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Economic Aspects of Winter Wheat and Sunflower Production Under Organic Farming Methods
Published May 4, 2004

On the basis of data from selected organic crop producing farms around Hortobagy and a significant conventional agricultural enterprise, the efficiency calculation of two important crops, winter wheat and sunflower were compared to each other, according to the organic and the conventional farming methods. The analysis was carried out on the of data of the year 2002, helped by the calculation and the comparison of the efficiency indexes. According to the results, the organic winter wheat was more highly profitable in 2002 than the conventional one, and this is because the price ratio of the two was quite high, however the yields and the production costs per hectare were almost on the same level. Considering the sunflower, organic farming was less productive than the conventional one in 2002, as the average yield in the examined organic farms was significantly lower than under the conventional farming method, and this was not compensated by the extra price for the organic crop product.

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Effect of tillage practices, fertilizer treatments and crop rotation on yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published December 1, 2020

This research was conducted at the University of Debrecen Látókép Research Station and is part of an ongoing long-term polyfactorial experiment. The impact of three tillage systems (Mouldboard plowing-MT, Strip tillage-ST, Ripper tillage-RT) and two levels of fertilizer treatments (N80 kg ha-1, N160 kg ha...-1) along with a control (N0 kg ha-1) on the yield of maize hybrids (Armagnac- FAO 490 & Loupiac-FAO 380) cultivated in rotation with winter wheat was evaluated during a two-year period (2017–2018).

Amongst the three tillage treatments evaluated, ripper tillage (RT) had the highest average yield (10.14 t ha-1) followed by mouldboard tillage (MT) and strip tillage (ST) with 9.84 and 9.21 t ha-1 respectively. Yield difference between RT and MT was not significant (P>0.05), as compared to ST (P<0.05). Soil moisture content varied significantly with tillage practices and was highest in ST, followed by RT and MT (ST>RT>MT). Yield of RT was 7–9% higher than MT in monoculture plots, while MT reign superior in biculture plots (monoculture: RT>MT>ST; biculture: MT>RT>ST).

A positive interaction between tillage and fertilization was observed, with higher yield variation (CV=40.70) in the non-fertilized (N0) plots, compared to those which received the N80 (CV=19.50) and N160 kg ha-1 (CV=11.59) treatments.

Incremental yield gain from increase fertilizer dosages was significantly higher in monoculture, compared to biculture. There was no significant difference in yield between N160 and N80 in the biculture plots (12.29 vs 12.02 t ha-1). However, in monoculture plots, N160 yield was 23% higher than the N80 kg ha-1 (N160=11.74 vs N80=9.56 t ha-1).

Mean yield of maize in rotation with winter wheat was 28% (2.47 tons) higher than monoculture maize. The greatest benefit of crop rotation was observed in the control plots (N0) with an incremental yield gain of 4.39 tons ha-1 over monculture maize (9.92 vs 5.43 t ha-1).

Yield increased with higher fertilizer dosages in irrigated plots. Fertilizer application greatly increased the yield of maize and accounted for 48.9% of yield variances. The highest yield (11.92 t ha-1) was obtained with N160 kg ha-1 treatment, followed by N80 kg ha-1 (10.38 t ha-1) and N0 kg ha-1 (6.89 t ha-1) respectively.

Overall mean yield difference between the two hybrids was not statistically significant, however, yield of FAO 380 was 3.9% higher (9.06 vs. 8.72 t ha-1) than FAO 490 in monoculture plots, while in biculture plots, FAO 490 was 4.1% higher than FAO 380.

Average yield in 2018 was 13.6% (1.24 t ha-1) higher than 2017 for the same set of agrotechnical inputs, thus, highlighting the significant effect of cropyear.

Armagnac (FAO 490) cultivated in rotation with winter wheat, under ripper tillage and N80 kg ha-1 is the best combination of treatments for optimum yield.

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Effect of two different cropyear and the agrotechnological factors on the agronomic characteristic of the winter weat in a lon-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012

We studied the effects of crop rotation, fertilization and crop protection technologies on occurence of the major ear- and leaf-diseases (powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis, leaf rust, Fusarium wilt) and the degree of lodging in the winter wheat variety Mv Pálma in two very different years (2006/2007=dry; 2009/2010=rainy). The experiments were... carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen CAAES in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at five fertilization levels by applying three different crop protection technologies (extensive, average, intensive).
In the cropyear of 2006/2007, the disease severity of leaf diseases was higher than the average in both crop rotations in spite of the fact that the weather during the whole vegetation period was dry. Infection by powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis and leaf rust increased with increasing fertilization, the highest infection was measured at the highest fertilization level (N200+PK) in the extensive crop protection technology. According to the results, no infection of ears by Fusarium and no lodging occurred in either bi- or triculture due to the dry year. The extremely rainy weather in 2009/2010 was favourable not only for the vegetative development of the stand, but also increased the occurance of leaf-, stalk- and ear-diseases and a high degree of lodging was observed. The highest infection by powdery mildew was observed in the plots with the highest fertilizer dosage under an extensive crop protection technology. A much higher helminthosporiosis infection was measured than in the cropyear of 2006/2007. The wet weather and higher than average temperature promoted the occurence and spreading of leaf rust. Under an extensive crop protection technology, a leaf rust infection of 24% and 31% was detected after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively, in the N200+PK treatment. As opposed to 2006/2007, the disease severity of Fusarium was 3–8% and 2–7% in the control after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively. This value, similarly to that of other pathogens, increased with increasing fertilization levels. Due to the large vegetative mass, a significant lodging was observed in the wheat stands in both bi- and triculture (17–100%, 12–100%). 

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Effect of the fertilization on some quality parameters of winter wheat
Published December 15, 2010

We studied the different mineral fertilizer rates effect on the baking quality of five different winter wheat genotypes (GK Öthalom, Lupus, KG Széphalom, GK Békés, Mv Mazurka) on chernozom soil in 2008.
The bigger fertilizer doses increased the wet gluten content, gluten elasticity and the protein content. The high doses of fertilization... has got a moderate effect on the valorigaph value, water absorption, and falling number. The optimum level of the fertilizer doses were the N90-120+PK.
The Pearson’s correlation analysis proved strong relationships between the fertilization and gluten content, the quality of the gluten, a valorigraph value, and the protein content. The analysis verified a strong correlation between genotype and falling number, and the protein content.
The variety Mv Mazurka has got the best baking quality parameters.

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Interaction of yield stability and year in major agricultural crops
Published September 7, 2001

The effect of hydro-meteorological extremities on plant cultivation is the result of the correlation of many factors. These may increase or decrease the effects of hydro-meteorological extremes. The degree of this variance depends on the professionality of treatments, on the quality of the applied technique and technology and also on the soil...s water management characteristics.
The water management characteristics of Hungary’s arable land are mainly unfavorable or medium. In the past two decades the conditions of originally good soils, from a water management aspect, have significantly deteriorated in the critical 0-60 cm soil layer. This is mainly due to unprofessional land use, a lack of deepening cultivation and neglected organic cultivation. At the same time, hydro-meteorological extremities occur more frequently and the sensibility of plant cultivation has increased.
The sensibility of plant cultivation is type and location specific, yet, it also effects both the quality and quantity of the result.
The stability analysis, which covered the period of four decades and incorporated 6-7 agro-ecological areas proves and highlights the following:
• Winter wheat only reacted to extensive cultivation and unfavorable environmental conditions to a small degree. On the other hand, the effect of hydro-meteorological extremities increases.
• The stability analysis of maize, which is sensitive to cultivation technology and the location of cultivation, proved just the opposite. Good soil and adequate technology significantly reduces the effect of any particular year.
• From the years examined, the most favorable proved to be the one with average precipitation. Maize reacted to both extremities in a similar way. Winter wheat reacted to more precipitation with less yield.
• The yield quality of winter wheat was negatively effected by drought. The negative effect of precipitation is limited to the period of ripening and harvest, so the likelihood of such an effect is not significant.
• The yield of sunflower – due to pests – significantly reduces in years with high precipitation, while a difference between dry and average years cannot be pinpointed out. The oil content in both dry years and in years with high precipitation is evident, compared to years with average precipitation.
• The root yield of sugar beet is reduced by drought while the sugar content depends on soil characteristics and climatic extremities. A difference could also be noted by location, whether in Western Hungary and on the Great Plain. Great sugar content can be achieved in years with high precipitation in Western Hungary, while the same result occurred with average precipitation on the Great Plain. Drought did not have a positive effect on sugar content in either location.

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Evaluate the nutritional reaction at winter wheat after different forecrops
Published February 3, 2016

Our field researches took place on the Látókép test farm of Agricultural Science Centre of University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, in long-term experiment, on calcareous chernozem soil, in growing season of 2014/2015. In our experiment we examined the fertilizer reaction and the yield of different winte...r wheat genotypes (GK Öthalom, GK Csillag, Mv Csárdás, Mv Toldi) with grain maize and sweetcorn forecrops. According to our results, the sweetcorn forecrop strongly affected the yield. In the average of the fertilizer treatments and the varieties, after sweetcorn forecrop 6.9 t ha-1, after grain maize forecrop 5.4 t ha-1 average yield was gained. According to our data, the fertilizer reactions of the varieties were significantly different.

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Evaluation of the yield and baking quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in different cropyears
Published May 6, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We have investigated the effect of the cropyear, the genotype, the nutrient supply and their interactions on the yield and the quality parameters of three different winter wheat genotypes in three different cropyears. The most disadvantageous influence on the yield averages was caused by the moist weather of 2010, when yield results fell behind the mean of the two other examined years and the nutrient optimum was around low doses. The optimal cropyear turned out to be the ordinary 2011, the best yield results were experienced during this cropyear. Although the drier periods in 2012 decreased the yield values, the varieties could realize high yield maximum values. Considering the yield results, Genius turned out to be the best variety. In respect of the quality traits, 2010 turned out to be the best cropyear in case of all the three varieties. Despite the dry weather of the spring of 2012, the precipitation fell during flowering and ripening phases had positive impact on the grain-filling processes and contributed to the development of better quality. As a consequence of the significantly lower amount of precipitation during the generative phenological phases, the worst quality parameters were realized by the varieties in 2011.


In respect of crop year effect, 2010 was unfavourable for the amount of yield, but the most beneficial for the quality. 2011 was the most advantageous for the yield amounts but disadvantageous for the quality parameters. Although in 2012 extreme crop year effects were experienced after each other (dry and warm spring, moist and warm summer), the yield average and quality trait values were close to the yield averages of 2011 and quality parameters of 2010. Analyzing our results we can state that the average crop year was favourable rather for the yield. The appropriate amount of precipitation during the whole 2010 and that during the generative phenophases in 2012 favoured the development of good quality.

Consequently, the appropriate amount of precipitation is essential for the development of good quality during the grain-filling period. The negative crop year effects were only compensated but not eliminated by the good nutrient supply. Genius achieved excellent yield averages but performed worse quality parameters than Mv Toldi, whose quality parameters were outstanding but the yield averages fell slightly behind those of Genius. Considering the yield results, the variety Genius turned out to be the best, while Mv Toldi was the best in quality.

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Effects of agrotechnical factors on the quality and quantity of yield in winter wheat production
Published May 20, 2020

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of basic agrotechnical factors on the yield and quality of winter wheat. Two experiments were set in 2017/2018 growing season, where we studied the influence of different forecrops, fertilizing treatments and cultivars. 204 samples were measured with Single Kernel Characterization Syst...em and NIR grain analyser to determine protein (NIR-P), wet gluten (NIR-WG), Hardness Index (HI), kernel weight (KW) and kernel diameter (KD). Fertilizing had a significant effect on yield, KW, HI, NIR-P and NIR-WG, except KD. N90PK dosage was enough to realize yield potential for 6 out of 9 cultivars, but considering protein content N150PK dosage was needed. The forecrop had no significant influence on yield, KW, KD or HI, however sweet corn as previous crop had significant improving effect on NIR-P and NIR-WG compared to sunflower as forecrop. According to our data of correlation analysis, no negative relationship was found between yield and NIR-P, however HI was in medium positive correlation with NIR-P. The variety Vyckor had the highest yield, but in quality aspect, the highest NIR-P and NIR-WG values belonged to KG Kunhalom variety.

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The impact of grain maize and sunflower as previous crops on the yield and ear number of winter wheat in a long-term experiment
Published March 5, 2015

We have analyzed the effect of grain maize and sunflower forecrop on three different winter wheat genotype (GK Csillag, Mv Csárdás, Mv Toldi) regarding to the spike number and yield in different fertilization levels in the 2012/2013 cropyear. According to our data after sunflower forecrop we reached higher spike number and yield, which were i...nfluenced by the differences of the varieties. We found significant differences between the varieties in the control treatment. According to our research, GK Csillag has reached the highest yield in the examined fertilization levels and forecrop models too.

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Changes of Quality of Winter Wheat During Maturing
Published December 6, 2005

We analysed the flour of two winter wheat varieties to determine the effect of maturity state and grain position in the ear on the element composition of flour. Samples were taken from the 14th to the 42th day of anthesis. Ear samples were cut into three (basal, central and apical) parts, the trashed grains were milled, and the element composit...ions of the flours were determined.
We found that the grain position within the ear has an effect on flour element content. Flours of apical grains had lower nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur contents than flours of central and basal grains. The nutrients can be divided into two parts, based on the formation of element content during maturation. Nitrogen, sulphur and copper contents changed continuously during maturity, while the P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr and Zn contents decreased until a specific value and became nearly constant in the second half of maturity. We found that – although the nitrogen concentration of flours changed continuously – the amount of nitrogen in the flours reached a constant value for the second half of maturity.

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Examination of extensographical parameters of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour
Published November 2, 2009

In the trade of the European Union principally the analysis of alveographical and extensographical parameters mean the acceptance system.
In the present study we analysed the extensographical parameters of 10 winter wheat varieties breed by the Cereal Research Non Profit Company with Brabender extensigraph and we made a comparison, correlati...on among the results. The examinations with Brabender the following among: show the GK Kalász and the GK Élet varieties show high resistance of extension and the GK Petur variety produces high extensibility. The GK Garaboly has shown low extensibility and energy. The other parameters had different values in the examined three years. The measurings with SMS2 Texture Analyser show middle positive correlation between extensibility and subarea. There are weak correlation between at the significantial level in the 90, 135 resistence of extension by Brabender and by SMS2 Texture Analyser and in the 45 extensibility by Brabender and by SMS2 Texture Analyser of relaxed dough. There is no correlation among other parameters. 

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Investigation of soils of stubbles of winter wheat and winter peas in conventional and reduced tillage systems
Published February 3, 2016

The effect of reduced and conventional tillage on soil compaction, soil moisture status and carbon-dioxide emission of the soil was studied on a meadow chernozem soil with high clay content in the soil cultivation experiment started in 1997 at Karcag Research Institute. Our investigations were done on stubbles after the harvest of winter wheat ...and winter peas after the very droughty vegetation period of 2014/2015.

We established that the soil in both tillage systems was dry and compacted and the CO2-emission was very low. The positive effects of reduced tillage could be figured out only in the soil layer of 40–60 cm in the given weather conditions of that period.

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The effect of different fertilizer treatments on the sulphur and protein content of wheat
Published July 31, 2012

In this study the effect of N,P and K nutrients on the S and protein content of wheat grains was investigated in a long-term fertilization experiment set up in Nagyhörcsök. The calcareous chernozem soil having the following characteristics: pH (KCl): 7.3, CaCO3: 4.27%, humus: 3.45%, Al-soluble P2O5 and K2...O: 60–80 and 180–200, KCl- Mg: 150–180, KCl+EDTA-soluble Mn-, Cu- and Zn-content: 80–150, 2–3 and 1–2 mg kg-1. The experiment had a split-split-plot design with 40 treatments in 4 replications. Plant samples were collected from 2002 and 2004. 2002 was a drought year while 2004 was very wet.
The main conclusions are as follows:
– The sulphur and protein content were than the control higher in every NPK treatments.
– The sulphur and protein content of the wheat grains were higher in 2004 that had a lot of rain than in 2002 that had drouht.

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Testing disease resistance in autumn wheat genotypes by means of field experiments
Published September 7, 2001

According to our scientific results we can state that we have to use integrated pesticides management in crop protection against the diseases of winter wheat. One of the most important elements of IPM is to select a genotype characterised by good resistance to diseases (and by high yield ability and excellent baking quality). It is especially i...mportant that the wheat variety have tolerance against not only to one or two leaf and spike (grain) diseases, but „complex” tolerance. It is not necessary to give up the growing of a variety which has susceptibility to different diseases because we can protect it using appropriate chemical management. In the intensive growing stage of wheat (BBCH 32-37) we can use a noncompulsary fungicide-treatment (depending on e. g. the infection, ecological conditions) and, at the beginning of the flowering stage
(BBCH 59-65), we have to use a compulsary fungicide-treatment (in spite of e. g. special weather conditions, resistance genotype)to ensure high yield and good quality.

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Comparison of alveohraph and extensigraph properties of winter wheat samples
Published November 2, 2009

The rheological properties of dough are determined by the amount and proportion of gliadin and glutenin proteins. Extensibility and resistance to the extension of doughs which can be measured using the extensigraph or alveograph allow good assesment of the baking behavior under realistic conditions. In our study, we compared the extensigraph an...d alveograph parameters of 87 flour samples. The results showed that the alveograph parameters were different from the extensigraph parameters. The classification of wheat varieties was different, and the order of varieties, as well. The alveograph properties were affected by other factors than the extensigraph properties, except the W value. The two rheological tests did not give similar results, therefor neither test are replaceable.

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A genetic study regarding the number of grains in spike in winter wheat
Published October 5, 2010

Grain number per spike was studed in 6 winter wheat varieties and all their 30 direct and reciprocal F1 hybrids. Parents
included 4 released Romanian variety, the old american Atlas 66 and a dwarf breeding line, Oradea 79. This line has a low number of
grains/spike, but is important in breeding program for here reduced height. General and... specific combining abilities were computed and
genetic effects were estimated using Griffing’s method 1, model 1, as modified by Cabulea (1983).
For this diallel crosses, gene interactions and the interaction between cytoplasm and nuclear genes were highly significant and
the ratio of additive and non-additive effects was close to one.
The variety Fundulea 29 showed the highest general combining ability and it is recommended as a good parent for increasing
grain number/spike. Mid-parent heterosis was significant in 9 out of the 30 cases, mostly in hybrids involving the breeding line Oradea 79.
In 3 cases the number of grains/spike of F1 hybrids was significantly lower than the average of the parents. The breeding line Oradea 79 had
a significant negative general combining ability, but showed significant positive specific combining ability in most crosses, as well as a
significant positive effect of its cytoplasm. These results are considered to indicate that there are chances of improving the grain
number/spike in some crosses with Oradea 79.

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Stand evaluation, crop estimation and yield analysis of winter wheat for the optimization of yields
Published May 23, 2019

The authors have been carrying out stand evaluation, crop estimation and yield analysis in winter wheat since 2012. The sampling areas were assigned at the fields of the Training Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences of Széchenyi István University Mosonmagyaróvár according to the structure of the cropping system. According t...o their observations the value of field emergence is always lower than the laboratory germination. The weak emergence is important because the lower plant density cannot be compensated by the increased tillering in spite of having larger plant growth space. It is proven by the fact that they detected strong productive tillering even at 5 and 10 mm plant spacing while there were single-spiked plants at 40-50 mm plant spacing as well. The analysis revealed that the total ear mass and grain mass of wheat plants bearing two or more ears is almost the double than that of the single-spiked plants. It was a further basic experience that the largest ear of ”multiple-spiked” plants is always heavier than the single ear of one-spiked plants. Plants with intense tillering and more ears demonstrate the importance of proper seedbed preparation and drilling and the significance of sowing good quality seeds. These are the factors that determine field germination and emergence, influence the speed and intensity of initial development and by all these factors the sufficient productive tillering. The authors emphasize the use of exact and objective methods at crop estimation, e.g. the relationship between the ear mass and the yield which is in strong correlation whilst ear length and grain mass are not suitable for a precise estimation. The authors conclude that crop estimation and yield analysis must be inevitable tools of modern crop production and will be particularly important in precision agriculture. These tools also qualify the job done by farmers and helps to identify the areas that require special attention.

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The imact of crop rotation and fertilisation on the SPAD values of winter wheat on chernozem soil in a long-term experiment
Published March 11, 2014

We have carried out our outdoor field experiments at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the CAS of the University of Debrecen in the cropyear of 2012/2013 on chernozem soil in a long-term experiment. We have studied the effects of two different preceding crops (sweet corn, sunflower) on the development of the SPAD values of wheat varieties of ...different genotypes in the cases of control, N60+PK and N120+PK fertilizer treatments. According to our research results, we have concluded that the preceding crop, the fertilizer application and the variety selection influenced the SPAD values. According to our data, we have measured higher SPAD values after sweet corn preceding crop, the standard deviations were in a smaller range in the case of the studied varieties. After sunflower preceding crop, smaller averages were experienced with wider standard deviation range. In the case of favourable preceding crop, the differences between the varieties are more pronounced than in the case of unfavourable preceding crop. The maximal SPAD values were measured in milky ripening in the case of N120+PK fertilizer treatment.

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Role of some agrotechnical elements in the precision crop technology of cereals
Published November 13, 2012

The crop models and precision technology have an important role in the development of winter wheat and maize agrotechnics, which crops have determinative role in Hungarian crop production. The effects of agrotechnical elements (crop rotation, fertilization, irrigation, crop protection, plant density) were studied in our longterm experiments on ...chernozem soil. Our scientific results proved that the high yields, and good yield stability were obtained in the input-intensive crop models. Maize had lower ecological adaptive capacity than winter wheat. The optimatization of agrotechnical elements reduces the harmful climatic effects so we can increase the yield and yield stability of cereals agro-ecosystems. The yields of wheat varied between 2 and 7 t ha-1 in extensive and 8 and 10 t ha-1 in intensive crop models and the yields of maize ranged between 2 and 11 t ha-1 and 10 and 15 t ha-1, respectively.

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Utility of Winter Wheat According to Visual and Microbiological Fusarium Infection, as Well as Toxin Examination
Published November 26, 2003

In 1998 the Fusarium infection was studied visually and microbiologically and also F-2, T-2, HT-2, DAS and DON contamination were measured using 22 winter wheat samples. The correlation between the different parameters of 22 wheat samples were determined by regression analysis. According to our results we can state the following.
There is no... significant connection between the results of visual, microbiological and toxicological examinations. This means that no certain conclusion can be drawn about the toxin contamination of samples – which is a determining factor of its utility – based on the visual symptoms and the plate dilution method.
Our results indicate however – though it is not proven statistically – that those samples in which the Fusarium infection did not exceed the limit of the standard, also had low toxin contamination, therefore they can be used as components of forage.
It is a considerable problem, however, that according to the visual qualification, such samples are excluded from the later utilisation, wherein the toxin contamination does not justify such action. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the toxin content of those samples which show high infection by visual symptoms. To reducing the number of expensive toxin examinations it would be advisable to change the currently used 0,5% limit which is indicated in the standard for a higher value of infection, for example to 2%, as recommended by Mesterházy (1998).

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The Effect of Drought on the Yield of Winter Barley Lines in the Great Cumania Region
Published May 4, 2004

Winter barley is the third most important fodder plant in Hungary after winter wheat and maize.
Its accommodation to the changing climatic conditions – mainly to drought in Great Cumania, the driest region of our country is of great importance from the point of view of plant breeding and growing.
The vegetation period of 2002/2003 can b...e considered to have been very droughty with 247.5 mm precipitation.
According to our results six- rowed barley lines have better drought tolerance than two-rowed lines. The average yields of the six-rowed barley lines were 12-25 per cent higher than the yields of the two rowed lines.
Due to the joint effect of delayed sowing and drought, significant yield depression was detected both in the case of the early and the medium maturity group, and assessable data could be gained only from 35 per cent of the total territory.

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Study of plant physiological parameters in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. napus f. biennis L.) production on chernozem soil
Published February 18, 2016

We made plant physiology examinations in Arkaso winter oilseed rape hybrid substance: relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. The experiment was set in University of Debrecen Agricultural Sciences Center at Látóképi Experimental Station in four replications, in two different sowing times (I. sowing date on... 08/22/2014 and II. sowing date on 09/09/2014 sowing againhappened because of the incomplete germination in the second subtance 01/10/2014) Three different plant density 200, 350 and 500 thousand ha-1, under the same nutrient supply, 45 cm row spacing. The experiment was green crop of winter wheat. The relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements were made in seven different times. We measured the maximum value of chlorophyll content in the first sowing time at 500, and the second sowing time at 350 thousand ha-1 plant density. The measurement results proved that there was a linear relationship between the number of plants and the LAI. The maximum leaf area index values we measured in both the sowing time at 500 thousand ha-1 reached.

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The effects of fertilization on the protein related properties of winter wheat
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The yield and quality of wheat are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization.

The field trials were set up in 1983 at the Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen. We examined effect of different Nfertilizer doses (60 kg ha-1 N/P/K, 120 kg ha-1 N/P/K) on Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag's protein properties in 2012. During the tests, three quality parameters were determined: wet gluten content (%), wet gluten spread (mm/h) and gluten index (%). In the experiment the effect of different doses of N-fertilizers significantly influenced by the wet gluten content and gluten index of Lupus.

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Investigation of the Quality of Winter Wheat in a Sulphur Fertilisation Experiment, 2001/2002
Published May 11, 2003

We have started a small parcell and a factorial S fertilization experiment with winter wheat in the 2001/2002 cropping year to examine its effect on yield and quality. The scene of experiment was the Latokep Experimental Station of the DE ATC (calcareous chernozeem) in case of small parcell examination and the Agricultural Company of Felső (brown forest soil) in case od factorial examination.
The protein and gluten content of the grain was investigated with PerCon Inframatic 9001 NIR Analyser, then we have measured these parameters with PerCon 8620 infra appliance. After the milling we measured the following parameters: glutenindex, farinographic parameters (farinographic index, water absorption capacity, dough development time, stability, softening, extension) and valorigraphic index.
Based on the results there’s no justified relation between the fertilization and the protein and gluten content. The valorigraphic index of the samples taken from Felsőzsolca factory characteristically increased as a result of the S-fertilization. In the small-parcell experiment the values of the water absorption capacity, the dough development time and the softening parameters from the valorigrphic parameters depended significantly from the mineral treatments. Signifikant quality improvement wasn’t experieced.
There was sampling in all of critical phenophase (…). The green plant samples were examined on element content with ICP-OES. These measurements are currently in progress.

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Evaluating of soil sulphur forms changes in long-term field experiments of Látókép
Published December 15, 2019

The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes of different sulphur forms (soluble, adsorbed) in chernozem soil in a long-term field experiment supplied with increasing doses of NPK fertilizers for a long time. In addition, other objective of this study included the examination of the applicability of recommended extractants of the different ...sulphate fraction in Hungarian soils. A long-term field experiment was established at the Research Station of Látókép of the University of Debrecen in 1984. In addition to control, two levels of NPK fertilizer doses have been used with irrigated and non-irrigated variants. Winter wheat and corn were cropped in a crop rotation on plots. Soil samples were collected in three different development stages of winter wheat, at the stage of stem elongation (April), flowering (May) and ripening (June of 2018) from the topsoil (0–20 cm) of experiment plots. Water-soluble inorganic sulphate was extracted with 0.01M CaCl2 solutions. The soluble plus adsorbed sulphate was extracted with 0.016M KH2PO4 solution. Sulphate was measured by turbidimetric method. 0.01M CaCl2-SO42— ranged between 0.293–1.896 mg kg-1 and the 0.016 M KH2PO4-SO42- varied between 5.087–10.261 mg kg-1. The values of KH2PO4 SO42- was higher than that of CaCl2-SO42-, because KH2PO4 extracted the adsorbed and soluble fractions of sulphate, while CaCl2 extracted the soluble sulphate fraction. The amount of absorbed sulphate was calculated by the differences of KH2PO4- SO4 and CaCl2-SO4. The KH2PO4 characterizes mainly the adsorbed sulphate fraction much more than the water-soluble fraction. KCl is the most widely used extractant for the determination of plant available sulphate content of soil in Hungary; therefore, KCl-SO42- fraction also was determined. The KCl-SO42- ranged between 0.328–2.152 mg kg-1. The CaCl2-SO42- and KCl-SO42- fractions were compared and based on Pearson's linear correlation, moderate correlation was established (r=0.511) between them. In all three extractant (0.01M CaCl2, 1M KCl, 0.016 M KH2PO4) higher sulphate fractions were measured in the fertilized plots where superphosphate had been supplied for ages until 2010. The arylsulphatase activity of soil also was determined and ranged between 9.284 and 26.860 µg p-nitrophenol g-1 h-1. The lowest value was observed in the treatment with highest NPK2 dose, both in irrigated and non-irrigated areas.

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