In order to get to know the numerical differencies of favourable and unfavourable weather conditions, our research lean to 29-years-data (1961-1989) of maize yield of productive area of Hajdúság from which we chose two low (1964, 1976) and two high (1969, 1975) yield yerars. Choosing the years we fitted a linear trend to the time series and t...he valued data was divided by the realised crop. From the cumlative temperature- and rainfall data calculatd curve concern the period between 01. April and 01. September. The basis was the cumulative value of many years daily average value. The temperature- and rainfall curve of favourable and unfavourable yield with the many years average data was represented on the same scale. In order to numericate the differencies we count the differencies monthly frequency. Based on it became sunder the feature of years. The method used by us ensure possibility to separate the temporal types. It was found that informing the yield the rainfall has main role in this productive area and the temperature has only second role.
The results of experiments carried out in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences clearly show that in the case of hybrids grown in a monoculture greater fertiliser responses can be achieved with increasing rates of N fertiliser than in crop rotations. In the monoculture experiment the parameters investigated re...ached their maximum values at a rate of 240 kg/ha N fertiliser, with the exception of 1000-kernel mass and starch content. In both cases the starch content was highest in the untreated control, gradually declining as the N rates increased. Among the parameters recorded in the crop rotation, the values of the dry grain yield, the 1000-kernel mass, the protein yield and the starch yield were greatest at the 160 kg/ha N fertiliser rate, exhibiting a decrease at 240 kg/ha. Maximum values for the protein content and SPAD index were recorded at the highest N rate. It is important to note, however, that although the N treatments caused significant differences compared to the untreated control, the differences between the N treatments were not significant.
In the given experimental year the values achieved for the untreated control in the crop rotation could only be achieved in the monoculture experiment at a fertiliser rate of 160 kg/ha N, indicating that N fertiliser rates could be reduced using a satisfactory crop sequence, which could be beneficial from the point of view of environmental pollution, crop protection and cost reduction.
The weather in 2006 was favourable for maize production, allowing comparative analysis to be made of the genetically determined traits of the hybrids. Among the three hybrids grown in the monoculture experiment, Maraton produced the best yield, giving maximum values of the parameters tested at a fertiliser rate of 240 kg/ha N. The poorest results were recorded for Mv 277, which could be attributed to the fact that the hybrid belongs to the FAO 200 maturity group, while the other hybrids had higher FAO numbers. Maraton also gave the highest yields in the crop rotation experiment at the 160 kg/ha N level. All three hybrids were found to make excellent use of the natural nutrient content of the soil.
It was proved that the protein content of maize hybrids can only be slightly improved by N fertilisation, as this trait is genetically coded, while the starch content depends to the greatest extent on the ecological factors experienced during the growing season.
The effect of reduced and conventional tillage on soil compaction, soil moisture status and carbon-dioxide emission of the soil was studied on a meadow chernozem soil with high clay content in the soil cultivation experiment started in 1997 at Karcag Research Institute. Our investigations were done on stubbles after the harvest of winter wheat...and winter peas after the very droughty vegetation period of 2014/2015.
We established that the soil in both tillage systems was dry and compacted and the CO2-emission was very low. The positive effects of reduced tillage could be figured out only in the soil layer of 40–60 cm in the given weather conditions of that period.
During our work, we developed a new, simple method to show the effects of fertilization on yield, which can both be applied over the long term as well as in series of independent experiments.
During the testing of this method, at the experimental farm of the Debrecen University Center for Agricultural Sciences at Látókép on a chernozem so
Four parameters are shown in the model. In the examined period TRmax represents the greatest yield in the fertilized treatments, NT the yield in unfertilized treatment, k the „efficiency of fertilizer” to NT and b the depression-coefficient, where the expected value is zero. The expected grain yield of the fertilized treatments (Y), in the function of the unfertilized grain yield (x) is the following:
The parameters were determined using the Monte Carlo method, in the optimizing process the sum of deviation square was minimized. The correct conformation of the functions was determined by the greatness of the R-value and the standard error. We found that during six years of testing, the tendency of fertilization efficiency was similar in the case of both hybrids. There was an unfavorable weather interval and, in these years, the yields were low, fertilization did not have an effect and moreover, in extremely bad conditions resulted in an obvious yield decrease. With the improvement of conditions, which in the case of our country means an increase in precipitation, the efficiency of fertilization increases and reaches its peak at 13-14 t/ha. At this point, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is 4-4,5 t/ha. If the yield of the unfertilized treatments increases from 8-9 t/ha, then the efficiency of the applied fertilizer decreases.
Most likely, the k and b parameters depend on the soil of the experimental location (nutrient and water management) and on the amount of pplied fertilizer and the characteristics of the hybrid. With the increase of fertilizer dosage the k-parameter also increases. The greater value though does not obviously mean a more favorable situation. It is true that in medium and good years this means great fertilizer efficiency, but in low or extreme precipitation conditions it also means greater risk. With the increase of the k-parameter, the yield deviation also increases which, from a cultivation point of view, is quite unfavorable. If the value of the b-parameter is other than, zero then the effect is clearly unfavorable, because with the increase of this value, the yield decrease is also greater. The fertilizer reaction of the two examined hybrids can be well characterized by these two hybrids.
Examining the six years, our created model estimated the effect of fertilization on the yield accurately and with a high degree of safety. Both in highly unfavorable and extremely good years, it gave an exact estimate. In our opinion, it can be used well to evaluate the effects of fertilization on yield in the future.
The potential and actual number of offspring of roe deer and the difference between these figures (prenatal and postnatal loss) significantly vary in each population yearly. The objective of this study is to examine the potential and actual number of offspring, the number of losses, and to find a link between the most important biological chara...cteristics of does (body weight – BW, condition – KFI) and the number of raised offspring on four territories on the Great Hungarian Plain.
Where the number of corpora lutea (CL) is the highest, there the losses are the highest as well, and the number of raised offspring is the lowest (region I.). Here, the rearing loss is double that of the weakest territory (region IV.). Rearing losses can be associated with the fenotype of does (BW, KFI) but environmental factors also have determinative importance. Where the number of twin-calving does was the highest, I found four times more does without a fawn than where the number of twin-calving does was the lowest. The nursing success was the best (the losses were lowest) in the region where the potential offspring (number of CL) was also the lowest, but the coverage of the habitat and the proportion of forests were largest. The food supply for the animals in autumn and winter are not enough, the structure of the habitat has to be improved as well, so that it might become adequate for game protection in extreme weather conditions.
The results have to be considered as preliminary ones. It is essential to continue and extend the research to increase the reliability of the results.
In this study, the effect of water supply on the quality and productivity of different maize hybrids was observed.
Maize production is influenced by many agro-technical factors such as nutrient supply, plant density, environmental factors, water supply and temperature. Good soil quality and adequate technology significantly... reduce the unfavourable effect of crop year. The impact of fertilization, crop rotation, irrigation and plant density on maize yield was greatly affected by crop year and crop rotation. The main constituent (69–75% dry matter concentration) of maize seed is starch, however, its increase can be achieved only to a limited extent, as increasing the starch content will reduce other parameters, especially protein content. Significant nutrient content improvements can be achieved by appropriate hybrid-site connection and the use of adequate technology. Protein content reduction with optimal water supply can be positively influenced by the appropriate nutrient supply for the hybrid.
The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Site of Crop Production on calcareous chernozem soil. The weather of the examined year, which was partly favorable for maize and partly unfavourable in other respects, was also reflected in the development of maize and yields achieved.
In 2019, we were examining the hybrids of Kamaria (FAO 370), P 9903 (FAO 390), DKC 4351 (FAO 370) and KWS Kamparis (FAO 350–400). Due to the dry soil condition, sowing was delayed, however, the hybrids emerged ideally because rain arrived soon after sowing, which facilitated initial development. Young plants evolved rapidly and dynamically in the case of all hybrids. In terms of heat-demanding bread, the month of May was unfavourable to temperatures below the annual average, but the higher amount rainfall helped the development. However, due to the drier period in early July, 25–25 mm of irrigation water was applied to half of the experimental areas on July 1 and 15.
The aim of our research was to determine the best population density for hybrids under favourable soil conditions (calcareous chernozem soil). In both irrigated and dry conditions, a crop density of 75,000 crops were the most favourable for the Kamaria hybrid. The P9903 hybrid in the case of a crop density of 85 crops proved to be ideal and the DKC4351 had an optimal population density of 95,000.
However, it should be taken into consideration that, in the case of soils with poor water management, the drought sensitivity of the crop stand may increase at a population density of 95,000.
As a result of irrigation, yield increased and the difference between the examined plant numbers decreased. The yield growth was relatively moderate (341 kg ha-1 – 1053 kg ha-1), which makes the economicalness of irrigation doubtful in the given year.
In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize.
The experiment took
In Hajdúszoboszló, in 2016 the amount of rainfall from January to October was 605 mm, which was more than the average of 30 years by 160 mm. The yield of hybrids without fertilization changed between 9.63–11.6 t ha-1 depending on the number of plants.
The six tested hybrids is 10.65 t ha-1 in the average of the stand density of 60, 70 and 80 thousand plants per hectare without fertilization, while it is 12.24 t ha-1 with N80+PK fertilizer treatment. That increase in the yield is 1.6 t ha-1, it is significant.
Da Sonka hybrid is sensitive to weather, it is able to produce 6 t ha-1 additional yield in case of favourable condition. However, it has a low stress tolerance. The most stable yields were observed at Kamaria and Pioneer hybrids. The effect of vintage is also an important factor on the yield. In average, the yield of maize was 6.81 t ha-1 in 2015, which was a drought year and 11.86 t ha-1 in 2016 that was a favourable year.
The applied technology is an alternative approach to pigkeeping-systems. An outdoor pig production breeding sows are kept at pasture either year-round or in a certain period of the year. The important equipments of outdoor pig production are farrowing or grouping sows inhuts, which protect pigs against the effects of extreme weather, and electr...ic fences, which surround and divide the pasture. Concentrate feed can be fed from the ground or from feeders which are made of steel or timber. One of main advantages of this pig keeping system is the total mobilizable keeping technology.
Within the scope of the study we are performing an experiment to make a comparison between coventional system and free range sows keeping technology. Pannonhybrid F1 gilts were used in this experiment, 28 gilts were kept on pasture all day and 28 gilts are kept in conventional, indoor system.
In this work the results of gilts-rearing are presentated as a part of our two-years experiment.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The comparative trial has been set up in the Demonstration Garden of the Institute of Crop Sciences of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Studies, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management in 2012, with 24 hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing periods. The soil of the trial is lime-coated chernozem, with a humus layer of 50–70 cm.
The experiments were performed in the University of Debrecen Centre for Agricultural Research Institute of Nyíregyháza of 1500 m2 asparagus plantation in 2011. We were determind the number of shoots, plant height, fold thickness and yield of asparagus hybrid. I studied to the effects of various cropyear is addition Grolim hybrid asparagus gro...wth and development. Compared to previous years, 2014 was unusually wet and cold weather conditions which causes the plantation has developed outstanding. The soil temperature early and dynamic increase due to, the harvest had started a one month earlier 2014 than the 2013. The experiment asparagus harvested from lower yields as a result of the extremely dry spring in 2015.
According to our scientific results we can state that we have to use integrated pesticides management in crop protection against the diseases of winter wheat. One of the most important elements of IPM is to select a genotype characterised by good resistance to diseases (and by high yield ability and excellent baking quality). It is especially i...mportant that the wheat variety have tolerance against not only to one or two leaf and spike (grain) diseases, but „complex” tolerance. It is not necessary to give up the growing of a variety which has susceptibility to different diseases because we can protect it using appropriate chemical management. In the intensive growing stage of wheat (BBCH 32-37) we can use a noncompulsary fungicide-treatment (depending on e. g. the infection, ecological conditions) and, at the beginning of the flowering stage
(BBCH 59-65), we have to use a compulsary fungicide-treatment (in spite of e. g. special weather conditions, resistance genotype)to ensure high yield and good quality.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crop year on the main components of maize grown for bio-ethanol production yield, starch content and starch yield per hectare of maize hybrids were investigated in a droughty (2007) and in a favourable years with optimal weather conditions (2008, 2009). We measured very low starch yield... (1.5 t ha-1) in the year with unfavourable precipitation supply (2007) together with higher starch content (73%). In the case of good precipitation supply we measured a much higher starch yield per hectare (7.7 t ha-1) with lower content (72.4%). In 2009 the starch content (74.5%) exceed the results of the two previous years, but on the other hand the average of starch yield was (4.9 t ha-1) which falls between the other two years values.
This study presents a PHP-based model capable of calculating maize leaf area index. The model calculates LAI from emergence to 75% silking. The basis of calculation is represented by the daily average temperature values. The usability of the model was tested using three years' temperature and LAI data series from the values obtained by the weat...her station set up at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences between 1994 and 1996. During the running of the model, it was observed that temperature affects the intensity of leaf development to a various extent.
Many factors can influence the microbiological quality of raw cow’s milk. In this study, our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the microbiological statuses of milk produced in different seasons. Samples were collected and analysed from five dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County, from February to November in 2019....During our studies, total plate count (TPC), coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count of raw cow’s milk samples were determined.
There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the mean TPC values detected in the milk collected in winter and autumn, but that values were significantly (P<0.05) lower than in the milk samples collected in spring and summer. Similarly to the TPC, in the case of coliform bacteria the lowest mean colony count was detected in the samples collected in winter. The difference was significant (P<0.05), compared to the values observed in the samples collected in summer. S. aureus was detected in bulk milk of only two farms in excess of 1.0 log10 cfu/ml. Also in case of S. aureus, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the values observed in the samples collected in winter and in summer. Samples from spring and summer contained the highest amount of S. aureus.
Based on the results of our studies, in the case of almost all farms the mean TPC, coliform and S. aureus counts were lower in the samples collected in winter, than in the samples collected in summer. The fact that the samples collected in winter contained the lowest amount of colonies could be attributed to the inhibition of growth of mesophilic microorganisms below 8 °C. Furthermore, the fact that we observed the highest colony counts in samples collected in summer, can be related to the heat stress of cows during the summer due to unfavorable weather conditions (high temperature and humidity).
The most destructive pathogen for the European chestnut trees is the blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. The biological control is the only effective possibility to apply in situ biocontrol by hypovirulent strains against compatible virulent (wild) fungus strains. The infested bark tissues can inoculate by drilling holes surrou...nding and putting into agar discs interwoven by the appropriate vegetative compatible group (VCG) hypovirulent fungus strains. This latest can pass those virus-like particles (VLPs) by parasexual contact (called hypha-anastomosis)which responsible to hypovirulence. A laboratory experiment was made to find the optimal times to carry out the treatments. The intensity of growth of fungal colonies were analysed on different temperatures. The growth of the fungus on low temperature were rather slow,according to our expectations. On higher temperature the colony progress were the same as on the optimal 20–25 °C. These observations and the environment determine the date of the field applications under Hungarian weather conditions. It means the optimal treatment periods can be May or end of September to middle October in Hungary.
The experiments were designed to determine the extent to which late harvesting helped to achieve low grain moisture content. The grain moisture contents of 24 hybrids from each of four different maturity groups were recorded during the last decade of September and the first decade of November over a period of three years (1999-2001).
This change in the grain moisture content during October exhibited a considerable year effect. When the weather in October was warm, with little rain, the decrease was greater, while in cool, wet years the grain moisture content declined to a lesser extent, or in some cases even increased.
Due to global climate warming, frequency of negative weather effects (rainfall amounts, distribution, sortness) are increasing. Rainfall
amounts and frequency has also great effect of sweet cherry fruit quality around fruit ripening. Determination of optimal technological
basics (such as first class fruit quality and economic value) are a
be solved with introduction of a new intensive training system. One of the solutions can be rain protecting foil which can reduce fruit
cracking and fruit rot. Without this option sweet cherry can not be grown in many countries. In this study, fruit quality parameters were
compared from a 10 year old intensive (4 x 1m) sweet cherry orchard. The effect of rain protecting foil was tested in comparison with fruits
from not covered tree
This paper presents the basic elements of maize production technology in Serbia. For their good knowledge, it is necessary to be familiar with the basic biological requirements of the species, phenology and its particular requirements for water, heat, soil conditions and mineral nutrition. A special emphasis in this paper is given to recent res...earch by the author regarding the correction of production technology (selection of hybrids, time and density of sowing, etc.) from the aspect of knowing the weather conditions of the year to the moment of sowing and the amount and position of available nitrogen in the soil profile during the spring before sowing. In the light of predicted climate change conditions for the Republic of Serbia, the authors of this paper have proposed and appropriated adaptation measures. The general conclusion is that there are no general recipes for the correct production technology of this plant species, but should be adapted to each specific year, field and hybrid.
Wheat production is a determining branch within Hungarian crop production (produced on nearly one million hectares). Weather anomalies caused by climatic change confirmed the importance of the biological background (variety, hybrid) in wheat production. The adapting ability and reaction of different wheat genotypes towards nutrient supply were...studied in a long-term field experiment on chernozem soil type in the case of different pre-crops (sunflower and maize). According to the experimental results of the vegetation of 2017/2018, the yield of the variety Ingenio sown after the sunflower as previous crop ranged between 4168 and 8734 kg ha-1, while in the case of maize as previous crop, this value ranged between 2084 and 7782kg ha-1, depending on the applied nutrient supply level. The studied genotypes produced rather significant yield surplus as a response to the application of mineral fertilization (4.6–5.1 t ha-1 after sunflower and 5.7–6.3 t ha-1 after maize). Optimal mineral fertilizer dosage was determined by both the genotype and the pre-crop. N-optimum values of wheat genotypes was determined using regression analysis. In the case of the variety Ingenio sown after sunflower, the optimum range was N144-150+PK, while after maize, it was
N123-150+PK, respectively. For the hybrid Hyland, these optimum ranges were N114-120+PK, just as N150-153+PK, resp. The application of optimal mineral fertilizer dosages improved water utilization of the studied wheat genotypes to a significant extent. WUE values of the control, unfertilized treatments ranged between 4.1–8.3 kg mm-1, while in optimal fertilizer treatment, it ranged between 15.5 and 17.4 kg mm-1.
Sowing time is an important crop technology element of maize. We studied the effect of this factor on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény, in 2003 and 2004, and near Debrecen, in 2005.
The soils of the experiments were humic gley soil and chernozem. Weather in both years differed greatly.
In 2004 and in 2005, there were favorable and rainy seasons. The distribution and quantity of precipitation were suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids with a shorter vegetation period gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids with a longer vegetation period gave them at the earlier sowing time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids were the best at every sowing times. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture contents of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing times. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year, due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time, than at the later.
In 2005, we applied three sowing times. Unfortunately, the results of the third sowing time could not be analyzed, due to the low plant density. The yield of the six hybrids varied from 12 to 14 t/ha at the first sowing time. At the second sowing time, the yields fluctuated and each hybrid had the lowest yield, except the PR37D25 hybrid. At the latest sowing time, the yield of the PR34B97 hybrid was the lowest. However, this low yield was due to damage from the Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) imago. The moisture content at harvest of the hybrids varied from 16 to 24% at the first sowing time. Yields at the second sowing time were higher. The low yield of the PR34B97 hybrid coupled with a higher seed moisture content. In addition, the maximum value of the LAI was more favourable at the first sowing time, and ranged between 5-5.5 m2/m2.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.
The experiments were performed in the University of Debrecen Centre fog Agricultural Research Institute of Nyíregyháza of 1500 m2 asparagus plantation in 2011. We were determine the number of shoots, plant height, fold thickness and yield of asparagus hybrids. I observe in the effects of three different asparagus genotypes (Vitale,... Cumulus, Grolim) growth and development of the data sets are required. Compared to previous years, the year 2014 was also an unusually warm and rainy weather, which makes the plantation produced outstanding development. Effect of the early warming, this year the harvest was to begin one month then in 2013.
The nutrient supply of plants is becoming more important in plant protection since the appropriate condition of plants can be ensured by optimal and satisfactory nutrient supply to avoid nutritional deficiency diseases. Due to the extreme weather conditions, plants are forced to face several stress factors, which lea...ds to deterioration of the plant health. The increasing occurrence of droughts poses threat to nutrient uptake through the roots since all the nutrients can be accessible to the plants only if they are in dissolved form in the soil – which is not possible in the absence of water. Therefore, the importance of foliar fertilizer is becoming a more and more significant part of the nutrient supply, because with the help of this technology the development of any nutrient deficiency can be prevented.
In this experiment, we focused on the efficiency of two different foliar fertilizers on maize. Foliar fertilizers were applied two times, once in the stage with 8 leaves and tasseling phenophase of the maize. To verify the efficiency of the foliar fertilizers, the chlorophyll content of untreated and treated plant’s leaves was measured after each application. Moreover, the length and diameter of maize cobs, thousand kernel weight, protein, oil and starch content were also measured, and the results were compared to the untreated (control) ones. According to the results, in all aspects significant differences were observed and due to the laboratory analysis of leaves, in the case of magnesium and zinc supply the foliar fertilizers were able to prevent the development of nutrient deficiency.
White mould is the most important desease of sunflower. We are not able to grow sunflower on the same area for 5-6 years, because of sclerotia. One of the protection methods is if we destroy the sclerotia in the soil with hyperparasite microorganisms, so we can reduce the comeback time of sunflower.
We carried out our farm size research...es through 3 years, with the most important sunflower hybrids of Hungary in the area of Vásárhelyi Róna Kft. We can conclude that the microbiological products (Koni, Trifender, Mico’sol) effect positively on the yield of sunflower hybrids, but the weather (moisture) can significantly modify this effect.
The herbicide tolerance levels of 49 Martonvásár inbred parents were examined in Martonvásár in a herbicide susceptibility trial in 2016. The normal dosage recommended in the permit documentations and double dosage were used for the 12 small-plot herbicide treatments performed in two repetitions. Spraying of early post-emergent herbicides w...as carried out in the 1–2-leaf stage, while post-emergent treatments were applied in the 7–8-leaf stage of maize. The extent of phytotoxicity was scored for the early post-emergent herbicides two and four weeks after treatments and for the post-emergent herbicides two weeks after treatments, respectively. Some of the herbicides examined are not approved in seed production; however it is important to know the reaction of maize parent genotypes for every type of herbicides. The active agent topramezone was withdrawn from the market in 2015, but it was included in the trials as its usage was allowed until stocks run out in 2016. The herbicide agents were examined as follows: mesotrione + S-metolachlor + terbutylazine; isoxaflutol + tiencarbazon methyl + cyprosulfamide; isoxaflutol + cyprosulfamide; mesotrione + terbuthylazine; tembotrione + isoxidifen-ethyl; mesotrione + nicosulfuron; prosulfu ron; nicosulfuron +prosulfuron + dicamba; bentazone + dicamba; nicosulfuron; topramezone; foramsulfuron + isoxadifen-ethyl.
Among early post-emergent herbicides, isoxaflutol + cyprosulfamide caused the less phytotoxic damage in the genotypes. The large amount of precipitation during the spring facilitated the infiltration of the active ingredient S-metolachlor, used regularly and successfully also in seed production, into the root zone, resulting in phytotoxic symptoms on susceptible inbred lines at the time of the first inspection. These genotypes recovered by the end of the vegetation period. The spring weather was cooler than usual, retarding the development of maize and thus led to the slower fermentation of herbicide active ingredients, accordingly, all of the post-emergent herbicides caused visible phytotoxic symptoms on some of genotypes. The most severe damages were generally caused by the double dosage of nicosulfuron + prosulfuron + dicamba, nicosulfuron, and foramsulfuron + isoxadifen-ethyl.