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Comparison of the alveographic qualification and the baking quality of winter wheat
Published July 16, 2007
294-302

On the basis of the operative French regulations, we qualified the alveographic qualification and the valorigraphic qualification respectively for each of the 10-14 winter wheat varieties grown each year between 2002-2005, and used in a field experiment at the Karcag Research Institute of the University of Debrecen. The field experiment at the ...Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen allowed us to examine the alveographic and valorigraphic values of the samples of GK Öthalom and Fatima 2 winter wheat varieties taken from an 8 year period (1997-1999 and 2001-2005).
Throughout the experiments on samples from the Karcag Research Institute and Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, we tried to find whether the alveographic W value or the P/L value provides the safer method for the qualification of wheat samples, instead of the qualification commonly used in Hungary. We found that in terms of the samples from the Karcag Research Institute, the baking quality and the W value in each of the examined years, while in terms of the Látókép Research Institute, most of the years showed a close positive correlation, contrary to the close negative relationship between the baking quality and the P/L value. The correlation index varied depending on the year, the variety, and fertilizer doses, which require further examinations.

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Study of effects on quality of different wheat flour fraction
Published November 2, 2009
123-129

Wheat is one of the most important cereals in the world and the bread made of its flour belongs to the everyday life of human mankind.
The Hungarian standard relating to the laboratory production of wheat flour (MSZ 6367/9-1989) does not mention the type of laboratory mill used for milling, and it only builds up some general criteria, such a...s: the laboratory mill should be provided with four differently nicked barrels, a sieve with appropriate hole sizes, and also with the separated collections of the pilot flour and the bran. Our study was started at this point and the answers for the following questions were aimed to be found: do the flour patterns studied and produced with different grinding and sieving
techniques, widely used in laboratory mills of the same wheat pattern show any alterations after the impact of the formula production as regards chemical constitutions and reologic parameters. Various flours and whole grains of the wheat patterns sieved with different particle sizes were studied in this experiment. In producing this pattern two different mill types of FQC 109 and CHOPIN CD 1 as well as two different grinder types such as PERTEN 3100 and type of RETSCH 200 were applied. There were 3 different corn sizes of 160; 250; 800 μms used in the partition of the fractions. To study the differences the following  measurements were conducted: dry matter, ash, protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index, gluten expansiveness, farinographic value, falling number and amilographic rate.
The results this research confirm that the quality of wheat flour can be modified by different methods of pattern production. In all cases the differences can be explained by the flour-bran ratio, and in some of the cases the higher germ content of the fractions also played a role. The results show differences between the various types of mills and grinders, too. 

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Comparative study of a winter wheat variety and hybrid sown after different pre-crops on chernozem soil
Published May 23, 2019
63-69

Wheat production is a determining branch within Hungarian crop production (produced on nearly one million hectares). Weather anomalies caused by climatic change confirmed the importance of the biological background (variety, hybrid) in wheat production. The adapting ability and reaction of different wheat genotypes towards nutrient supply were ...studied in a long-term field experiment on chernozem soil type in the case of different pre-crops (sunflower and maize). According to the experimental results of the vegetation of 2017/2018, the yield of the variety Ingenio sown after the sunflower as previous crop ranged between 4168 and 8734 kg ha-1, while in the case of maize as previous crop, this value ranged between 2084 and 7782kg ha-1, depending on the applied nutrient supply level. The studied genotypes produced rather significant yield surplus as a response to the application of mineral fertilization (4.6–5.1 t ha-1 after sunflower and 5.7–6.3 t ha-1 after maize). Optimal mineral fertilizer dosage was determined by both the genotype and the pre-crop. N-optimum values of wheat genotypes was determined using regression analysis. In the case of the variety Ingenio sown after sunflower, the optimum range was N144-150+PK, while after maize, it was
N123-150+PK, respectively. For the hybrid Hyland, these optimum ranges were N114-120+PK, just as N150-153+PK, resp. The application of optimal mineral fertilizer dosages improved water utilization of the studied wheat genotypes to a significant extent. WUE values of the control, unfertilized treatments ranged between 4.1–8.3 kg mm-1, while in optimal fertilizer treatment, it ranged between 15.5 and 17.4 kg mm-1.

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The Effect of Forecrop and Plant Protection on the Pathology Parameters and Yields of Winter Wheat
Published December 6, 2005
84-89

We carried out our experiment in the cropyears of 2000/2001, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, on calcareous chernozem soil, at the experimental site of the Debrecen University Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. We examined the disease resistance and the yield quantity of Mv Magvas variety by adopting different forecrops and plant prot...ection technologies, at 30+30 N level and at normal cereal row spacing. We applied two forecrops (wheat and pea) and two plant protection technologies (extensive and intensive). We measured the rate of infection by population survey in the first ten days of June.
In the course of our examinations, we found, that the rate of powdery mildew infection was higher in the thicker population sown after pea forecrop in all three years, as powdery mildew is not a typical cereal disease.
The infection rate of leaf mildew and DTR (Dreschlera tritici-repentis) was higher after wheat forecrop in all examined years, because these are typical wheat diseases and infection centres in the soil promote the spreading of these diseases. However, it was possible to parry the adverse effect of forecrops by intensive plant protection.
Due to the chernozem soil, wich has good water management features, and due to the good preparation of the seedbed, the effect of forecrops on yield quantity did not appear in the examined years. The quantity of the yield was only slightly larger after pea forecrop in the cropyears of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 than after wheat. Nonetheless, the data of technical literatures state that the yield quantity can be larger, even by 15-20%, after pea forecrop.
In the course of intensive plant protection technology, we applied systemic pesticides, while in the course of environmentally sound technology, we used contact pesticides of sulphur content. In those populations that were treated with environmentally sound plant protection technology, infection rate was higher in all three years.
Yield quantities were somewhat lower in the course of applying extensive, environmentally sound technology, because diseases appeared in these populations to the higher degree. Powdery mildew does not, but leaf mildew and Dreschlera tritici-repentis have a significant yield decreasing effect. With appropriate, well-selected fungicides, we were able to keep every leaf diseases well in hand, and the rate of infection was almost independent of the influence of the breeding year.

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Evaluating changes in nitrogen and sulphur content in a soil-plant system in a long-term fertilization experiment
Published December 1, 2020
77-85

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of long term NPK fertilization (considering that S containing superphosphate was supplied for 26 years of experiment, but since 9 years S has not used any longer) on sulphur- and nitrogen content and N/S ratio of winter wheat. The second objective of this work was to determine the chang...es of the amount of the different nitrogen and sulphur fraction in chernozem soil in a long term fertilization experiment. The third aim of the work was to determine if a relationship could be established between the studied parameters. Based on our results, it can be stated that the sulphur containing superphosphate supplied in the period of 1984-2010 has no longer significant effect on total sulphur content of plant in 2018. The NPK fertilization treatments had positive effect on total nitrogen content of winter wheat. In general, increasing NPK doses resulted in significantly higher nitrogen. The effect of irrigation applied in previous years has no statistically significant effect on the sulphur and nitrogen content of wheat. The wheat grain produced in our experiment, especially in fertilized treatments showed S deficiency. Analysing the changes of CaCl2 soluble nitrate-N and total N of the soil, it can be stated that the effect of increasing fertilizer doses clearly appears in these parameters, because the treatment with increasing fertilizer doses resulted higher CaCl2 soluble N forms compared to the control treatment in soil. These values increased until flowering stage of wheat and after that a slightly decrease was observed as a result of higher N uptake of plant. In overall, it can be stated, that the effect of superphosphate on measured sulphur fraction is prevailed. With increasing fertilizer doses higher sulphate content was detected in soil, but the sulphate content measured in different soil extractant is not enough for the wheat in this experiment area. Studying the correlation between the measured parameters of plant and soil, it can be concluded, that the relationships between nitrogen in the plant and in the soil is stable, and did not change during the growing season. The correlation between plant S and soil S varied in the measured periods and the r value was low in most cases. At the stage of flowering the highest r value was found between KCl-SO4 and plant S. In the stage of ripening the strongest correlation was detected between KH2PO4-SO4 and grain S content.

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Studies on yield stability in autumn wheat species
Published September 7, 2001
61-66

The environmental adaptability of crop production is basically determined by the selection of biological background (plant species and varieties) suitable for the region and the site. The sowing structure adapted to the ecological background increases the yield and decreases the yield fluctuation caused natural effects. Exact long-term trials a...re essential to develop variety structure of winter wheat production suitable for the given ecological conditions. We have examined the productivity and yield stability of genetically different state registered winter wheat varieties. We have compared the varieties’ yield results in plot trials, at similar agrotechnical conditions, in different cropyears. We have examined the absolute and relative (compared to the mean of varieties) yield of winter wheat varieties. We have valued the yield stability of genotypes with the help of analysis of variance and linear regression equations. We have defined the connection between productivity and yield stability of varieties. We have pointed out the varieties with good productivity and yield stability in given agroecological conditions.
According to the results of our examinations the developing of variety structure suitable for the agroecological conditions could increase the potential and effective yield level of wheat production.

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Nutrition reaction of different varieties of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bred in Karcag
Published March 23, 2016
63-67

In our study the nutrition reaction of four varieties of winter wheat (KG Bendegúz, KG Kunhalom, KG Kunkapitány, KG Széphalom) has been investigated. In the experiment the effect of twenty different nutrition doses on the yield and thousand kernel weight of the wheat varieties has been studied. Significant difference could be figured out amo...ng the yield and thousand kernel weight of the wheat varieties, so the choice of the proper variety determines the quantity of yield. KG Kunkapitány had the highest yield, while KG Széphalom had the highest thousand kernel weight in the experiments.

Investigating the effect of the nutrients on the yield the conclusion was that all nitrogen doses had significant yield increasing effect compared to the untreated plots, but among the 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 doses there was no statistical difference. In the case of phosphorus the 40 kg ha-1 dose showed statistically verifiable increase of the yield, while potassium doses have no influence on the yields. The thousand kernel weights reached the maximum values where the highest nutrient doses were applied.

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Long-term experiments on chernozem soil in the University of Debrecen
Published September 5, 2018
357-369

The impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fert...ilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production.

Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.

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Study of plant production modells with different intensity in winter wheat production
Published December 21, 2008
51-60

The effects of crop rotation, nutrient supply and plant protection technologies were examined on the yield of Mv PÁLMA winter wheat variety and on the most important diseases of ear and leaf. Our experiments were carried out on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság in 2006 and 2007, and three plant protection technologies (extensive, average, inten...sive) and three irrigation variations (without irrigation, irrigated with 50 mm, irrigated with
100 mm) were applied in different crop rotation systems. 
In the triculture crop rotation a higher rate of infection was observed than in the biculture crop rotation, because the vegetative growth was more expressed after pea and these microclimatic factors were favourable for the development of pathogens.
In the triculture crop rotation (pea – wheat – maize) the powdery mildew, DTR and leaf rust of wheat were present in both examined years (powdery mildew 5-15%, DTR 14-42%, leaf rust 8-37% in cropyear 2005/2006, powdery mildew 12-32%, DTR 9-29%, leaf rust 8-26% in cropyear 2006/2007). Fusaria could be observed in 2006 (depending on the plant protection technologies and nutrient supply in the biculture 7-27% and in the
triculture 5-19%). With higher amounts of fertilizers the rate of infection increased and reached its maximum at the highest dose of nutrient supply (N200 +PK).
We observed the highest rate of infection by ear and leaf diseases in the case of the extensive technology, while this rate could be considerably reduced by the application of the intensive technology.
Both in 2006 and 2007, yields were the highest at the N100-200+PK levels in the triculture after pea (6028-7939 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 6578-8690 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on plant protection technologies), and at the N150-200+PK levels in the biculture after maize (6096-7653 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 4974-8123 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on the plant protection technologies). The highest yield maximums were
reached when pea was the forecrop. The yields on the experimental plots of the intensive plant protection technology was 224-2198 kg ha-1 higher (depending on the forecrop) compared to the plots where the extensive technology was used.
The highest yield without irrigation was at the N150+PK both in biculture and triculture crop rotation. Among the irrigated variations Ö2 and Ö3 at N200+PK fertilisation resulted in the highest yield in the biculture crop rotation, while the N100+PK level in triculture system. In the biculture crop rotation the extra yield was 14-51% higher (575-1225 kg ha-1 depending on plant protection technology) when 50 mm water was irrigated, and
15-54% higher (778-2480 kg ha-1) if 100 mm irrigation was applied comparing to the non-irrigated versions. The yield was  7-17% higher (560-1086 kg ha-1) in the Ö2 irrigation variation, and 8-23% (691-1446 kg ha-1) higher in the Ö3 irrigation variation compared to Ö1 irrigation variation (non-irrigated).
A correlation analysis was made to reveal the connection between the yield, the amount of fertilizers, the rate of infection, the plant protection technologies and the forecrops. Strong positive correlation (0.846) was found between year and fusaria infection. Strong positive correlation was observed between fertilization and powdery mildew infection (0.525), fertilization and DTR (0.528), fertilization and yield quantity (0.683). Lower
correlation was found between fertilization and leaf rust infection (0.409), and forecrop and yield (0.472), recpectively. Negative correlation was calcutated between plant protection technologies and DTR (-0.611), and plant protection technologies and leaf rust (-0.649).

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The effect of climatic change on the rheological properties of winter wheat doughs
Published October 5, 2010
96-100

In present paper we have examined the effect of climatic change on the extensigraph characteristics of wheat-flours. The baking quality
of winter wheat is largely determined by cultivar, but it can be influenced by weather conditions during growing period. Flours were from 5
cultivars grown at one location in three cropping years. We have... found that the extensigraph properties of dough are affected by the weather
conditions, nevertheless, different cultivars distinctly react to the increase of temperature and decrease of precipitation. In generally, the
higher average day temperature and lower precipitation level is favourable to produce winter wheat flour with better quality

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Relationships between nutrientsupply, genotype and some physiological properties of winter wheat
Published July 31, 2012
141-145

The chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) of three winter wheat varieties have been investigated on a chernozem soil. Three winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Pannonikus and Genius) in three different nutrient-supply levels have been involved in our experiment in the crop-year of 2010/2011. The investi...gated physiological properties have been set against to the yield results. Upon the results of this comparison it has been stated that there is a close relationship between the investigated physiological properties and yield averages. The SPAD-values showed a growing tendency parallel to the growth of the nutrient-supply levels. The varieties have the highest SPAD-values at the nutri ent-level of N120+PK. Compared to the yield averages we have stated that varieties that have higher SPAD-values have realized higher yields as well. Higher nutrient dosages have increased in the leaf area. In case of all the three varieties the highest LAI-values were measured at the flowering stage (23. 05.) in the treatment whit N120+PK. Varieties with higher leaf area have produced higher yields as well. Parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels the value of leaf area duration increased as well. We measured the highest LAD-values in the treatment of N120+PK nutrient-level. By the LAD-values it can be stated that more durable and larger leaf area has been produced in the flowering and ripening phenophases, due to the higher nutrient-dosages. Analysing the relationships between the results it can be stated that there is a strong positive relationship between fertilizer treatments and SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values. The genotype showed a strong positive correlation to SPAD-values. Yield averages showed strong positive correlation to SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values as well.

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The examination of alveographical parameters of winter wheat varieties
Published December 21, 2008
87-91

Nowadays, many methods have been worked up in the interests of objective expression of winter wheat rheological quality. These define wide spectrum in view of their complexity and apparatus claim. The needs for the methods are definitely increasing in Hungary, too. It is very important to get acquainted with the alveographical quality and quali...fication and also their using in wide range.
In our research we examined the alveographical parameters of 12 winter wheat varieties in Szeged (in Hungary) on the basis of the results in three years (2005-2007).
We established with correlation analysis that there is no statistical relation between the alveaographical W and G values. The other alveographical parameters have significant correlation.

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Effect of mineral fertilizers with different sulphur content on the yield of winter wheat in a small plot experiment
Published November 2, 2009
97-100

We can find more and more references on the importance of sulphur and sulphur fertilization, mainly in the case of most important field crops, as cereals, maize, and the oilseeds. The traditional sulphur sources continuously lost their importance by the stringent air pollution orders and nowadays they are not able to meet the demands of plants.... Besides, the application of superphosphate, as phosphorus mineral fertilizer, decreased in several countries. Sulphur fertilization is required in most cases to reach the required yields and quality parameters. The lack of
sulphur causes decreased nitrogen utilization and yield by cereals as winter wheat, moreover, results less favourable baking parameters.
We have examined the N and S content of different parts of winter wheat plants in a small plot experiment at the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Látókép Experimental Station. We have also studied the effect of different sulphur fertilization forms and doses on the baking quality parameters and yield. Our aim was to contribute to the development of yield and quality improving sulphur fertilization methods, adaptable by practice.
We have measured the lowest yield in the case of one of the control plots, and 100 kg/ha nitrogen, 80 kg/ha potassium and 70 kg/ha phosphorus nutrient supply resulted the lowest yield (8.7 kg/plot). The maximum yield, 10.2 kg/plot was also experienced on superphosphate fertilized plot by the application of 140 kg/ha phosphorus dose. Application the first dose of both Biofert and FitoHorm 32 S leaf fertilizers raised the yield from
9.1 to 9.9 kg/plot. ANOVA proved that Biofert and FitoHorm 32 S had no significant effect on the amount of yield, the increase is only a tendency.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001
47-54

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
Published November 2, 2014
51-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

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The virus infection of South-Hungarian corn fields
Published October 30, 2011
52-55

The past years cereal diseases, including the virus diseases have been increased in Hungary as well as worldwide. The aim of our work was to survey the virus infection of South Hungarian wheat fields. Leaf samples were collected in Szeged at the experimental farm of Cereal Research Nonprofit Co., in April and Junes of 2009 and 2010. DAS ELISA t...ests were carried out using Loewe antisera of Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), Brome streak mosaic virus (BStMV), Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and measured with Labsystem Multiscan RC Elisa reader at 405nm. In the samples of 2009 the Wheat dwarf and Wheat streak mosaic viruses were dominated. It was also significant the appearance of the. Barley yellow dwarf virus. 2010. was favourable for the spread of the virus vectors, therefore the incidence of virus diseases increased.

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Growth and clorophyll content dynamics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in different cropyear
Published May 6, 2013
101-105

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment in the season of 2011 and 2012 in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at three fertilisation levels (control, N50+P35K40, N150+P105K120). Two different cropyears were compared (2011 and 2012).

The research focused on the effects of forecrop and fertilisation on the Leaf Area Index, SPAD values and the amount of yield in two different cropyears. We wanted to find out how the examined parameters were affected by the cropyear and what the relationship was between these two parameters and the changes of the amount of yield.

Examining the effects of growing doses of fertilizers applied, results showed that yields increased significantly in both rotations until the N150+PK level in 2011 and 2012. By comparing the two years, results show that in 2011 there was a greater difference in yields between the rotations (7742 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the biculture and 9830 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the triculture). Though wheat yields following peas were greater in 2012, results equalized later on at N150+PK levels (8109–8203 kg ha-1).

Due to the favorable agrotechnical factors, the leaf and the effects of the treatments grown to a great extent in 2011, while in 2012 the differences between treatments were moderate. Until the N150+PK level, nitrogen fertilisation had a notable effect on the maximum amount of SPAD values (59.1 in the case of the biculture and 54.0 in the triculture). The highest SPAD values were measured at the end of May (during the time of flowering and grain filling) in the biculture. In the triculture, showed high SPAD values from the beginning. The same tendency could be observed in the 2012 cropyear, although increasing doses of fertilizers resulted in higher SPAD values until N150+PK level only from the second measurement. Maximum SPAD values were reached at the end of May in both crop rotation system

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Connection of crude protein content and amino acid content of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties in the relation of quantity and quality
Published December 21, 2008
73-79

We analysed the crude protein content, amino acid content, amino acid composition of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) from their samples from five following years (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007). We found that quantity of essential and non-essential amino acids rose with increase in cru...de protein content. On examination of protein amino acid composition in relation to crude protein content we found that the crude protein content increased the quantities of the non-essential amino acids also rose, while those of the essential amino acids decreased as the lysine, the limiting amino acid of wheat. We also established that, as crude protein content increased, the biological value of the protein decreased.

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Connection of protein and amino acid content of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties
Published November 2, 2009
101-107

We analysed the crude protein content, amino acid content, amino acid composition of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) from their samples from five following years (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007). We found that quantity of essential and non-essential amino acids rose with increase in cru...de protein content. On examination of protein amino acid composition in relation to crude protein content we found that the crude protein content increased the quantities of the non-essential amino acids also rose, while those of the essential amino acids decreased as the lysine, the limiting amino acid of wheat. We also established that, as crude protein content increased, the biological value of the protein decreased.

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The effect of NPK treatments on the Cu and Fe content of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published March 20, 2013
31-34

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In this study the effect of N, P and K nutrients on the Cu and Fe content of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains was investigated in a long-term fertilization experiment set up in Nagyhörcsök. Samples were also harvested from four experimental stations of the Hungarian national long-term fertilization trials. These are the following: Bicsérd, Iregszemcse, Karcag, and Putnok. Plant samples were collected in 2005 which was very wet. Our results from Nagyhörcsök were compared with the Cu and Fe content of samples which were harvested from control plots of other experimental stations. The Cu and Fe content of grain samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) followed by digestion with HNO3-H2O2 solution. All data were subjected to ANOVA, and when significant differences (P<0.05) were detected, Duncan’s test was performed to allow separation of means.

The main conclusions are as follows: Cu and Fe content of wheat grains was higher and higher in every NPK treatments. Samples were harvested from the control plots of Iregszemcse and Bicsérd have higher Cu content than the treated samples from Nagyhörcsök.

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Plant growth analysis of wheat populations in a long-term field-experiment
Published July 31, 2012
147-151

The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The whea...t variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

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Application of the SDS-PAGE method for the characterisation of winter wheat flour quality
Published May 23, 2006
112-118

The principle, development and importance of the SDS-PAGE method are presented in this article. The SDS-PAGE method has become one of the basic methods of molecular biological research, because it is widely applicable and its sensitivity is excellent in the separation of wheat storage proteins.
We have shown the application of this method wi...th a concrete example. It was also tested whether, it was possible to obtain a better baking quality product from a large amount of poor quality less valuable wheat by fractioning the flour according to particle sizes after grinding. We studied the rheological properties of flours with different particle size fractions from the original flour. The baking quality of the original flour was B2. The 125-90 and 90-63 μm fractions have significantly better baking quality (B1) than the original flour. The protein contents of these flour fractions were also significantly higher than the protein content of the original flour. We had a question: what has influenced the baking quality: the protein content or other factors? We searched for an explanation on these results in the protein composition of the flour samples. We studied the distribution of glutenin-fractions by SDS-PAGE method and evaluated them. We found with correlation analysis that the amount of LMW-Glutenin D-group (52-60 kDa) is in a strong, negative correlation to the baking quality (r = – 0.855*). Therefore, the baking quality of flour samples was influenced by this glutenin fraction.

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Increase of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Resistance to Leaf Rust (Puccinia tritici) via Gene Transformation
Published December 15, 2010
127-129

Leaf rust is one of the most significant fungal disease of wheat not only in Hungary but also in other parts of the world. For improving leaf rust resistance of winter wheat variety (Hajdúság, 2003) produced by conventional breeding methods, verified by results of variety tests, showing outstanding results in the aspect of the most important ...economic values, integration of tissue culture technics, genetic engineering and traditional
methods may provide facilities. Building the gene(s) responsible for resistance into the determined genome can improve the resistance in a way that changes other features of the plant slightly or not at all. In the course of genetical transformation of the variety Hajdúság we applied one of the wheat’s own effecient green-tissue specific insurer genetical regulator, the promoter of ribulose carboxylase 1-5 bisphosphate (RuBisCo) ‘s small
subunit to control the expression of the gene cmg1.

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The effect of short term storage on different winter wheat varieties rheological properties
Published March 11, 2014
83-86

The aim of storage after harvest is to protect the quality of wheat, because after-ripening occurs in the first 5–6 weeks. During this time it very important to make the optimal storage conditions.

We have carried out storage experiment with wheat samples from Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen. We analyzed the rhe...ological parameters of Lupus and GK Csillag varieties from the crop year 2011/2012. The experiment period was between July and August 2012 (24. 07. 2012., 31. 07. 2012., 21. 08. 2012.).We determined the rheological parameters (water absorption, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number) of Lupus and GK Csillag during short term storage. Our results showed that after-ripening increased the baking quality of Lupus and GK Csillag during storage.

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Test Results of Winter Wheat Varieties in 2002/2003 in the Hajdusag
Published May 4, 2004
59-64

We examined 35 early, 32 mid-season and 12 mid-late winter wheat varieties on calciferous chernozem soil after sunflower green crop in 2003. We set-up the experiment on small-size parcels, with 4 repetitions. In addition to the favourable agrotechnical conditions, with this year’s extreme ecological conditions the varieties resulted in weaker... yields (2500-3200 kg/ha). Our findings have proven that there is a significant difference both between the maturity groups and between the yield potential of varieties with different genotypes, inside each group. Early varieties showed lower yield potentials according to the other two groups. The differences between the various variety’s yields was the smallest in the mid late group (893 kg/ha). Under given ecological and agrotechnical conditions, the following varieties showed the relatively best yields and best adaptability:
• early maturing varieties (3200-3700 kg/ha): Mv palotás, KG Magor, Mv Mambo, Mv Emese, GK Margit, GK Tündér, GK Csongrád, GK Attila, Mv Amanda, Ukrainka;
• mid season varieties (3300-3800 kg/ha): Győző, GK Marcal, Róna, GK Rába, Buzogány, MF Kazal, GK Mura, Hunor, GK Cipó, Mv Magvas, Mv Vilma, GK Zugoly, Jubilejnaja 50;
• mid-late varieties (3200-3600 kg/ha): Maximus, Complet, KG Kunhalom, GK Holló.

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