Examination of nutrient leaching dynamics of Solidago virgaurea in Hévíz Lake and Hévíz canal

The different nitrogen and phosphorus elements are prime constituents of the ecosystem and can exert a major effect on aquatic species and the overall ecological cycle. During our investigation we examined the nutrient leaching dynamics in decomposing leaf litter (stem and leaf blades) of Solidago virgaurea. We chose four different sampling sites during the winter period with different water temperatures in the Hévíz Lake and Hévíz canal. The bottles containing the plant material and water were incubated at natural temperatures and the fluid was removed at particular times. Water parameters such as pH level, conductivity, nutrients (ammonium and phosphates) were measured. In the case of Solidago leaf, we obtained higher values ​​for all parameters compared to the stem ones.

Heterobeltiosis and combining ability among Egyptian cotton genotypes under well irrigated and water deficit conditions

Two field experiments were carried out during the 2014 and 2015 seasons to evaluate certain genotypes of Egyptian cotton under well irrigated and water stress conditions. The cross combination Giza 69 x Australy recorded the best values for better parent heterosis for all physiological measurements and earliness index under well irrigated and deficit conditions. Of the female parents, Giza 86 was found to be a good general combiner for most yield characters under both normal and stress conditions, followed by Giza 94. Data illustrated that Giza 45 was the best general combiner for most fiber quality traits under both conditions. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Dandra and Giza 69 x Pima S6 showed significant positive SCA values for seed cotton and lint yield/plant under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. However, the combinations Giza 77 x PimaS6 and Giza 94 x 10229 recorded significant positive SCA effects for seed cotton yield/plant under stress. Whilst, the cross Giza 68 x 10229 recorded significant desirable SCA effects for most fiber quality properties. In this context, the estimates significant positive general and specific combining ability effects indicated that the epistasis and/or dominance effects for F1 hybrid in cotton could be important to a certain extent.

Investigation of the decomposition and leaching dynamics of Salix, Populus and mixed leaves in the area of Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland

In lakes and wetlands, leaf litter input from the coastal vegetation represents a major nutrient load and plays a basic structural and functional role in several ecosystems. In Hungary, at the banks of lakes and wetlands, Salix and Populus trees are the most common species. In an experiment in Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland between 16 November 2017 to and 3 June 2018, the decomposition rates and leaching dynamics of Salix, Populus and mixed leaves (50% Salix and 50% Populus) were investigated. Total nitrogen and phosphorus content of biomass samples were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment for the leaching dynamics experiment. We found that litter mass losses (Salix, Populus and mixed leaves) were not significantly different between the two mesh size litterbags and between Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland. Different amounts of the total nitrogen and phosphorus leaching from Salix, Populus and mixed leaves were detected. The total nitrogen contents of the plant samples were around 8-18% at the end of the investigated period. Slightly higher values were measured compared to phosphorous (27-29%).

Sequence heterogeneity of nSSR and cpDNA loci of Cucurbits (Citrullus sp.)

The evolution of water melon (Citrullus lanatus) microsatellites from the 15th century (Debrecen); 13th (Buda); and 18th century, (Pannonhalma) were analyzed. Microsatellite (nSSR, nuclear simple sequence repeat) and cpDNA profiles of the aDNA (ancient DNA) of seed remains were compared to modern water melon cultivars and landraces. Sixteen primer pairs were applied. Sequence analysis at the (CT)26 and cpDNA trnV loci revealed a (CT)3 and Adenin deletions, respectively, form the current water melon cultivar compared to the medieval sample. Cila-1), a new LTR retrotansposon has been described. For morphological reconstruction, a dendrogram produced by SPSS11 based on the presence versus absence of 24 phenotypic characters were also analyzed.

Energy crops on less favoured (alkaline) soil

The reduction in fossil energy and row material sources induces growing demand for renewable resources. The growing demand for herbal raw materials has land use impacts as well. One way to reduce the conflict between the food and energy crops can be the utilization of less favored areas by growing energy crops. Among the potentially available areas for this purpose the salt affected soils (SAS) occupy a significant territories. SAS with structural B-horizon (meadow solonetz soils) represent the most wide spread group of SAS in Hungary. About half of these soils have been reclaimed and used as arable land and the remaining 50% are used as grassland. Sweet sorghum production for manufacturing of alcohol production was investigated in a long term amelioration and fertilization experiment on a salt affected soil (meadow solonetz). By means of regression analyzes the effect of sodium content of the soil and increasing mineral fertilizer doses were studied. According to the multiple regression analysis only the effect of nitrogen fertilizer was significant. On the solonetz type salt affected soil the effect of water soluble salt content of the soil was not significant, but there was a closer correlation between the ammonium-lactate sodium content and the yield of sweet sorghum. The maximum green mass was 45–50 t ha-1, in the case of low Na content and high level of nitrogen fertilization.

In order to quantify the potential yield of natural grass vegetation the relationship between the soil forming processes and the grass vegetation
was investigated. Beyond the different forms of Na-accumulation, the spatial pattern (mosaic-like characteristic) is also an inseparable feature of salt affected soils. The difference in the water regime, caused by the micro-relief is the main cause of variability. The run-on water keeps the deeper parts of the catena position wet longer. The wet situation causes more intensive leaching. In the low-laying parts of salt affected soils species preferring wet situations (mainly Alopecurus pratensis) are in majority. On the higher parts of the micro-relief species tolerating dry situations (mainly Festuca  pseudovina) are dominant. The yearly grass production of low laying areas can be 4–7 t ha-1 but because of prolonged wet  conditions the grass is not grazed and mowing can only be in old state. This old grass is not proper for feeding, but it may be suitable as energy plant. 

Failure causes and effect analysis of water supply systems

The present paper intends to overview the problems of the failure causes and effect analysis of water supply systems. The author’s efforts were channeled to systemizing, classifying and adapting the content to the hydraulics engineering field. 

Screening of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties resistant to NaCl salt stress

Salinity stress is one of the environmental factors that negatively affect the growth and production of pepper plants. The 100 seeds' weight was measured. The total fresh weight of five seedlings and the growth rate of one seedling of three paprika varieties were also measured under the influence of NaCl at a salinity level threshold of (3 dS m‑1). The proportion of tissue water content in three pepper cultivars was measured according to a mathematical formula at the end of the experiment. In terms of seed weight, the (Carma) cultivar outperformed other types greatly. Except for the superiority of both (Carma, and Bobita F1) over (Fokusz) variety in total fresh seedlings weight under sodium chloride as abiotic stress, there are no significant differences in the total seedlings' dry weight and the rate of seedling growth. The non-drought-resistant type (Bobita F1) loses water the fastest, at 89.61%, compared to drought-tolerant kinds, which lose water at a slower rate (Carma, and Fokusz). The results demonstrate the (Carma) variety's numerical vigor, particularly in the growth rate. More testing is needed to determine the selection of varieties that are resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses.

The effects of water supply on the physiological traits and yield of tomato

The SPAD value, the chlorophyll fluorescence and the canopy temperature of the leaves and fruits of tomato hybrid “H1015” were investigated under non-irrigated (I0), deficit irrigated (I50) and well-irrigated (I100) conditions. The aim of the experiments was to show which treatment effect on the examined traits affected photosynthesis, leaf temperature and yield quantity, as well as quality under water scarcity. In the control treatment (I0), the canopy temperature increased, but the SPAD decreased compared to the other two treatments (I50 and I100). Chlorophyll fluorescence produced a fluctuating result. In the end, the number of the fruits was high, but the number of the sick and green berries was increased.

Evaluation of nutrient conditions in open hydroponic system based on tomato production

Monoculture caused a gradual decline of soil conditions, while nematodes and salt accumulation stimulated the growers to choose alternative practices, such as soilless cultures, which proved their value in Western Europe. Exact statistics are lacking, but estimates deal with approximately 300-400 hectares of vegetable on rock wool, whereas other substrates of soilless culture may multiply this number. Real perspectives are attributed to the forced production of pepper, tomato and cucumber.
Vegetable production in greenhouses may impair the ecological balance of the environment substantially as far as being uncontrolled. Soilless cultures especially should be handled thoughtfully. A fraction of the nutrients administered, more than 25-30%, is doomed to be lost in an open system, and the resulting ecological risk is accompanied with increasing costs of the production.
In Hungary, the quantity of nutrient elements in drainage water is unknown, et all. Connecting the production results with chemical analysis, we gain more information about it.
You can see a mathematical method for evaluation of nutrient and water conditions in tomato hydroponics production.

Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils

Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
The main soil functions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
– soil degradation processes;
– extreme moisture regime;
– nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
– environmental pollution.
Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
• registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
• evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
• assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
• elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

Land use, water management

Due to the prognosed population increase to 9.2 billion people by 2050, the world’s crop production does not have any other chance than to increase production. This demand is a huge challenge for agriculture. Based on the forecasts, the growth rate of production of the main cereals will decrease as a result of the effect of soil, water, the increasing fuel and fertiliser prices and the impacts of climate change. Methods ensuring sustainability have to be preferred. Precision agriculture is the most effective method of crop production. We have to apply minimum cultivation in order to protect the soil surface, maintain its moisture content and increase its water reception ability. In addition to the localised use of fertiliser, sowing seed, irrigation and pesticides, it is also important to apply them in a targeted way on the basis of plot imaging. The use of the new technology results in significant cost saving and it could also reduce environmental load.

Measuring of nitrogen leaching using ceramic suction cups at different locations

Ceramic suction cups were used for the measurement of N-concentration in soil solutions under different soil and climate conditions in both field experiments of Rostock University and Agricultural University of Debrecen (Hungary). Depending on the soil utilisation the change in the N concentration of the soil solution can be proved on both sites.
The experimental field of Rostock University can be characterised by its high groundwater table. The nitrogen concentration of soil solutions in the different soil layers were determined by the trend downward of water. In the dactylis (Dactilis glomerata) experiment, the quadruple treatments involved the following: with and without N-fertiliser, with and without harvesting, respectively. In the lower soil layers, the least rising N concentrations were established in case of the treatment without N-fertiliser combined with harvesting. The nitrogen leaching calculated from the infiltrated water quantity and the nitrate N concentration increased in the following order: without N-fertiliser, with harvesting < without N-fertiliser, without harvesting < with N-fertiliser, with harvesting << with N-fertiliser, without harvesting.
The field experiment site of Debrecen can be characterised by a low groundwater table. The effect of N-fertilisation on the nitrate-N concentration of soil solution in the soil layers can be stated unanimously. Permanent nitrate-N leaching cannot be established due to the water upward movement under semiarid climate conditions. Intermittently transfer of nitrate-N between the soil layers is probable in cases of remarkable precipitation.

Alternatives of microclimate control in orchards

The aim of the study was to find out which of the methods used to avoid damages of late frosts would be the most effective for the fruit growing practice. We tested the antifrost irrigation method in Debrecen-Pallag. For that purpose microjet sprayers are used, which are thrifty and does not need for that purpose large containers. With the aim to secure an even distribution of water, the sprayers are distributed on three levels: above and inside of the crown as well as on the level of trunks. On a large scale, a single microjet above the crown level would be sufficient. By means of a detailed analysis  served to set the optimum intervals between spraying phases: with each 15, 10, 5 and 3 minutes during half a minute. The synchronous presence of water and ice below the freezing point, the released freezing heat plus the water used much above the freezing point
(9–10 °C) altogether maintains the temperature above around 0 °C near the flowers or growing fruitlets, meanwhile, the surrounding air cools down to -8 °C. The effectiveness of the generally used antifrost would be increased substantially by the former application of cooling irrigation, which delays the blooming date. 

Climatic water balance in Hamelmalo, Eritrea

Agricultural production is an important sector for peoples to live, but it is highly affected by climate change. To have a good production we need to understand the climatic parameters which adversely affect production. Hamelmalo, which is located in the semi-arid area of Eritrea, is vulnerable to climate change and this is realised in the total production loss. Nevertheless, there is no concrete reference about the climate of the region due to lack of data for a long time. Changes in precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET) and, implicitly, in the climatic water balance (CWB), are imminent effects of climate change. However, changes in the CWB, as a response to changes in P and ET, have not yet been analysed thoroughly enough in many parts of the world, including Eritrea. This study also explores the changes of the CWB in the Hamelmalo region, based on a wide range of climatic data (P, relative air humidity and evaporation pan necessary for computing potential evapotranspiration (PET) with the pan evaporation method) recorded at Hamelmalo from 2015-2019. This analysis shows that the annual cumulative CWB for Hamelmalo is negative in 67% of the years. The dry season without precipitation leads to negative CWB and the change in CWB only starts from the raining or crop season. Based on this recent study, 2015 had the highest PET and lowest P, and this resulted in the lowest CWB in the investigated period. Opposite to this, 2019 had lower PET and highest P, which led to the highest CWB. However, the monthly values of CWB did not correlate with the annual P or ET. On the base of our study, it can be concluded that PET and P were very variable in the investigated years and P was the most influential elements of CWB.

The Effect of Changes in Forest Area on the Transcarpathian Tisza River Basin

Forests are unique global factors which ensure life for almost every living being on Earth. They play a major role in controlling water flows, preventing erosion and controlling the oxygen content of Earth’s atmosphere. By the end of the XXth century, it was realized that forests help to nature maintain and are vital parts of our natural environment. By the time societies realized this fact, economic and environmental effects had amplified which endanger forests. Due to their good water control and water protection abilities, and their function in climate control, mountain forests can provide a suitable environment for themselves, for their successful growth.
Forests play a major role in soil protection, especially in mountain areas where they prevent soil erosion. By converting surface waters into subsurface waters, forests help with the accumulation of subsurface waters, which are the sources of springs, rivers and streams. In the summer, they protect the soil from drying out by creating a special microclimate. They positively affect the climate of surrounding territories.

The character of the Bódva by the composition of the fishassociations

The Bódva is one of our rivers that flow outside the Hungarian borders and arrive to the country across the frontier.The Bódva is approximately 110 kilometres long, its upper course is mountaneous- like in its springfield in Slovakia and it reaches the Sajó by flowing among the lower hilly region. The river wall is ravine-like in more places, the river itself is devious, and the water basin is rather variable as in the underlay muddy segments and heavily shingly beds can also be found.
By its fish fauna and physico-chemical characteristics, the Bódva is such aliving water that-after Borne and others (Nowicki, Thienemann) river zone system- can be regarded as an almost uniform typical Barbel zone.
According to our research program (2001-2005) and literature resources we estimated the fish fauna of the Bódva on both the Slovakian and Hungarian course. From some four decades to the wide ecofaunistic examinations of the near past we surveyed the quondam and present fish species of the Bódva River. According to our survey some 40 species compose the recent fish fauna of this river.
In the fish fauna of the Bódva those fish species that presently own a tight ecospectrum, sensitive to the changes of the environment thus so called indicator species, can also be found just like the less sensitive, invasive, aggressively reproducing species. By examining the changes in the fishfauna, the complex of those biogen and abiogen processes that affect the river can be indicated well. It can be stated that the fishfauna of the Bódva is rather rich with a countrywide measure also, and maintain a lot of rare, regressive protected and worth while protection species.
In the last period of the construction, the racial and quantitive composition of the fishfauna of the upper course of the Bódva has changed significantly. Certain species (in the Hungarian course) has vanished almost totally or at least their number declined not ably. Among the vanishing species there are not only a few substantial, protected species of the fauna (e.g. Barbus pelononnesius petényi, Leucaspius delineatus, Zingel sterber, Barbatula barbatula), but the number of the once mass species also decreased appreciably (e.g. Rhodeus sericeus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Cobitis elongatoides). With the above mentioned changes the number of other animals also decreased in the course that we examined (e.g. mussels, crabs). We examine the cause of these changes in the pollution of the river and according to that in the decrease of the food source and the negative changes of the physico-chemical parameters of the water.

Opportunities of delineating inland waters and soil moisture with remote sensed data

The methodology for delineating water bodies on multispectral remote sensing imagery was examined and evaluated. A supervised approach is tested with the aim to accurately detect inland water, moisturised soil surface and swampy patches on the Landsat TM 7 scene. The goal of this research is to investigate whether the application of remote sensing image interpretation could further refine the possibilities of future soil conductivity measurement research. The methodologies used were the application of supervised classification algorithms based on the training data collected in the area. The achieved overall classification accuracy value of 83.0795% suggests that the methodology could be used as a successful strategy to incorporate remote sensing data interpretation into soil conductivity measurement planning and application. The main conclusion that can be drawn is that processing of multispectral data with further refinement of the presented methodologies can led to very useful outcomes for environmental measurements.

Assay of runoff conditions using a Digital Elevation Model

We can get information about water conditions of plane areas by analyzing their relief. By using the Digital Elevation Model, we can get proper information about runoff conditions in the terrain surface, which is the basis for ponding analysis. In our study, a Digital Elevation Model of the sample plot in Hajdúsági-löszhát (loess ridge) was created that makes possible the determination of runoff conditions of the surface. Convergence and divergence of runoff direction showed the rate of ponding and the location of possible inland-water spots. By using this model, concrete location of those areas that tend to be overmoistured could be determined. Knowledge of this phenomenon can be an effective instrument for farmers in optimizing crop growing, and additionally in performing water management interventions in proper time and space.

Correlation between cultivation methods and quality in some vegetable species

Quality parameters of 5 table root varieties were tested on 3 sowing dates with different cultivation methods: open field on 15 April and 9 July 2010 and under plastic tents on 19 August. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was measured in the varieties Akela and Mona Lisa (~ 80 mg 100 g-1) of the second (July) crop. This crop is in general use in Hungary. In comparison, in the late sown varieties (August, under plastics) a further pigment increase (10–20 mg 100 g-1) was observed in the same varieties as related to the earlier sowing dates. Yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) showed similar trends. Roots of the late sowing date (with harvest in December) contained the highest vulgaxanthin values (103.3–124.18 mg kg-1).
Varieties reacted differently to temperature changes during the production period and thus to sugar accumulation. In the second crop (July) higher water soluble solids content was measured on the average of varieties (10.12%) in comparison to the April sowing (7.76%). Beetroots of the spring sowing are recommended for fresh market while the second (July) crop with autumn harvest can satisfy industry requirements. Late sowing under unheated plastic tents supply us with fresh beetroot in late autumn and early winter and prolong the usability of plastic tents. 
Six lettuce species/subspecies were tested in the open field and under plastic tents in 3 repetitions for nitrate nitrogen, vitamin-C, polyphenol (gallus acid equivalent – mg GAE 100 g-1) and mineral element (Ca, K, Mg, Na) contents. Our measurements showed lower nitrate nitrogen values under plastic than in the open field (89.10± 8.13 and 127.06±14.29 mg kg-1) on the average of genotypes. Lettuce grown in the field had higher vitamin-C content (1.4 mg%) which is nearly 50% more than in plants under plastic. The highest polyphenol content was found in samples from the field with a conspicuous value of 804.17±56.47 mg GAE 100 g-1 in Piros cikória. Samples grown under plastic were richer in mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) which can be explained by the higher nutrient content of the soil. In this environment superior Mg content was observed in Edivia (4616.33±
311.21 mg kg-1). 

Besides the well- known headed lettuce, Piros cikória (Red chicory),the red leaved Lollo Rossa and Tölgylevel (Oak leaf lettuce) should be
mentioned which well deserve further testing in order to supply us with nourishing, healthy food. 

Applicability of precision weed detection technologies

In an agricultural field or horticultural plantation, weeds compete with cultivated plants for water and nutrients. The transpirated water by the weeds is needed to be replaced, which saddles surplus costs on the farmer, which could reduce the profitability of crop production. The aim of the precision plant protection system is to protect cultivated plants by applying site-specific technologies and optimized herbicides combination and methods, without environmental damage. The first step of precision weed control is the scouting for weeds. Traditional and modern (passive and active remote sensing) weed surveying technologies are available to detect weeds. The examination was carried out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net of the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. The spectral-based weed detection was worked out by the Tetracam ADC broadband multispectral camera and the GreenSeeker 505 vegetation indexmeter. A strong correlation observed between vegetation indices and weed coverage. Based on the collected data, weed maps are created in appropriate software environment, thus the spatial distributions of the weeds are determined. The species level discrimination and the recognition of weed structural parameters were executed based on the 3D point cloud data by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner.

Effect of compost/water ratio on some main parameter of compost solutions

Composting is an efficient technology for the utilisation of by-products and waste. It is also suitable for treating raw materials to convert fertilisers that are not recommended for application without pre-processing. Such is the case with poultry manure, which is very important to pre-treat due to its hazardous properties. An increasingly common form of compost is compost tea, which is made by soaking compost in water. In our experiment, we made compost tea from a composted and granulated poultry manure product. Three mixing ratios were used (1/5, 1/10, 1/10) and compost teas were set for three different extraction times (24–48–72 hours). After elimination of the experiment, the pH, EC, and nitrate and ammonium contents of the samples were measured. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between each mixing ratio and different extraction times. Based on our results, it can be said that the fluctuation of pH values during the experiment was low. Regardless of the mixing ratio and extraction time, the samples were in the slightly acidic range. The electrical conductivity, nitrate and ammonium content follow a similar trend, the values decrease significantly with the increase of the mixing ratio. Similar tendency was observed at the incubation time. The concentrations of both EC and nitrogen forms increase with increasing incubation time, in most cases significantly.

Examination of Hybrid-specific nutrient supply at corn on chernozem soli

The effect of increasing fertilizer dosages on the yield of eight different maize hybrids (SY Ondina, NK Kansas, NK Lucius, NK Octet, NK Thermo, SY Flovita, SY Brillio, NX 47279) has been investigated in the crop-year of 2011. According to our results it can be stated that contrarily to the control treatment the application of different nutrient-levels has resulted a significant yield increment (2 000–5 800 kg ha-1).
Based upon the results of this experiment we have drawn the conclusion that the nutrient level of 120 kg N+PK was the optimal for the investigated hybrids. The highest yield (14 475 kg ha-1–15 963 kg ha-1) of the hybrids with different genotypes has been produced in case of this fertilizer treatment. With the comparison of the control and the optimum-fertilizer treatments the yield-increasing effect of mineral fertilization and the different reaction of hybrids towards increasing fertilizer dosages have been proven. In case of the control treatments the best-yielding hybrids were NK Thermo (11 917 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (11 617 kg ha-1). Contrarily on the optimal nutrient supply level the hybrids SY Brillio (15 876 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (15 963 kg ha-1) have produced the highest yields. Summarizing, we can state that the hybrid NX 47279 has resulted stable and high yields in the fertilized treatments. Analysing the yield-increasing effect of 1 kg fertilizer active substance it was proven, that the hybrids SY Flovita (45.43 kg ha-1), SY Brillio (44.47 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (42.33 kg ha-1) had a good reaction towards even lower nutrient supply levels as well. In case of the control treatment the average water utilization coefficient of the hybrids was significantly lower (35.2 kg mm-1), than in case of the optimal nutrient supply level (N120+PK) treatments (48.9 kg mm-1).
Therefore the hybrid specific difference between the water utilization of genotypes could be revealed.

The effects of the nanoselenium supplementation to the production parameters and the selenium retention of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

The selenium is an essential trace element with antioxidant effect, constituent of many enzymes, natural component of the body of the animals. The addition to the fish feed as micro element supplementation is generally accepted. Numerous animal experiments veryfied, that the antioxidant effect of the nanoselenium is higher than other selenium forms. But no much information is available of the usuage at fish.

In the experiment were investigated the effects of the nanoselenium supplementation of a commercial fish feed were investigated to the production parameters and the body tissue composition. The correlation between the accumulated selenium content of the body and the treatment, and the feed conversation was also statistically analyzed beside the production parameters. Furthermore we were curious, if can be toxic the nanoselenium in higher doses.

The experimental stock was placed into 12 plastic tanks (each 70 l water vol.) in a recirculation system for larval rearing. The salinity and the water temperature was constant during the 8 week long experiment. The feeding was ad libitum, 4 times a day. Beside the control five (1, 1.5, 2.5, 5.5, 10.5 mg Se kg-1) duplicated treatment were set.

According to the results, from the production parameters only at the value of FCR and the survival was found significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. However strong correlation (r=0.752–0.780, p<0.01) was determined between the treatment and the accumulated selenium levels. To analyzed the free fatty acid contentof the fish, we realized, that the selenium uptake significanly enhanced this level at all treatments. The greatest change was found in case of the type n-3 fatty acids.

Established by the results, the higher intake than 0.5 mg Se kg-1 was not changed significantly the production parameters, nevertheless to increase the selenium content of commercial feeds to 1.5 mg Se kg-1 could be rewarding on the rearing of red drum.

Untersuchungen zur Phosphataufnahme von Zwischenfrüchten bei unterschiedlicher P-Versorgung des Bodens (Investigation of P Uptake of Catch Crops under Different P Supply)

The P uptakes of 11 different catch crops on four soils were estimated and compared with changes of double lactate soluble Phosphorus (P(DL)) in soil within a vessel trial. Additionally a model trial with quartz sand was carried out for investigations of the influence of P supply on root parameters. The differences of P uptake in dependence of the proofed variants were significant. Under a sufficient P supply Buckwheat, Maize and Oil radish had the highest P uptake on sandy soils, on loamy soil also Buckwheat and Maize but Serradella too. Under P deficiency the withdrawals of Phosphorus for Buckwheat, Maize and Oil radish were found to be the highest. In contrast to the sandy soils for the loamy soils no significant relation between the P uptake by plants and changes in the P-DL amount in soil could be found. For all variants the P uptake by plants were higher than the reduction of the P-DL amount in soil. The rate of P-DL content on the total P content in soil reduced while the two trial years only in sandy but not in loamy soils. The P uptake, the root length and the root/shoot relationship depends significantly on the cultivated crop and the added P compound. The added water soluble KH2PO4 caused a higher P uptake but a lower root/shoot-relationship than the water insoluble P compounds.

Examination of compost maturity using reflectance

Composting is one of the most popular recycling processes for organic waste. Composting plays an important role in waste and by-product management and is becoming increasingly important in both sustainable energy management and circular economy. Composting transforms organic matter to produce a safe and stable by-product (compost) that can be applied to arable land in a similar way to fertilizer. Physical, chemical and biological methods can be used to monitor the process and to determine the maturity of the compost, as spectrometric/spectroscopic methods play an important role in the analysis of different environmental samples.

Our aim was to (1) non-destructively detect the effects of different additive ratios on the spectral properties of the composting process and the spectral data of different compost mixtures, (2) to find the wavelength ranges of the reflectance curve (inflection points) sensitive to compost maturity, (3) to determine the correlation between the inflection points and the chemical and physical parameters measured in compost by conventional methods.

The mixture of broiler and hen manure and zeolite was composted 62 days in windrow composting. In the composting experiment, the moisture content and temperature (°C) were measured every three days and compost samples were taken and in 10% destillated aquaeous suspension were measured the pH and electrical conductivity (mS cm-1). Compost samples dried to mass stability were spectrally analyzed in the wavelength range 400–1000 nm with AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer.

Based on the results, the reflectance of mature compost were smaller in the last days of composting than the reflectance values of day 0 samples, thus compost maturity can be detected spectral in the VIS-NIR wavelength range. For the tested compost prisms, the reflectance of each sampling day shows a constant slope, with a significant overlap of the reflectance curves up to 400–700 nm wavelength range, and there was a breakpoint in the 700–750 nm wavelength range which was proved by binary encoding.

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