate was less after the second fungicide treatment.
    In the humid year of 2008 the crop yield was the highest at 45000 ha-1 crop density level in the control treatment and at 55000 crop
    ha-1 crop density level when fungicides were applied. In the draughty year of 2009 the maximum yield was gained at 55000 ha-1 crop
    density level in the control treatment and at 65000 crop ha-1 when fungicides were applied. In 2008 and 2009 as regards the crop
    yield, the difference between the optimal and minimal crop density levels was higher in the fungicide treatments than in the control
    treatment (in 2008: control: 517 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 865 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 842 kg ha-1), (in
    2009: control: 577 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 761 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 905 kg ha-1).
    In each and every case, the first treatment with fungicides was more effective than the second. In 2008, the highest yield was
    obtained with the third, late sowing time in each fungicide treatment. The differences between the crop yields with different sowing
    times was less than in 2009, when the results of the second treatment exceeded those of the first and third treatment in each case.

  • Plant growth analysis of wheat populations in a long-term field-experiment

    The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The wheat variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
    The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
    significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
    not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

  • Yield and sward composition responses of a native grassland to compost application

    A major part of the animal products are based on the grasslands, due to the fact that the grassland ecosystems can be found all over the globe. In places where economical and successful crop production cannot be realized, the grassland based animal husbandry can be an efficient way of food production. In addition these ecosystems have an important role in carbon sequestration, and with their rich flora – and the fauna connected to it – in conservation of biodiversity. The protection of nature, and the sustainable agriculture is getting more and more attention in the European Union, but looking at the consumers’ needs, the production of healthy food cannot be neglected either. Because of these facts, the effects of two specific composts - which are officially authorized in organic farming, in Agri-environment Schemes and Natura 2000 programs – on grass yields and sward compositions were investigated in a field trial. The investigation took place in Hungary, on a natural grassland based on solonetz soil. The first type of compost was a natural one (N) without any additional material and the other one was enriched in phosphorus (E). Both was produced by the research institute, made of sheep manure. Three rates of compost (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1,30 t ha-1) were tested on 3 m×10 m experimental plots. Every treatments had four replications and both type of compost had four-four control plots too, this way 32 experimental plots were included in the investigations. The yield of the pasture was harvested two-times (in May and in September) and before cutting the plots measurements on botanical compositions were made. Samples for laboratory analysis were also taken. Dry matter yield and crude protein content was measured in laboratory and with the received data the yield per unit area was calculated. Based on the research results we can say that the application of compost in any dose inflicts higher dry material and crude protein yield. The changes were partly due to some positive changes in sward composition, because of the better nutrient conditions. The research results indicate, that use of organic compost can be an efficient way to increase grass yields in a sustainable way.

  • The effect of plant density on the yield of sweet potato

    A field study was conducted in South-East Hungary during the main cropping season of 2016, 2017 and 2018, with the objective of determining the effect of plant spacing on the productivity of sweet potato. Production technology experiments of four repetitions were set up in a randomized block design on sandy soil. The performed treatments consisted of four variations of plant spacing (row distance x plant-to-plant distance): 80 cm x 20 cm, 80 cm x 30 cm, 100 cm x 20 cm, 100 cm x 30 cm. The plant material was the Hungarian registered sweet potato variety ‘Ásotthalmi-12’. Analysis of variance revealed that planting density significantly affected the average yield of storage roots. The highest yield per plant was achieved with the 100 cm x 30 cm (2016, 2017), as well as with the 80 cm x 30 cm (2018) setups. On hectare level, our results showed that the highest plant density of 62,500 plants ha-1 (80 cm x 20 cm setup) could give the highest yield. Comparing the highest tons ha-1 results to those achieved with the plant spacing setups resulting in the highest yield per plant, the differences can be even 13 or 14 tons at hectare level. This finding underlines the importance of choosing the proper planting density towards the higher end.

  • Effect of harvesting time on the vitamin C content and yield of chili pepper

    For thousands of years, chili pepper has been used in cooking intensifying the aroma, colouring, and even flavouring with its pungency. Today ,it is also of interest for the various food and pharmaceutical industries due to its intrinsic characteristics. These characteristics of pepper and its yield can be affected by both the variety and the temperature fluctuation throughout the harvest period. The current work's objective was to investigate the effect of harvest time on vitamin C of different varieties of chili pepper C. frutescens and C. annuum cultivated in Hungary, as well as the yield of pepper in different harvesting periods. Vitamin C was determined by HPLC protocols. The differences between harvest times and varieties were analysed using Tukey post hoc test at 5%. All varieties showed fluctuation of vitamin C level, depending on the given harvest date. At the last harvest, all varieties had higher vitamin C content. All varieties had the same yield trend throughout the year but with different yields between each. Variety Hetényi Parázs had the highest vitamin C content and yield: 3720.53 µg g-1 vitamin C and 18.63 t ha-1 average yield, respectively.

  • Effect of different production types on the yield and ß-carotene content of sweet potato /cultivar Ásotthalmi- 12/

    Production of sweet potato is extending in Hungary, despite the fact that there is no field-specific production technology. Therefore, many growers cannot utilize potential yields and quality. The goal of this study was to determine the optimal production method of the Ásotthalmi 12, a Hungarian sweet potato cultivar which can adapt to the Hungarian climate. The effect of single and twin rows production on the yield of this cultivar was examined. The planting was carried out on June 24th, the harvesting on October 20th and the growing-season was 120 days long. Uniform nutrient supply was applied to the whole field experiment. During basic fertilization, 206 kg Knd 20 kg N, 36 kg P ha-1 were used on the soil. While forming the ridges, we used an additional 25 kg N, 45 kg P and 62.5 kg K ha-1. We adopted drip tape irrigation on the experimental field. After the planting, from the 8th week of the vegetation, another 21 kg ha-1 K, 10 kg ha-1 MgSO4, and 2 kg ha-1 Ca(NO3)2 was added in one dosage weekly, until the 13th week of vegetation. At the evaluation of the experiment, we examined the yield regarding the whole experimental plot. SPAD and fluorescence measurements were carried out on 08.16. 2019, 08.28.2019, and on 09.13.2019, during the watering break. To demonstrate the difference between the dates, we applied ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. For the measurement of phytonutrients HPLC, a liquid chromatograph was used, where the carotenoid content of the Ásotthalmi 12 cultivar was determined in connection with the different production methods. Test results showed that twin rows production leads to a nearly 30% greater yield, than single row production. We determined, that the growth of yield correlates negatively to the ß-carotene content of the Ásotthalmi 12 cultivar sweet potato.

  • Evaluation of the correlations between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and yield in a seasoning paprika (Capsicum annuum L. var. longum) stand

    The aim of our examination was to evaluate the correlations between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and yield, as well as to examine the possibility of yield estimation basedon NDVI in a seasoning paprika population.

    Significant correlations were observed during the examination of the correlation between NDVI and yield. Furthermore, it was concluded that yield can be estimated with a 6.6–8.3% mean error based on the regression equations. No significant difference was shown between the error of estimations performed with various regression types and that of the estimations performed at various dates. For this reason, the identification of the optimum estimation method and the determination of the optimum date for estimation call for further examinations.