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The effect of crop protection and agrotechnical factors on sunflower in the Hajdúság region
Published October 5, 2010
39-46

Extreme weather conditions are becoming more and more frequent in the crop years, thus increase the risk of sunflower production.
The objective of researches into plant production is to minimize these effects as much as possible. In this sense, the optimization of
agrotechnological factors is of high importance. Within these factors, the ...appropriate crop technology (sowing time, crop density)
and optimized, rational crop protection technologies are important, especially in the highly sensitive sunflower cultures. The effect of
sowing time, crop density, and fungicide treatments on the yield of sunflower hybrids was analysed in different crop years in 2008
and 2009. In each case, the infection was highest with the early sowing time and at the highest crop density level (65000 ha-1). When
one fungicide treatment was applied, the rate of infection decreased compared to the control treatment. The further decrease of the
infection rate was less after the second fungicide treatment.
In the humid year of 2008 the crop yield was the highest at 45000 ha-1 crop density level in the control treatment and at 55000 crop
ha-1 crop density level when fungicides were applied. In the draughty year of 2009 the maximum yield was gained at 55000 ha-1 crop
density level in the control treatment and at 65000 crop ha-1 when fungicides were applied. In 2008 and 2009 as regards the crop
yield, the difference between the optimal and minimal crop density levels was higher in the fungicide treatments than in the control
treatment (in 2008: control: 517 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 865 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 842 kg ha-1), (in
2009: control: 577 kg ha-1; one application of fungicides: 761 kg ha-1; two applications of fungicides: 905 kg ha-1).
In each and every case, the first treatment with fungicides was more effective than the second. In 2008, the highest yield was
obtained with the third, late sowing time in each fungicide treatment. The differences between the crop yields with different sowing
times was less than in 2009, when the results of the second treatment exceeded those of the first and third treatment in each case.

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Effect of agrotechnical factors on the yield of the Grolim asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) hybrid on acidic sandy soil
Published September 8, 2020
43-48

Research of blanched asparagus has begun at the University of Debrecen Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm Research Institutes of Nyíregyháza in 2011. Establishment of the plantation took place in May 2011. The Grolim hybrid was used in the trial, 16 medium plot trial area has been formed under field conditions, with fou...r repetitions and 36 m2 plot size. In the course of our studies, the effect of different nutriment supply methods (untreated, manure, sheep manure compost, fertilizer) has been analysed on the spear yield of the Grolim asparagus hybrid between 2013 and 2017.

In our studies, the beginning of vegetative growth has been recorded upon the constant presence of 10 °C of average soil temperature in the case of the Grolim asparagus hybrid. The beginning and length of spear harvesting are both influenced by the time and dynamics of initial development in spring. During the analysed period, the dates of spear harvesting were various, the earliest being on 23rd March, 2014 and the latest on 23rd April, 2015; the rest of the three years have been varied within this one month interval. The total of heat units required for the vegetative development of spears has been determined; it provides important information for cultivation practice.

Spear yields turned out to be hectic during the analysed period. In 2013 and 2014, yields have surpassed the amount of 50 kg/harvest period/plot in the case of every treatment version. However, in 2015 a significantly lower specific yield has been recorded due to the unfavourable weather conditions in spring; a yield decline of nearly 50% was recorded in the case of the control treatment compared to the previous years. Yield was also lower in the rest of the fertilization treatments compared to 2014; however, in these cases, the degree of yield decrease was around 5–10%, which suggests the yield stabilising effect of fertilization. In 2016, a slight yield increase was measured in comparison with the base year. In 2017, there was a decline of yield in the control treatment; however, the different fertilization treatments resulted in yield increase as compared to previous years.

On the basis of our studies, it is clear that the best yield results have been provided by the artificial fertilization treatment in all of the five analysed years. It was followed by the sheep manure compost and manure treatments in terms of their effect on spear yield. During the three harvesting periods, the lowest yield on acidic sandy soil was recorded in the case of the control treatment. The most remarkable effect of nutriment treatments has been realised in terms of the decreased deviation of yield results, which perfectly represents the yield stabilising effect of nutriment supply in the case of perennial crops – asparagus – as well, even on a poor nutriment supply characteristic sandy soil.

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98
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Utilization of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.)
Published December 10, 2002
122-125

Okra is warm season crop native to Africa. Presently it is widely grown in the northeastern parts of Brazilia, both northen, and western parts of Africa, southeast Asia, and in the eastern parts of the Mediterraneum. In Hungary it is a rarity. It’s adaptation to Hungary began about 40 years ago.The optimal sowing time under Hungarian climatic... conditions is middle of May. The harvests is started – depending on the weather – first, by the middle of July, and picking continues until the first of September.
According to our results, seed soaking, sowing under a perforated foil sheet-covered trench (2 weeks earlier the normal sowing time), and 55-65 g thousand weight seeds are favourable.
The harvest period under Hungarian circumstances is appr. one and half months.

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Phytotoxicity levels in a wet year in an experiment on maize sensitivity to herbicides
Published November 2, 2014
92-96

The phytotoxic effects of herbicides applied pre-, early post- and post-emergence were studied in maize in a herbicide sensitivity experiment were set up in Martonvásár and Törökszentmiklós. The herbicides were applied in normal and in double doses to 37 Martonvásár inbred lines and to six parental single crosses. The small-plot experime...nts were set up in two replications. The wet weather that followed the pre- and early post-emergence treatments promoted the appearance of phytotoxic symptoms on maize. The degree of phytotoxicity was recorded on the 14th day after post-emergence treatment and on the 14th and 28th days after the pre- and early postemergence treatments. Herbicides applied pre-emergence only caused slight symptoms on maize. Although the double dose increased the damage, it was still not more than 5% on average. The symptoms caused by herbicides applied in the early post-emergence stage were more intensive than those detected in the pre-emergence treatments. However, the damage caused by the double dose of isoxaflutol + thiencarbazone-methyl and by the split treatment with nicosulfuron remained below 10%. The symptoms became somewhat more severe at the 2nd scoring date. Among the post-emergence treatments the maize genotypes had the least tolerance of the mesotrione + nicosulfuron combination of active ingredients, where the double quantities resulted in 13–14% damage in average.

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91
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Investigation of host-specificity of phytopathogenic fungi isolated from woody plants
Published May 20, 2020
155-160

Host-specificity is an important characteristic of fungal pathogens. Changing climate could create more appropriate environmental conditions for phytopathogens, thus formerly host-specify fungi could be able to colonize new hosts. Noxious plant pathogen fungi, which can infect several plant species are well-known worldwide. These genera may... expand their range of hosts because of the appearance in new geographic areas due to climate change. This new exposure can result in serious problems in agriculture because of the lack of immunity. The susceptibility of apple tree was studied through testing pathogenicity in vitro with species isolated from walnut twigs and nuts, and identified by ITS sequences. Three of four tested species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diaporthe eres and Diplodia seriata colonized and necrotized the infected apple branches, while Juglanconis juglandina was not able to infect the twigs. Members of Botryosphaeriaceae were the most virulent, causing the largest lesions in the fastest way. This experiment draws attention to the threat of new host-pathogen connections, which can arise because of the favourable weather conditions and can spread between neighbouring cultures. 

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Effects of Cropping Year and Artificial Fertilization on Alveographic Quality of GK Öthalom Winter Wheat Variety
Published December 6, 2005
126-133

Qualification of winter wheat became more complex for Hungary, after the expansion of the EU. Use of Chopin alveograph is a general method in Western- and Southern Europe. This method is not traditional in Hungary, so determination of alveographic properties of Hungarian winter wheat varieties is very important. Artificial fertilization is one ...very important component of applied agricultural engineering, which effects winter wheat quality. The another factor is the weather or rather the cropping year, which effects winter wheat quality too. We examined both of them and the alveographic quality of GK Öthalom winter wheat variety between 1996 and 2003.
We found that cropping year has significant effect on the alveographic quality of GK Öthalom winter wheat variety on each treatment of artificial fertilization. We found no connection between quantities of precipitations of vegetation periods and the W values of GK Öthalom.
We found a strong connection in 1999 and 2003 as well as a very strong connection in 1996, 1997 and 2002, between the increase of fertilizer dose and W values of GK Öthalom. Treatments of artificial fertilization had a significant effect to W values of GK Öthalom in 2001 and 2002. The differences between the two methods are because of large standard deviation of the results.

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Nutritive value of Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) during primary growth in 2005
Published December 21, 2009
61-67

In this paper we analysed the change of the chemical composition and nutritive value of Timothy observed during the spring of 2005. The nutritive value of Timothy was observed between the end of April and the beginning of June relating to the following parameters: crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, ash, N-free extract, net-energy growth, ne...t-energy lactation, net-energy maintenance, Metabolizable Protein Energy dependent, Metabolizable Protein N-dependent. We also analysed whether a relationship between the environmental factors that affect the
growing period of grasses and the chemical composition can be detected or not. While testing for correlation, the number of days from 1st January, the amount of heat accumulation, solar radiation and rainfall were considered as independent coefficients.
For the estimation of weather conditions we calculated the climate index. The observed year can be described as a year with a rainfall above the average and abundant solar radiation. A correlation can be detected between the change of parameters of nutritive value and the quality of the current year. In 2005 the result of the analysis of nutritive value was showed a significance difference with respect to each chemical composition at the rate of P<0.001 depending on the time when the samples were taken.
According to the outlined data it can be stated that the change of the value of crude protein and ash show decreasing tendency agreeing the research literature. In parallel with the change of nutritive value, the amount of crude fibre and N-free extract increased. However, the value of Net-Energy maintenance showed an alteration only in the first half of the observed period. The same alteration tendency can be detected in the Net-Energy growth and the Net-Energy lactation. 

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The effect of sowing date and plant density on the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) under different weather conditions
Published June 30, 2018
205-208

Maize has high productivity and produces huge vegetative and generative phytomass, but this crop is very sensitive to agroecological (mainly to climatic, partly to pedological conditions) and agrotechnical circumstances. In Hungary, maize is grown on 1.1–1.2 million hectares, the national average yields vary between 4–7 t ha-1 depending on ...the year and the intensity of production technology. The longterm experiment was set up in 2015–2016 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (eastern Hungary). The maize research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép MÉK (Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management) research area of the University of Debrecen. We examined the following commonly used hybrids of Hungary: SY ARIOSO (FAO 300), P9074 (FAO 310), P9486 (FAO 360), SY Octavius (FAO 400), GK Kenéz (FAO 410), DKC 4943 (FAO 410). The experiment was set up in three different plant densities. These were 60, 76, 90 thousand plant ha-1. The experiment was set up with three different sowing dates, early, average and late sowing. The yield was measured using a special plot harvester (Sampo Rosenlew 2010), measuring the weight of the harvested plot and also taking a sample from it. As a next step, we calculated the yield (t ha-1) of each plot at 14% of moisture content to compare them to each other. We evaluated the obtained data using Microsoft Excel 2015.

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Búzaminták fungicid szermaradvány ellenőrzése és gombafertőzöttségének kimutatása
Published March 27, 2002
45-51

To protect crops with chemicals against different microorganisms are very important because residues of toxins could pollute infected grains. This could have the meaning of serious danger to the human and animal health. Similarly important is knowledge of details about presence or absence of any practically applied protective compounds. Experim...ental studies were performed on fungicide treated cereals of the Cereal Research Non-Profit Company, Szeged. Chromatographic methods were used (GC and some GC-MS) to find low level fungicide residues, microwave-assisted isolation of ergosterol was followed by HPLC to detect possible fungal infections and a more detailed microbiological analysis completed the work. Concerning the dry year 2000, no fungicides were found in the samples (by November), the ergosterol level was found to be less than 8 ppm, meaning good quality, coupled with an extremely low level of fungal infections. This was confirmed by direct microbiological testing. In comparison with the microbiological results from 1999, a negative difference can be recognized, most probably due to the rainy weather throughout the year.

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Describing Fusarium diseases on maize in 2013 using data from several production sites
Published November 2, 2014
60-64

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">As in other parts of the world, the frequency of weather extremes has increased greatly in Hungary in recent years. This means that maize production is faced with greater risks from all aspects: nutrient replacement, irrigation, plant protection. This is especially true of fusarium diseases. In a continental climate, the pathogens causing the most serious problems are species belonging to the Fusarium genus. They infect the ears, which – besides reducing the yield – poses considerable risk to both human and animal health due to the mycotoxins produced by them. Depending on which Fusarium species are dominant at a given location, changes can be expected in the level of infection and in the quality deterioration caused by the mycotoxins they produce. Fusarium spp. not only damages the maize ears but when pathogen attacks the stalk, the plant dies earlier, reducing grain filling and resulting in small, light ears. In addition, the stalks break or lodge, resulting in further yield losses from ears that cannot be harvested. The degree of infection is fundamentally determined by the resistance traits of the maize hybrids, but also a great role in that region Fusarium species composition as well.

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The effects of agrotechnological factors on winter wheat yield in humid cropyear
Published October 5, 2010
162-167

The effects of crop rotation, nutrien supply and crop protection technologies, as well as the appearance of the main ear- and leafdiseases
(powdery mildew, helminthosporium leaf spot, leaf rust, fusarium) were studied on the crop yields of winter wheat variety MV
Pálma during the 2009/2010 crop year. The experiments were conducted in tri...culture (pea – wheat – corn) and biculture (wheat – corn), at
five nutrition levels, with the use of three crop protection technologies (extensive, conventional and intensive) at the Látókép Research Site of
the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. Our results proved that the appearance of leaf- and ear-diseases were
significant in the wheat cultures during the 2009/2010 crop year, because of the rainy, warmer than usual weather, the lodging, and the huge
vegetative mass developed. The most severe infections by the four examined diseases after pea and corn pre-crops were observed at
extensive crop protection levels, when fertilizers were used at the highest dose.
Following corn pre-crop, in the case of all the three crop protection technologies the maximum rate of wheat yield results were achieved
at N150+PK level. The highest yield was reached at intensive crop protection level (6079 kg ha-1). In triculture, in case of all the three crop
protection technologies the maximum yields were achieved at N50+PK level; in extensive technology 5041 kg·ha-1 yield, in conventional
technology 6190 kg ha-1 yield was realised, while in the intensive technological model the yield was 7228 kg ha-1.
The relationship between yield and fertilizer amounts, the rate of pathogen contaminations, crop protection technologies and pre-crops
was defined with correlation analysis in case of different crop rotations during the 2009/2010 crop year. Based on the results of the
experiment, we found that in stands after corn pre-crop strong positive correlation was established between the crop protection level and the
crop yield (0.543), the nutrient levels and the emergence of the four examined pathogens, and between the nutrient levels and the yield
(0.639). Extremly strong positive correlation was observed between crop protection and yield (0.843) in triculture. Strong positive
correlation was detected between the nutrient levels and the presence of the four examined pathogens, as well as between nutrient and
lodging (0.688). Strong negative correlation was between the crop protection level and the four examined diseases both in biculture and
triculture.

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Rheological evaluation of industrial tomato
Published December 15, 2019
137-140

Today, tomato has the second largest harvesting area globally, and the fourth largest in Hungary. The importance of industrial tomato is growing year by year, and one of the most important tasks is to satisfy the needs of the industry. To meet these needs, the producer has to find the proper genotype, which can achieve up to 100 t ha-1...p> crop yield. This quality has high importance to be researched.

The experiment was carried out in the Botanical and Exhibition Garden of the University of Debrecen, with 3 examined genotypes. The planting date was 3 of May 2018. The harvesting was two-threaded. On 27 of July the physical parameters – fruit shape index (length/diameter), firmness (kg cm-2), water-soluble dry matter content (Brix%) and weight of the berries (g) – were evaluated. On 15 of August the rheological parameters were examined – the force needed to tear the skin – bioyield point (g) and flesh firmness (g).

The fruit shape index was oval (between 1.19 and 1.24) for all the examined genotypes. The firmness was between 0.92 (UG1122713 F1) and 1.05(Prestomech F1) kg cm-2, which compliance the needs of the industry. The water-soluble dry matter content was suitable, with a value between 4.49 (Prestomech F1) and 4.65 (UG1122713 F1) Brix%. The weight of the berries was between 45.94 (UG989 F1) and 49.37 (Prestomech F1) g per piece.

The bioyield point was between 76.00 (UG1122713 F1) and 85.16 (UG989 F1) g. The flesh firmness was between 33.68 (UG1122713 F1) and 42.81 (UG989 F1) g.

Finally, we can conclude based on the obtained data that the UG989 F1 hybrid was the most proper for the applied cultivation conditions. This genotype can be recommended for the farmers even in extreme weather conditions.

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Effects of the cropyear and the agronomical factors on agronomical elements of different sweet corn (Zea Mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.) genotypes in long-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012
105-110

In the crop season of 2010 (rainy year), we studied the effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and four different genotypes on the agronomical characteristics of sweet corn on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság. The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Deb...recen. In the experiment, two sowing dates (27 April, 26 May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and four genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise, Prelude, Box-R) were used at two plant densities (45 thousand plants ha-1, 65 thousand plants ha-1). The amount of precipitation in the season of 2010 was 184 mm higher, while the average temperature was 0.8 oC higher in the studied months than the average of 30 years. Weather was more favourable for sweet maize at the first sowing date, if we consider the yields, however, if we evaluate the agronomical data and yield elements (number of cobs, cob length and diameter, the number of kernel rows, the number of kernels per row) it can be stated that the size of the fertile cobs was greater at the second sowing date due to the lower number of cobs. The largest number of fertile cobs was harvested in the case of the hybrid Enterprise (72367.9 ha-1) in the higher plant density treatment (65 thousand ha-1) at the fertilization level of N120+PK when the first sowing date was applied. The largest cobs were harvested from the hybrid Box-R (cob weight with husks: 516.7 g, number of kernels in one row: 45.7) at the lower plant density (45 thousand plants ha-1) in the second sowing date treatment. Cob diameter and the number of kernel rows were the highest for the hybrid Prelude.

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The Effect of Sowing Time and Plant Density on the Yield of MaizeHybrids
Published December 6, 2005
95-104

The crop technology of maize has two important elements, sowing time and plant density. In 2003 and 2004 we studied the effect of these two factors on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény.
The soil of the experimental plots was meadow soil.
Weather in both years was differed greatly. 200...3 was drought. Neither the distribution nor the quantity of the precipitation were suitable in the growing season for maize. This fact basically determined the results.
In 2004, we could talk about a favorable and rainy season. The distribution and quantity of precipitation was suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
Results of the sowing time experiment:
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids in the early maturity group gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids of the long maturity group gave it at the earlier planting time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids was the best at every planting time. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture content of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing time. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time than at the later.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.
Results of the plant density experiment:
We tested the reaction of hybrids at four plant densities (45,000, 60,000, 75,000 and 90,000 stock/ha) every two years. In 2003, the tested seven hybrids reached the highest yield at the 90,000 stock/ha in the face of a droughty year. The effect of forecrop and favorable nutrients caused these results. In the rainy 2004 year, the yield grew linear with the growing plant density. The yield of the best hybrids were 14-15 t/ha at the 90,000 stock/ha.
Such a high plant density (90,000 stock/ha) couldn’t adaptable in farm conditions in rainy season. It is practical to determine the interval of plant density besides the optimum plant density of hybrids which gave correct yield. The farmers have to use the low value of this interval due to the frequent of the droughty years.

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Comparative examination of the tillage systems of maize on meadow chernozem soil
Published July 24, 2014
21-24

Maize production plays a major role in the agriculture of Hungary. Maize yields were very variable in Hungary in the last few decades. Unpredictable purchase prices, periodical overproduction, the increasing occurrence of weather extremities, the uncertain profit producing ability, the soil degradation processes (physical, chemical and biologic...al degradation) and the high expenses are risk factors for producers. Due soil tillage, there is an opportunity to reduce these risks. Based on the experimental database of the Institute of Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and the KITE Plc., various cultivation systems were examined with maize (Zea mays L.) as indicator plant in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok country in 2012 and 2013. The sample area can be found in the outskirts of Kenderes on a meadow chernozem soil. On the examined plot, strip-tillage, subsoiling and moldboard ploughing were performed, each on 4.5 ha, respectively.

In general, our findings show, that strip-tillage and subsoiling can be alternative tillage systems beside moldboard ploughing on meadow chernozem soils in Hungary.

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Genetic progress in winter wheat quality and quantity parameters
Published December 1, 2020
71-75

Wheat production is significant branch of Hungarian crop production (with about 1 million hectares of sowing area). Weather anomalies resulted by climate change have increased the importance of biological basis in wheat production. Yield quality and quantity parameters of three wheat genotypes sown on chernozem soil type after maize pre-cro...p were studied in a long-term field experiment. Yield amount of the studied genotypes varied between 2894 and 8074 kg ha-1 in 2017 and between 5795 and 9547 kg ha-1 in 2018 depending on the applied treatments. Based on our results it can be stated that in both studied crop years the highest yield increment was realized by the application of the nutrient supply level of N30+PK. As the result of the application of the optimum mineral fertilizer level – in contrast to the control – resulted in significant yield increment in both crop years. The results of the long-term field experiment prove that water utilization of the studied wheat varieties / hybrids was improved by the application of the optimal nutrient supply. Furthermore, the water utilization of the latest genotypes was more favorable by both the control and the optimum nutrient supply level treatments. Analyzing the quality parameters of winter wheat using the NIR method it has been stated that the quality results of the well-known genotype (GK Öthalom) were better than those of the new genotypes. A negative correlation between winter wheat quality and quantity parameters has also been confirmed. As the result of the mineral fertilizer application protein and gluten content of winter wheat increased to a significant extent.

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The importance of millet production in regional production, with special emphasis on climate change
Published June 30, 2018
141-146
Regional production is a traditional production structure developed adjusting to the geographical, climatic, biological and soil conditions in given production regions, a certain territorial specification of agricultural production, and a type of farming that best fits the natural conditions and takes the biologic...al needs of plant and animal species into account as fully as possible. The most probable element of risk in plant production is the changeable, extreme weather. That is the reason why the specific characteristics of the place of production and the characteristics of regional production should be considered to a greater extent. The establishment of the range of varieties appropriate for the place of production is the key issue in regional production. One of our historically grown cereal plants that perfectly fits regional production is millet. Due to its short growing season, favourable reproduction ratio and the fact that it is relatively undemanding, it used to be grown in larger quantities in the middle ages. Its good nutritional values made it an important food item, but over time, as a result of industrialisation and technological progress; it has been eclipsed by other cereal crops. In our country it is mainly used to cook porridge, but it is also used in the form of flour and as a base material in the spirit drinks sector. In the recent decades, millet has been applied only in a small area, mostly as a secondary crop in areas that dried out from drainage water in late spring, or as a replacement of extinct sowings due to its late sowing time. Water will be the most significant factor for the future of agriculture, especially considering climate change.
My examinations took place in the area of the Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm of University of Debrecen, in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, in a small-plot experiment with four replications in 2016.
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Changes in the Diaporthe helianthi Infection of Sunflower Hybrids Between 1998 and 2002
Published May 11, 2003
214-233

Plant protection, and especially the efficiency of protection against mycosis, is a very important production technological element concerning sunflower. The efficiency of production can be increased on the basis of a thorough pathological survey and its results carried out in a wide variety of hybrids, as the features of hybrids, the reactions... of genetic bases to pathogens can be found out under domestic conditions.
The tests were carried out at variety-test lots of OMMI for hybrids used for food or oil and other sunflower varieties admitted by the state at the Experimental Site DTTI Látókép, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen between 1998 and 2002. The number of the tested hybrids was 49 in 1998, 45 in 1999, 49 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 44 in 2002.
Due to the infection source of high amounts remained from 1997 and the favourable weather conditions for the pathogens, an infection of high degree was experienced in the tested stands. The lowest infection index in the hybrids with a very short vegetative period was experienced with Beni hybrids. Comparing to the average of the hybridgroup with short vegetative period, a low infection index characterised the Baleno, Trident, IBH-166, Hysun 321, Resia, Alexandra, Cergold and Pixel hybrids. In 1999, among hybrids with medium vegetative period, Zoltán, Zsuzsa and Util hybrids could be highlighted because of their low infection index. In 1998, among confentionary hybrids, Marica-2 hybrid had the most favourable index values (2,55).
During our trials, the experienced infection dynamics were compared in the event of hybrids with higher and lower susceptibility under different sowing technological elements. The results call for the fact that when a hybrid with higher susceptibility is produced, production technological elements, such as the time of sowing, influence considerably the damage caused by the pathogen, therefore it must not be ignored when its determination takes place. In the event of hybrids with lower susceptibility the change of the tested production technological elements within the biological optimum does not lead to the increased risk of the damage caused by Diaporthe helianthi.

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Clay-pit systems fishfaunistic research in the Middle-Tisza
Published April 11, 2007
81-92

After the regulation of the Tisza River the chance of successful fish propagation lessened. Natural spooning places in the river almost completely disappeared. The fish have to find an adequate place for their propagation in the flood plain. The period of spooning usually coincides with flooding of the river. At this time fish try to find the f...looded shallow places for spooning. These parts mostly include the clay-pits beside dams, which were accidentally established during construction of the dams. At this place the fry can find the necessary food. After decreasing the flood the fingerlings and a part of the spooners are trapped inclay-pits as these latter ones are not connected with the river bed. The clay-pits usually desiccate during the summer. The trapped fish population is eaten by water birds or harvested by the local man population. This means a great loss for reproduction of some fishspecies.
Within the framework of the Regional Rehabilitation Program at Nagykörű, supported by the “WWF Hungary” and a “SAPARD project,” these clay-pits became connected with each other in a stretch of 5 km, and they were jointed to the Tisza by a collecting channel. The water level has been regulated by a flood gate so that the water enters the holes during the flood and is released later on in to the water bed.
Data on fish were collected from the Nagykörű Whole System, from the Anyita pond and some isolated wholes in Szandaszöllős in 2004 and 2005. First of all fish fry and fingerling were collected and the success of spooning at these places was examined. Fry was harvested by a 60 x 80 cm sized lifting net of 2x3 mm mesh size. In other cases nets used by anglers for catching prey fishes was also used. Data were also collected from local fishermen who participated in saving the fry and fishing of Anyita pond.
Of the several thousand caught fish specimens 28 species were identified, and among them 5 protected and 5 economically important species was found. Protected fishes were as follow: gudgeon (Gobio gobio), bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus amarus), weather fish (Misgurnus fossilis), spined loach (Cobitis elongatoides) and tubenosed goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus). Among economically important fishessamples of asp (Aspius aspius), carp (Cyprinus carpio), wels (Silurus glanis), pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) were

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Effect of sowing technology on the yield and harvest grain moisture content of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids with different genotypes
Published February 18, 2016
17-22

From the aspect of the efficiency of maize production harvest grain moisture content shall be considered beside the amount of harvested grain yield. Hybrids with different genotypes and vegetation period length lose their moisture content different that is affected by row spacing and plant density – among agrotechnical production factors – ...depending on the given crop year. In the present research work three crop years with different weather conditions were studied (2013, 2014, and 2015). The small-plot field experiment was set up at the Látókép Field Research Centre of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences with four replications on a chernozem soil type. The effect of three factors was analysed in the experiment on yield amount and its moisture content. Factors were row spacing (45 and 76 cm), plant density (50, 70 and 90 thousand plants ha-1), while hybrids were of very early (Sarolta: FAO 290), early (DKC 4014: FAO 320, P 9175: FAO 330, P 9494: FAO 390) and medium (SY Afinity: FAO 470) ripening.

In the crop year of 2013 the highest yield was produced – regarding the average of the hybrids – by the application of a row spacing of 45 cm (4.5%, 673 kg ha-1), however there was no significant difference between the yield of the populations of different row spacings. Significant difference (14.9%, 1751 kg ha-1; 6.3%, 583 kg ha-1) could be found in case of yield between different row spacing applications in 2014 and 2015. The effect of insufficiently distributed low amount of precipitation and lasting heat days in 2015 could be revealed in yield amounts and harvest grain yield moisture content results that were lower than in the previous years. In 2015 grain yield moisture content varied between 10.3 and 13.9% in case of a row spacing of 45 cm, while by 76 cm between 11.0 and 13.9%.

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Nutrient deficiency and effects of various nutrition technologies on crop health
Published December 15, 2019
109-113

The impacts of climate change on crop production are increasingly noticeable. Extreme weather conditions – such as devastating droughts, which occur more often – have serious effects on crop conditions, thus damaging their defence ability against pathogens and pests. Therefore, in order to achieve high-quality and high yielding crops, it is... urgent to elaborate new technologies that improve general condition of crops and prevent development of nutrient diseases. Those crops which suffer from the lack of certain nutrients are more sensitive and their tolerance against diseases are decreased. Nitrogen – as the most influencing macronutrient in yield – is also essential in maintaining crop health. Nevertheless, due to the complicated processes in soil (such as leaching, denitrification), the utilization of nitrogen is not nearly complete, therefore nitrogen stabilizers may be needed to maximize this factor. The use of these stabilizers can be promising where plants with high nitrogen content are grown, although further experiments are needed in which impacts of nitrogen stabilizers on crop protection aspects are examined as well, since there is a close correlation between exaggerated nitrogen fertilizing and sensitivity to pests. During my research I am going to examine the combined effect of foliar fertilizer and nitrogen stabilizer on crop health. Furthermore, my goal is to find clear correlation between pathogens and the different technological variants of nutrition.

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The effect of water supply for yield formation of processing tomato
Published November 13, 2012
165-168

The effect of irrigation on tomato yield depends on the actual weather conditions, basically the air temperature and precipitation (quantity and dispersion). The irrigated plants gave a significantly higher yield, and rainfed plants showed a yield loss. The optimum water supply treatment gave a significantly higher proportion of lycopene than t...he control (rainfed) treatment (89% and 80% respectively) in case of Brixsol F1 variety. In spite of this we have not found significant difference in case of Strombolino F1 (cherry type). Content of total poly-phenols measured in Strombolino F1 (cherry type) was significantly higher than that found in the Brixol F1 (normal type). The optimum water supply treatment resulted in a significantly lower content of total polyphenols in both years. Tomato fruits are rich in polyphenols the largest amount of which is rutin from among the identified components.

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Studies of plant density increase – on maize hybrids of various genotypes on chernozem soil
Published March 11, 2014
87-92

The yield and crop safety of maize are influenced by numerous ecological, biological and agrotechnical factors. It is of special importance to study one of the agrotechnical elements, the plant density of maize hybrids, which is influenced by the growing area conditions and the selected hybrid.

We have investigated the effects of three ...different plant numbers (50 thousand plants ha-1, 70 thousand plants ha-1 and 90 thousand plants ha-1) on the yield of 12 maize hybrids of different genotypes in Hajdúság, on calcareous chernozem soil, in the Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences, in 2013. The experiment was set in four replications, besides commonly applied agrotechnical actions. In the experiment, 1 hybrid of very early (Sarolta), 9 of early (P 9578, DKC 4014, DKC 4025, P 9175, NK Lucius, Reseda, P 37N01, DKC 4490, P 9494) and 2 of medium (Kenéz, SY Afinity) maturation were used.

With the increase of the plant number, the number of individuals per unit area increases. According to our experimental results, we have concluded that with the increase of the plant number, the yield increased in the average of the hybrids. In the average of the hybrids, in the case of 50 thousand plants ha-1, the yield was 13 130 kg ha-1, in the case of 70 thousand plants ha-1, it was 13 824 kg ha-1, while in the case of 90 thousand plants ha-1, the yield became 13 877 kg ha-1.

In addition to plant density increase, it is necessary to determine the optimal plant number that is the most favourable for the certain hybrid under the given conditions. To fulfil this aim, we have determined the optimal plant number corresponding to the maximum yield of the given hybrid, within the given plant number range. The optimal and applied plant numbers differ, since the optimal one could only be applied under ideal conditions. Since the agrotechnical actions cannot always be carried out in appropriate quality and one has to adapt to the weather conditions, thus we have determined a plant number range in the case of each hybrid. The hybrids were classified into categories of producible in narrow and broad plant number range.

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The significance of local meteorological stations in research planning
Published December 1, 2020
87-91

The goal of research planning is to optimize human and material resources while maximizing efficiency. If there are databases that can be used as a substitute for own data collection, effective research can be facilitated by reallocating resources. In the case of environmental studies, the knowledge of the climatic conditions of the study p...eriod is known to be a key factor in research planning process.

 In the present study, the data of our meteorological station in our research area (known as “Szamárháti Tanya”, Kesznyéten, Hungary) was compared with the measurements of meteorological stations operated by the competent water authority. Stations were taken into the study within a 10 and 20 km radius over a period of 21 months, to determine which provided more relevant data from the area.

During the evaluation of results, the relationship between the local and regional weather stations were determined, and deductions were made from the obtained results to support the decision which of the targeted investigations could be of greater benefit. 

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The main influencing factors effecting the yield of maize
Published November 3, 2010
137-141

Maize is one of Hungary’s major cereals. In the 1970s and 1980s, we were in the frontline regarding yields and genetic advancement. However, yield fluctuation in maize has increased to 50-60% from 10-20% since the 1980s, which was partly caused by the increase in weather extremes due to climate change and by agrotechnical shortcomings.
The... experiments were carried out on typical meadow soil in four repetitions in the period of 2007-2008. In the sowing time experiment, sowing was performed on 10 April, 25 April, 15 May under a uniform fertilization of N120, P2O580 K2O 110 kg/ha. In the fertilization experiment, the yielding capacity of 10 hybrids with different genetic characteristics was studied in a control (non-fertilized) treatment and basic treatment of N40 P2O5 25, K2O 30 kg ha-1 active ingredient and a treatment with fivefold dosages of the basic treatment. In the plant density experiment, the relationship between plant density and yield was analysed at plant densities of 45, 60 and 75 thousand plants per ha. We found a tight correlation between sowing time and yield and grain moisture content at harvest. We found that grain moisture can be reduced by 5-10% by applying an earlier sowing time.
The agroecological optimum fertilizer dosage was N 40-120, P2O5 25-75, K2O 30-90 kg ha-1 active ingredient at a plant density of 60-90 thousand plants ha-1 depending on the hybrid and the year.

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