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  • Screening of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties resistant to NaCl salt stress
    105-110
    Views:
    123

    Salinity stress is one of the environmental factors that negatively affect the growth and production of pepper plants. The 100 seeds' weight was measured. The total fresh weight of five seedlings and the growth rate of one seedling of three paprika varieties were also measured under the influence of NaCl at a salinity level threshold of (3 dS m‑1). The proportion of tissue water content in three pepper cultivars was measured according to a mathematical formula at the end of the experiment. In terms of seed weight, the (Carma) cultivar outperformed other types greatly. Except for the superiority of both (Carma, and Bobita F1) over (Fokusz) variety in total fresh seedlings weight under sodium chloride as abiotic stress, there are no significant differences in the total seedlings' dry weight and the rate of seedling growth. The non-drought-resistant type (Bobita F1) loses water the fastest, at 89.61%, compared to drought-tolerant kinds, which lose water at a slower rate (Carma, and Fokusz). The results demonstrate the (Carma) variety's numerical vigor, particularly in the growth rate. More testing is needed to determine the selection of varieties that are resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  • The effects of water supply on the physiological traits and yield of tomato
    25-30
    Views:
    149

    The SPAD value, the chlorophyll fluorescence and the canopy temperature of the leaves and fruits of tomato hybrid “H1015” were investigated under non-irrigated (I0), deficit irrigated (I50) and well-irrigated (I100) conditions. The aim of the experiments was to show which treatment effect on the examined traits affected photosynthesis, leaf temperature and yield quantity, as well as quality under water scarcity. In the control treatment (I0), the canopy temperature increased, but the SPAD decreased compared to the other two treatments (I50 and I100). Chlorophyll fluorescence produced a fluctuating result. In the end, the number of the fruits was high, but the number of the sick and green berries was increased.

  • Evaluation of nutrient conditions in open hydroponic system based on tomato production
    116-119
    Views:
    70

    Monoculture caused a gradual decline of soil conditions, while nematodes and salt accumulation stimulated the growers to choose alternative practices, such as soilless cultures, which proved their value in Western Europe. Exact statistics are lacking, but estimates deal with approximately 300-400 hectares of vegetable on rock wool, whereas other substrates of soilless culture may multiply this number. Real perspectives are attributed to the forced production of pepper, tomato and cucumber.
    Vegetable production in greenhouses may impair the ecological balance of the environment substantially as far as being uncontrolled. Soilless cultures especially should be handled thoughtfully. A fraction of the nutrients administered, more than 25-30%, is doomed to be lost in an open system, and the resulting ecological risk is accompanied with increasing costs of the production.
    In Hungary, the quantity of nutrient elements in drainage water is unknown, et all. Connecting the production results with chemical analysis, we gain more information about it.
    You can see a mathematical method for evaluation of nutrient and water conditions in tomato hydroponics production.

  • Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils
    62-74
    Views:
    87

    Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
    The main soil functions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
    Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
    Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
    – soil degradation processes;
    – extreme moisture regime;
    – nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
    – environmental pollution.
    Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
    The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
    The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
    • registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
    • evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
    • assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
    • elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
    Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
    Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
    The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

  • Land use, water management
    81-87
    Views:
    205

    Due to the prognosed population increase to 9.2 billion people by 2050, the world’s crop production does not have any other chance than to increase production. This demand is a huge challenge for agriculture. Based on the forecasts, the growth rate of production of the main cereals will decrease as a result of the effect of soil, water, the increasing fuel and fertiliser prices and the impacts of climate change. Methods ensuring sustainability have to be preferred. Precision agriculture is the most effective method of crop production. We have to apply minimum cultivation in order to protect the soil surface, maintain its moisture content and increase its water reception ability. In addition to the localised use of fertiliser, sowing seed, irrigation and pesticides, it is also important to apply them in a targeted way on the basis of plot imaging. The use of the new technology results in significant cost saving and it could also reduce environmental load.

  • Climatic water balance in Hamelmalo, Eritrea
    69-76
    Views:
    159

    Agricultural production is an important sector for peoples to live, but it is highly affected by climate change. To have a good production we need to understand the climatic parameters which adversely affect production. Hamelmalo, which is located in the semi-arid area of Eritrea, is vulnerable to climate change and this is realised in the total production loss. Nevertheless, there is no concrete reference about the climate of the region due to lack of data for a long time. Changes in precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET) and, implicitly, in the climatic water balance (CWB), are imminent effects of climate change. However, changes in the CWB, as a response to changes in P and ET, have not yet been analysed thoroughly enough in many parts of the world, including Eritrea. This study also explores the changes of the CWB in the Hamelmalo region, based on a wide range of climatic data (P, relative air humidity and evaporation pan necessary for computing potential evapotranspiration (PET) with the pan evaporation method) recorded at Hamelmalo from 2015-2019. This analysis shows that the annual cumulative CWB for Hamelmalo is negative in 67% of the years. The dry season without precipitation leads to negative CWB and the change in CWB only starts from the raining or crop season. Based on this recent study, 2015 had the highest PET and lowest P, and this resulted in the lowest CWB in the investigated period. Opposite to this, 2019 had lower PET and highest P, which led to the highest CWB. However, the monthly values of CWB did not correlate with the annual P or ET. On the base of our study, it can be concluded that PET and P were very variable in the investigated years and P was the most influential elements of CWB.

  • Measuring of nitrogen leaching using ceramic suction cups at different locations
    10-17
    Views:
    71

    Ceramic suction cups were used for the measurement of N-concentration in soil solutions under different soil and climate conditions in both field experiments of Rostock University and Agricultural University of Debrecen (Hungary). Depending on the soil utilisation the change in the N concentration of the soil solution can be proved on both sites.
    The experimental field of Rostock University can be characterised by its high groundwater table. The nitrogen concentration of soil solutions in the different soil layers were determined by the trend downward of water. In the dactylis (Dactilis glomerata) experiment, the quadruple treatments involved the following: with and without N-fertiliser, with and without harvesting, respectively. In the lower soil layers, the least rising N concentrations were established in case of the treatment without N-fertiliser combined with harvesting. The nitrogen leaching calculated from the infiltrated water quantity and the nitrate N concentration increased in the following order: without N-fertiliser, with harvesting < without N-fertiliser, without harvesting < with N-fertiliser, with harvesting << with N-fertiliser, without harvesting.
    The field experiment site of Debrecen can be characterised by a low groundwater table. The effect of N-fertilisation on the nitrate-N concentration of soil solution in the soil layers can be stated unanimously. Permanent nitrate-N leaching cannot be established due to the water upward movement under semiarid climate conditions. Intermittently transfer of nitrate-N between the soil layers is probable in cases of remarkable precipitation.

  • Alternatives of microclimate control in orchards
    209-212
    Views:
    119

    The aim of the study was to find out which of the methods used to avoid damages of late frosts would be the most effective for the fruit growing practice. We tested the antifrost irrigation method in Debrecen-Pallag. For that purpose microjet sprayers are used, which are thrifty and does not need for that purpose large containers. With the aim to secure an even distribution of water, the sprayers are distributed on three levels: above and inside of the crown as well as on the level of trunks. On a large scale, a single microjet above the crown level would be sufficient. By means of a detailed analysis  served to set the optimum intervals between spraying phases: with each 15, 10, 5 and 3 minutes during half a minute. The synchronous presence of water and ice below the freezing point, the released freezing heat plus the water used much above the freezing point
    (9–10 °C) altogether maintains the temperature above around 0 °C near the flowers or growing fruitlets, meanwhile, the surrounding air cools down to -8 °C. The effectiveness of the generally used antifrost would be increased substantially by the former application of cooling irrigation, which delays the blooming date. 

  • The Effect of Changes in Forest Area on the Transcarpathian Tisza River Basin
    181-185
    Views:
    66

    Forests are unique global factors which ensure life for almost every living being on Earth. They play a major role in controlling water flows, preventing erosion and controlling the oxygen content of Earth’s atmosphere. By the end of the XXth century, it was realized that forests help to nature maintain and are vital parts of our natural environment. By the time societies realized this fact, economic and environmental effects had amplified which endanger forests. Due to their good water control and water protection abilities, and their function in climate control, mountain forests can provide a suitable environment for themselves, for their successful growth.
    Forests play a major role in soil protection, especially in mountain areas where they prevent soil erosion. By converting surface waters into subsurface waters, forests help with the accumulation of subsurface waters, which are the sources of springs, rivers and streams. In the summer, they protect the soil from drying out by creating a special microclimate. They positively affect the climate of surrounding territories.

  • The character of the Bódva by the composition of the fishassociations
    37-44
    Views:
    77

    The Bódva is one of our rivers that flow outside the Hungarian borders and arrive to the country across the frontier.The Bódva is approximately 110 kilometres long, its upper course is mountaneous- like in its springfield in Slovakia and it reaches the Sajó by flowing among the lower hilly region. The river wall is ravine-like in more places, the river itself is devious, and the water basin is rather variable as in the underlay muddy segments and heavily shingly beds can also be found.
    By its fish fauna and physico-chemical characteristics, the Bódva is such aliving water that-after Borne and others (Nowicki, Thienemann) river zone system- can be regarded as an almost uniform typical Barbel zone.
    According to our research program (2001-2005) and literature resources we estimated the fish fauna of the Bódva on both the Slovakian and Hungarian course. From some four decades to the wide ecofaunistic examinations of the near past we surveyed the quondam and present fish species of the Bódva River. According to our survey some 40 species compose the recent fish fauna of this river.
    In the fish fauna of the Bódva those fish species that presently own a tight ecospectrum, sensitive to the changes of the environment thus so called indicator species, can also be found just like the less sensitive, invasive, aggressively reproducing species. By examining the changes in the fishfauna, the complex of those biogen and abiogen processes that affect the river can be indicated well. It can be stated that the fishfauna of the Bódva is rather rich with a countrywide measure also, and maintain a lot of rare, regressive protected and worth while protection species.
    In the last period of the construction, the racial and quantitive composition of the fishfauna of the upper course of the Bódva has changed significantly. Certain species (in the Hungarian course) has vanished almost totally or at least their number declined not ably. Among the vanishing species there are not only a few substantial, protected species of the fauna (e.g. Barbus pelononnesius petényi, Leucaspius delineatus, Zingel sterber, Barbatula barbatula), but the number of the once mass species also decreased appreciably (e.g. Rhodeus sericeus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Cobitis elongatoides). With the above mentioned changes the number of other animals also decreased in the course that we examined (e.g. mussels, crabs). We examine the cause of these changes in the pollution of the river and according to that in the decrease of the food source and the negative changes of the physico-chemical parameters of the water.

  • Long-term experiments on chernozem soil in the University of Debrecen
    357-369
    Views:
    203

    The impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fertilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production.

    Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.

  • Comparison of the technological background of aquaponic systems
    47-52
    Views:
    280

    Aquaponics is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculating aquaculture systems, an ecologically sustainable horticultural production technique with long traditions.

    The objective of this study is to compare flood-and- drain, and the water crossflow system and examine the differences in the water quality, fish yield and plant growth parameters for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). During the study, water quality parameters of two treatments were compared in temperatures, pH, EC and NON were significantly different (p <0.05). Leaf area of the basil plants grew to an average of 20.37 cm2 (± 9.02 cm2). The plants’ biomass production was significantly different (p< 0.05) in the two systems. The biomass production showed lower yield, 458.22 g (± 214.59 g) in the constant flow system that in the flood- and- drain system 692.9 g (± 175.82 g). Fish Growth parameters were better in constant flow system (FCR 5.48 g/g ± 0.19). However, the specific growth rate (SGR) demonstrated that fish grew faster in flood- and- drain system 1.38 %/day (± 0.29).

  • Failure mode and effect analysis of water supply systems
    255-261
    Views:
    74

    The present paper intends to overview the problems of the failure mode and effect analysis of water supply systems. The author’s efforts were
    channeled to systemizing, classifying and adapting the content to the hydraulics engineering field.

  • Interaction of yield stability and year in major agricultural crops
    41-46
    Views:
    85

    The effect of hydro-meteorological extremities on plant cultivation is the result of the correlation of many factors. These may increase or decrease the effects of hydro-meteorological extremes. The degree of this variance depends on the professionality of treatments, on the quality of the applied technique and technology and also on the soil’s water management characteristics.
    The water management characteristics of Hungary’s arable land are mainly unfavorable or medium. In the past two decades the conditions of originally good soils, from a water management aspect, have significantly deteriorated in the critical 0-60 cm soil layer. This is mainly due to unprofessional land use, a lack of deepening cultivation and neglected organic cultivation. At the same time, hydro-meteorological extremities occur more frequently and the sensibility of plant cultivation has increased.
    The sensibility of plant cultivation is type and location specific, yet, it also effects both the quality and quantity of the result.
    The stability analysis, which covered the period of four decades and incorporated 6-7 agro-ecological areas proves and highlights the following:
    • Winter wheat only reacted to extensive cultivation and unfavorable environmental conditions to a small degree. On the other hand, the effect of hydro-meteorological extremities increases.
    • The stability analysis of maize, which is sensitive to cultivation technology and the location of cultivation, proved just the opposite. Good soil and adequate technology significantly reduces the effect of any particular year.
    • From the years examined, the most favorable proved to be the one with average precipitation. Maize reacted to both extremities in a similar way. Winter wheat reacted to more precipitation with less yield.
    • The yield quality of winter wheat was negatively effected by drought. The negative effect of precipitation is limited to the period of ripening and harvest, so the likelihood of such an effect is not significant.
    • The yield of sunflower – due to pests – significantly reduces in years with high precipitation, while a difference between dry and average years cannot be pinpointed out. The oil content in both dry years and in years with high precipitation is evident, compared to years with average precipitation.
    • The root yield of sugar beet is reduced by drought while the sugar content depends on soil characteristics and climatic extremities. A difference could also be noted by location, whether in Western Hungary and on the Great Plain. Great sugar content can be achieved in years with high precipitation in Western Hungary, while the same result occurred with average precipitation on the Great Plain. Drought did not have a positive effect on sugar content in either location.

  • Mitigation of the effect of secondary salinization by micro soil conditioning
    115-119
    Views:
    187

    This research has the general goal to meet the customization of agriculture in small scale farming. We are developing a technique using micro doses of soil conditioners and organic material applied in the root zone of vegetable crops. We expected to change the physical and chemical properties of the affected soil, which has been irrigated with salty water. Two different soil conditioners were tested. A lysimeter experiment including 8 simple drainage lysimeters was set up in the Research Institute of Karcag IAREF University of Debrecen in 2017. The main goal was to study the effect of different soil conditioners on the soil endangered by secondary salinization induced by irrigation with saline water. In order to compare the difference between the treatments, we collected soil samples, water samples, and determined the yields. Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) was used as an indicator crop during one specific agricultural season. The technique called micro soil conditioning is rational because several reasons. The roles of the technique are various, for example it can serve as a source of carbon or a container for soil amendments and can minimize evaporation. We found this technique not to interfere with the chemical reaction or the interaction with the plants. However, the micro doses of soil amendments had the role to minimize the risk of soil degradation and do not significantly influence soil respiration. In addition, by improving soil properties, soil conditioning increases the leaching of the excess of salts from the root zone. In fact, this technique can decrease the cost of the inputs and improves the production of vegetables, and at the same time mitigates the effect of secondary salinization.

  • Practical experiences of a designing and operating a pilot aquaponic system
    27-32
    Views:
    240

    Aquaponics is the combination of fish farming (aquaculture) and the soilless cultivation of plants (hydroponics). The aquaponics system is an artificial, recirculating ecosystem, in which bacterial processes convert the waste materials in the water used for fish rearing into plant nutrients, and therefore with the generated heat it is suitable for culturing economically valuable plants, and thus it mitigates the nutrient laden and quantity of the intensive fish producing systems’ effluent water.

    The primary goal of our 12 separate unit’s aquaponics system was to gain experience. We would like to find the right plant species, which are fit for that medium, and their crop can be sold. Besides the plants, our attention focused on the fish. Two fish species were included in the experiments, the common carp and barramundi. It was difficult to create them a perfect living space, besides a constantly changing conditions temperature. Apart the above mentioned we had a problem with the number of individuals per tank, the deformity of the fish body and the too high volume of pH (we registered continuous values above 8.4). We get by carps 4.7 grams of weight gain during 15 weeks, because of the bad conditions.

    The main problems at the plants are caused by aphesis and protection against sunburn. Even so we have got the multiples of field yields for each plant species. At salad has grown twice of field yields, tomatoes one and half, kohlrabi than 3.5 times more. The causes of multiple yields are the continuous balanced water and the nutrient uptake of plants. Each plant species fit for cultivating in aquaponics and their crops are delicious, chemical -free, safe and marketable. The plants should be more concentrated. After the experiment, it has been determinated that the carp is suitable for aquaponics, but greater weight gain could be achieved with optimal selection of size of rearing units.

  • Findings on the cultivation of potatoes in organic farming
    113-116
    Views:
    86

    This paper explores the effectiveness of organic and plastic mulching for potato production in the Czech Republic. The mulching with chopped grass (GM) and black textile mulch (BTM) were compared to non-mulching control variant (C) with mechanical cultivation. Especially in plots with BTM were first formed ridges and covered by the black polypropylene non-woven textile and then they were planting. During vegetation the infestation of Colorado potato beetle (CPB), weeds biomass, course of soil temperature and soil water potential were assessed. The results showed that surface of GM had a positive effect on soil temperature reduction, soil water potential depression. This study also indicated a positive effect of GM on the larvae of CPB diminution, on the other hand higher incidence of larvae and higher defoliation was observed in BTM. GM had a significant effect on the yield of potatoes. The yield of ware potatoes was higher by 27 % higher on plots with GM and by 16 % lower on plots wit BTM in comparison with C. NeemAzal T/S decreased statistically significantly % of defoliation and increased yield of ware potatoes by 35 % in comparison with control.

  • The effect of water supply for yield formation of processing tomato
    165-168
    Views:
    104

    The effect of irrigation on tomato yield depends on the actual weather conditions, basically the air temperature and precipitation (quantity and dispersion). The irrigated plants gave a significantly higher yield, and rainfed plants showed a yield loss. The optimum water supply treatment gave a significantly higher proportion of lycopene than the control (rainfed) treatment (89% and 80% respectively) in case of Brixsol F1 variety. In spite of this we have not found significant difference in case of Strombolino F1 (cherry type). Content of total poly-phenols measured in Strombolino F1 (cherry type) was significantly higher than that found in the Brixol F1 (normal type). The optimum water supply treatment resulted in a significantly lower content of total polyphenols in both years. Tomato fruits are rich in polyphenols the largest amount of which is rutin from among the identified components.

  • Application of hydrological models for agri-environmental management based on international and national experiences
    45-50
    Views:
    115

    The ecological restoration of surface water flows requires the use of complex GIS and hydrological models. The HEC -RAS and MIKE11 programs calculate the hydraulic characteristics of runoff using the geometry and bed resistance the of flows. The presentation of some possible applications made through an example of the Berettyó, which is an extremely regulated river. The river belongs to the meandering category by Parker's classification system, which uses the relationship of the slope-Froude number and the depth- width ratio. Three coefficient of the four determining factor (entrenchment ratio, slope of water level, width-depth ratio) also indicates a mediocre to high sinuosity, while the river regulations established nearly straight bed-line. The standard water flow rates and characteristics have been determined based on the modeled Froude and Reynolds numbers. The flow conditions shifted to the laminar type by the changed line drawing which is ecologically lower status. Based on the results the morphological and ecohydrological river rehabilitation is appropriate.

  • Micropropagation of Rudbeckia hirta L. from seedling explants
    53-59
    Views:
    83

    We conducted experiments for developing an in vitro micropropagation protocol starting from meristems of Rudbeckia hirta L seedlings. We pre-soaked the seeds in sterile ion-exchanged water for 17 hours, and then achieved surface disinfection in two separate steps. First, we used concentrated household sodium-hypochloride solution for 20 minutes and, also for 20 minutes, we applied hydrogen peroxide of 10%, which was followed by washing with sterile ion-exchanged water three times. For the propagation of seedling meristems, the combination of half-strength solid Murashige and Skoog (1962) culture medium containing 10 mg/l of kinetin and 2 mg/l of kinetin + 0.1 mg/l of 2iP proved to be the most suitable. The average number of shoot-buds developed from the seedling axillary meristem in the best culture media varied between 5 and 17. Without separating them, we inoculated the shoot-bud clusters on MS culture medium containing 2 mg/l of IAA. After four weeks of incubation, we obtained elongated shoots, which we separated and inoculated into a new culture medium and from which we obtained elongated roots. The rooted plants were gradually acclimatised in the cultivation room, potted and carried to a greenhouse, and then planted in open field for subsequent observation. By adopting this method, our laboratory started the micropropagation of the superior and/or elite genotypes of the Rudbeckia hirta L. being of special value in respectt to breeding.

  • Effect of anthocyanin-rich Hungarian tart cherry extract on blood antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice
    335-341
    Views:
    189

    In this study male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were used to determine the possible effects of our Hungarian tart cherry extract in a chronic obesity mouse model on antioxidant capacity.

    The control group received standard mouse chow, the high fat control group was switched to high fat diet and tap water supplemented with 5% sucrose. The high fat+anthocyanin group received the high fat and sucrose diet, but dissolved in the drinking water they received anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract. After six weeks, the antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were measured. Antioxidant capacity was decreased with a significant elevation of SOD activity. The tart cherry extract made a significant enhancement in antioxidant capacity and SOD activity. Our results show that chronic anthocyanin intake has a potential to enhance redox status associated with obesity.

  • Investigation of the Quality of Winter Wheat in a Sulphur Fertilisation Experiment, 2001/2002
    153-156
    Views:
    104

    We have started a small parcell and a factorial S fertilization experiment with winter wheat in the 2001/2002 cropping year to examine its effect on yield and quality. The scene of experiment was the Latokep Experimental Station of the DE ATC (calcareous chernozeem) in case of small parcell examination and the Agricultural Company of Felsőzsolca (brown forest soil) in case od factorial examination.
    The protein and gluten content of the grain was investigated with PerCon Inframatic 9001 NIR Analyser, then we have measured these parameters with PerCon 8620 infra appliance. After the milling we measured the following parameters: glutenindex, farinographic parameters (farinographic index, water absorption capacity, dough development time, stability, softening, extension) and valorigraphic index.
    Based on the results there’s no justified relation between the fertilization and the protein and gluten content. The valorigraphic index of the samples taken from Felsőzsolca factory characteristically increased as a result of the S-fertilization. In the small-parcell experiment the values of the water absorption capacity, the dough development time and the softening parameters from the valorigrphic parameters depended significantly from the mineral treatments. Signifikant quality improvement wasn’t experieced.
    There was sampling in all of critical phenophase (…). The green plant samples were examined on element content with ICP-OES. These measurements are currently in progress.

  • The effect of sunburn damage on the fruit quality parameters of apple (Malus domestica cv. Idared)
    55-64
    Views:
    99

    In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sunburn injury on fruit quality parameters (cover colour, depth of tissue damage, fruit flesh firmness, dry matter content) of apple.
    The symptoms of sunburn injury appeared as concentric rings, differing in colour from each other and the cover colour. This can be connected with the ratio of the injury. The authors observed the following colours on the fruit surface (from the epicentre of spots on the surface of the fruit) dark brown (strongly damaged), light brown (moderately damaged), pale red transition (weakly damaged), red surface cover colour (not damaged).
    Sunburn of apple fruits is a surface injury caused by solar radiation, heat and low relative humidity. In the initial phase, a light corky layer, golden or bronze discolouration and injuries of the epidermal tissue appear on the surface exposed to radiation. Thus, it detracts from the fruit’s appearance, but in most of the cases it would not cause serious damages in the epidermal tissue. The depth of tissue damage is not considerable, its values are between 1.5-2.0 mm in general. It is commonly known, that tissue structure of the apple fruit is not homogeneous. Accordingly, the degree of injury shows some differences under the different parts of the fruit surface.
    On the basis of the flesh firmness studies, it can be stated that the flesh firmness of the damaged parts increases due to the sunburn effect. This is due to the fact that the damaged plant cells die, the water content of the tissue decreases and it hardens. However, due to this reduction in the water content the dry matter content will increase.

  • Preliminary results of intraspecific sterlet hybrid (Siberian sterlet × sterlet) rearing under intensive conditions
    17-19
    Views:
    116

    Due to early maturation and a small size, sterlet (Acipenserrut-henus) is a very advantageous fish for intensive sturgeon farming with regard to caviar production. According to our previous observations, the growth potential of Siberian sterlet (A.ruthenusmarsiglii) is higher than that of the European one. In our experiment, sterlet and an intraspecific hybrid (Siberian sterlet × sterlet) were tested under intensive tank conditions. During the 8 weeks of the experiment, survival, growth and size heterogeneity were investigated. According to the results, there were no significant differences in survival and growth but the size heterogeneity was higher in the hybrid. It is supposed that, in our trial, the applied water  temperature range (24.0–25.5 °C) was optimal for sterlet, but was probably above the optimal range for the hybrid.

  • Examination of the element content of beers
    117-121
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    123

    Beer is a complex mixture of more than 800 several components, the most important ones are the minerals from this. Minerals originate especially from water and malt. In this work we measured the mineral contents of some own-brewed beer samples. We compared the results with the mineral contents of the water used as raw material of beer.