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Role of Sowing Time in Maize Production (Review)
Published September 15, 2003
36-39

Many authors, both in Hungary and abroad, have reported on experiments carried out to determine the role of sowing time in maize, but the results are often contradictory. This is hardly surprising, since the maize plant exhibits enormous genetic variability and the hybrids created through selection and inbreeding may have very specific requirem...ents as to sowing date. The year effect, too, often complicates the efforts of scientists to provide clear guidance to farmers on the optimal sowing date for each hybrid.

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The impact of sowingdate and production area on the yield of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on Nyírség brown forest soil
Published March 11, 2014
133-137

The lupine is very sensitive to the different ecological conditions. The examinations of lupine was started in 2003 and our aim is determine yield components which directly affecting crop yields (flower, pod and seed number per plants) in different sowing times (3 times, two weeks apart) and growing area area (240, 480, 720 cm2) comb...inations. According to our results the sowing times, the growing area and the meteorological conditions are influence on yield significantly. Our data suggest that the early sowing and large growing area combination is favourable to rate of fertilized plants and to development of yield. Later sowing reduces the seed yield depending on the cropyear. In our experiment, the decrease of yield was in the unfavourable year (2003) 20–96%, and in the most favourable meteorological conditions (2004) 10–79%, and in rich rainfall year (2005) 15–88%.

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Evaluation of dry matter accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published June 30, 2018
35-41

The increase of the grain yield of maize is closely correlated with its seasonal dry matter accumulation. Dry matter is accumulated into the grain yield during the grain filling period. The following maize hybrids were involved in the experiment: Armagnac FAO 490, Loupiac FAO 380 and Sushi FAO 340. In order to determine dry matter content, two ...samples per week were taken on the following days: 22nd, 25th, 28th, 31st August, 4th, 7th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th September and 2nd, 6th, 9th, 13th October. In the course of sampling the weight of 100 grains from the middle section of 4 ears was measured in 4 replications. Dry matter content was determined after drying to constant weight in a drying cabinet at 60 °C. Harvesting was performed on 13th October 2017.

The daily precipitation sum was determined by local measurements, while the daily radiation and temperature data were provided by the Meteorological Observatory Debrecen of the National Meteorological Service in Budapest. Among the agrometeorological parameters, an analysis was made of the precipitation during the growing season, effective heat sums during the vegetative and generative phase, and the water supplies. The daily heat sums were determined using the algorithm proposed.

The amount of precipitation in the winter period before the 2017 growing season was 210 mm. The soil was saturated until its field capacity. The rather dry and warm March and April had a favourable effect, but there was no worthy amount of precipitation until May (51 mm) due to the condition of the dried seedbed. Sowing was performed on the 5th of May 2017 in a randomised small plot experiment. There was favourable precipitation and temperature during the growing season, thereby providing ideal conditions for maize development, growth and yield formation. There was near average amount of precipitation in each year. The total amount of precipitation in the summer period is 342 mm. Temperature was mostly above the average, but there was no long and extremely warm period.

The Armagnac hybrid reached its highest dry matter mass 126 days after emergence. Physiological maturity was reached sooner (on the 119th day) in the case of Loupiac, and even sooner in the case of Sushi (116th day). The thousand grain weight of Sushi (which has the shortest ripening period) was 286 g at the time of physiological maturity, while that of Loupiac was 311 g. Compared to Sushi, Armagnac showed 12 g more dry matter accumulation (306 g). In the case of all three examined hybrids, physiological maturity was preceded by an intensive phase, when the dynamics of dry matter accumulation was rather quick. On average, Sushi gained 2.8 g dry matter per day between 103 days following emergence and physiological maturity, while the same values were 3.2 g for Armagnac and 3.3 g for Loupiac. The aim of the regression line slope is to predict the behavior of the dependent variable with the knowledge of the values and characteristics of the independent variables using the regression line equation. Furthermore, to determine how the location affected the dynamic of dry matter accumulation in the Armagnac, Loupiac and Sushi hybrids. In regression analysis, the coefficient of explanation showed that the effect of day in the Armagnac was 97%, in the Loupiac 94%, in the Sushi 90 %. The determination coefficient (R2) is useful in determing how the regression equation fits. But, as we have seen, the determination coefficient alone is not sufficient to verify the model’s accuracy, in addition to the determination coefficient (R2), the normality of the data or the residuals, the variance of the variables at different levels, the independence of the data relative to time and non-oblique. Observations are evaluated for the correctness of the fitted model.

Dry matter values decreased evenly and slightly following physiological maturity. According to our research results, it was established that physiological maturity is followed by a moderate dry matter loss. Until harvesting, Armagnac lost 40 g of its thousand mass weight in 29 days, while the same value pairs were 69 g in 36 days for Loupiac and 29 g in 39 days for Sushi. Loupiac – which had the highest weight at the time of physiological maturity – lost the most of its dry weight; therefore, Armagnac and Sushi had higher values at the time of harvesting.

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Utilization of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench.)
Published December 10, 2002
122-125

Okra is warm season crop native to Africa. Presently it is widely grown in the northeastern parts of Brazilia, both northen, and western parts of Africa, southeast Asia, and in the eastern parts of the Mediterraneum. In Hungary it is a rarity. It’s adaptation to Hungary began about 40 years ago.The optimal sowing time under Hungarian climatic... conditions is middle of May. The harvests is started – depending on the weather – first, by the middle of July, and picking continues until the first of September.
According to our results, seed soaking, sowing under a perforated foil sheet-covered trench (2 weeks earlier the normal sowing time), and 55-65 g thousand weight seeds are favourable.
The harvest period under Hungarian circumstances is appr. one and half months.

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The effect of sowing date and plant density in three maize hybrids germination and growth dynamics
Published February 18, 2016
105-110

The maize research was set up on chernozem soil at Látókép research area of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences University of Debrecen. We examined the following hybrids SY ARIOSO (FAO 300), P9486 (FAO360), DKC 4943 (FAO 410). The experience was set u pin three different plant density. These were 60, 76 and 90 thousand plant ha-1.... The experience was set up in three different sawing date, early, average and late. The germination and growing dynamic measurements was measured in three hybrid, three sawing date, three plant density in four replication. well observed at the first sawing date (April 5) the soil was too cold therefore the germination was begins very slowly to be slowly increased. The second sowing time was the average (April 21) there the germination launch as soon as possible more rapid growth in the amount of heat. We experienced the most intense germination was in the case of the emergence late sowing date (May 5). Looking at the growth dynamics for the first two sawing date was side by side and almost equal to the maximum value. This is explained by the adaptive capacity of the maize to compensate for the sawing difference. For the third time, despite the delayed sawing the maize began to grow more dynamically than in previous sawing times due to the results of the initial good conditions it growth faster than halted in the second half of the season because of the high temperatures and lack of precipitation.

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Effect of extreme crop year on soil moisture in maize
Published December 15, 2010
35-40

We examined the change of the time of water balance of soil in 25 years old experiment, on chernozem soil, in different croprotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture) in two extreme cropyear in 2007 and 2009 in maizestock.
According to our findings the values of waterdeficit of soil of maizestock were about 100 mm before the sowing time th...at grew because of considerable deficit of precipitation and high average temperature in months of summer. Values of waterdeficit achieved at the end of August the maximum and lessed a little bit to end of crop time. Decrease of waterstock stopped because of irrigation treatments in irrigated plots but the difference between two irrigation treatments (Ö1-Ö3) vanishedat the end of summer, waterdeficit were higher with 17 mm in monoculture in irrigated plot than value of not-irrigated plot. Considerabler precipitation in Jun effected on waterbalance of soils of three of crop-rotation systems favourable, rapid waterloss starting to april began to lessenat the end of May and started to increase from early in July. Precipitation in Jun had positiv effect on yield also.

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The importance of millet production in regional production, with special emphasis on climate change
Published June 30, 2018
141-146
Regional production is a traditional production structure developed adjusting to the geographical, climatic, biological and soil conditions in given production regions, a certain territorial specification of agricultural production, and a type of farming that best fits the natural conditions and takes the biologic...al needs of plant and animal species into account as fully as possible. The most probable element of risk in plant production is the changeable, extreme weather. That is the reason why the specific characteristics of the place of production and the characteristics of regional production should be considered to a greater extent. The establishment of the range of varieties appropriate for the place of production is the key issue in regional production. One of our historically grown cereal plants that perfectly fits regional production is millet. Due to its short growing season, favourable reproduction ratio and the fact that it is relatively undemanding, it used to be grown in larger quantities in the middle ages. Its good nutritional values made it an important food item, but over time, as a result of industrialisation and technological progress; it has been eclipsed by other cereal crops. In our country it is mainly used to cook porridge, but it is also used in the form of flour and as a base material in the spirit drinks sector. In the recent decades, millet has been applied only in a small area, mostly as a secondary crop in areas that dried out from drainage water in late spring, or as a replacement of extinct sowings due to its late sowing time. Water will be the most significant factor for the future of agriculture, especially considering climate change.
My examinations took place in the area of the Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm of University of Debrecen, in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, in a small-plot experiment with four replications in 2016.
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The role of the hybrid-specific technological recommendations of maize in precision crop production procedures
Published November 13, 2012
297-302

The necessity of application of hybrid specific crop production technology has been confirmed not only by trial results but also by the experiences gained from the agricultural practice. For this reason it is essential to test and collect data in field trials about the specific agronomic traits of the corn hybrids belonging to different maturit...y groups and genotypes. Corn hybrids are tested for their responses to sowing time, plant density and fertilizer supply; sensitivity to herbicides; and lately, the resistance to the damages caused by the larvae of corn root worm. Last but not least, mention should be made of the differences in the responses of the corn hybrids to the damages caused by drought stress. Based on the trial results, suggestions for the hybrid specific corn production are compiled and made public for the experts and farmers engaged in corn growing. Corn hybrids may deliver maximum yields on the impact of specific crop production technology only in case if it relies on carefully done general production technology including soil cultivation, seed bed preparation and weed control. Similarly, precision crop production technology may advance the yield increase in economic way if it is constantly drawing on the source of research results.

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The impact of crop year and certain agrotechnical factors on maize yield
Published March 20, 2013
13-16

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The experiment was set up with eight maize hybrids with different genetic characteristics in 2012. In our study were included hybrids with different length of growing season. We studied the effect of NKP fertilization and plant density on the yield. Comparing to controll treatment it was found that highest yield was at N40+PK treatment. It was three times higher than agro-ecological optimum. Due to the droughty year the effect of plant density it was minimum. The development rate in case of sowing date I. and II. showed an almost identical picture in the scope of the sowing date trial. However, hybrids with excellent adaptability were capable of a yield above average even in this extreme year.

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Production of corn in Serbia in the light of climate change
Published September 5, 2018
305-322

This paper presents the basic elements of maize production technology in Serbia. For their good knowledge, it is necessary to be familiar with the basic biological requirements of the species, phenology and its particular requirements for water, heat, soil conditions and mineral nutrition. A special emphasis in this paper is given to recent res...earch by the author regarding the correction of production technology (selection of hybrids, time and density of sowing, etc.) from the aspect of knowing the weather conditions of the year to the moment of sowing and the amount and position of available nitrogen in the soil profile during the spring before sowing. In the light of predicted climate change conditions for the Republic of Serbia, the authors of this paper have proposed and appropriated adaptation measures. The general conclusion is that there are no general recipes for the correct production technology of this plant species, but should be adapted to each specific year, field and hybrid.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001
47-54

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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Evaluation of mineral element content of beetroot during the different stages of the growing season
Published September 5, 2018
459-537

In modern nutrition, bioactive materials of different vegetables are especially important to be researched. The experiment was carried out on March 30, 2016 (sowing date). Mineral element content (B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Zn) was evaluated on the 60th, 85th and the 105th day of the vegetation period. The data are presented as the mean of... five varieties which can give the real state of these parameters of beetroot grown on lowland chernozem soil.

In the young beetroot leaves (60 days) the mineral element content was higher than in the older ones (85 days). The calcium and magnesium content of the leaves was much more favourable (10 times higher) than in the root. The potassium content of leaves has reached the amount of 5000 mg kg-1, but at the same time more than 3000 mg kg-1 was detected in the improved root. This value is favourable for the potassium supply of the human organism.

The sulphur content (1300 mg kg-1) of the leaves was the highest on the 85th day of vegetation period. Similar tendency was detected for boron content (2.45 mg kg-1), while for iron content it was higher (28.23 mg kg-1) in the younger leaves (60 days).

Finally, it can be concluded that the increased element content of beetroot leaves will be a favourable source of mineral element supply of the human organism.

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Effect of NPK fertilization on the yield and yield stability of different maize genotypes
Published July 31, 2012
101-104

The yielding capacity and quality parameters of 11 maize hybrids were studied in 2011 on calcareous chernozem soil in a 25-year long-term fertilization experiment in the control (without fertilization), in the base treatment of N 40 kg ha-1, P2O5 25 kg ha-1, K2O 30 kg ha-1 and in... five treatments which were the multiplied doses of the base treatment. The N fertilizer was applied in the autumn and in the spring, while P and K fertilizers were applied in the autumn.The sowing time was 17–18 April, the time of harvest was 8 October. The 30-year average of precipitation (April–Sept) was 345.1 mm, the amount of precipitation did not differ greatly from that, however, its distribution was very unfavourable.
It was found that the largest yield increment (as compared to the control) was in the treatment N 40 kg ha-1, P2O5 25 kg ha-1, K2O 30 kg ha-1 in the long-term experiment. The largest yields were obtained for the hybrids P9494, PR37N01 and PR35F38 (13.64–13.71 t ha-1). Due to the dry period at the end of the summer – beginning of autumn, the grain moisture content at harvest was favourably low, 12–18% depending on the treatment and the growing season.

The N fertilization significantly increased the protein content of the kernel, but the starch content of the kernel decreased (significantly in several cases) with increasing fertilizer doses and yields as compared with the control.
The highest protein content was measured in hybrids GK Boglár and Szegedi 386. The oil content was above 4% for GK Boglár, but the two hybrids were not among the best yielding hybrids in spite of their good inner content. The starch content was around 75 % without fertilization, it decreased with fertilization.
For the tested hybrids, the fertilizer dose N 120 kg ha-1, P2O5 75 kg ha-1, K2O 90 kg ha-1 can be recommended with respect to efficacy and environmental considerations.

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Effect of cropping technologies on the yield of dry bean variety ’Diana’
Published February 18, 2016
37-41

An experiment on three dry bean varieties (Start, Hópehely, Diana), using different sowing-times, fertilizers and plant densities was performed on sandy soil in the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences, Research Institute of Nyíregyháza in 2015. The aim of the experiment was to study which treatment gives the highest yiel...d, and whether the different treatments result in significant differences in the yields. In this paper the dry bean yield at ‘Diana’ variety is analyzed.

The treatments were done with three fertilizer doses and three plant densities at different sowing-times (April 24; May 8; May 18). As a result of the high temperature and the drought during the growth season, the yields we harvested were in low, which shows the ecological sensitivity of the plant we examined.

We concluded that the poorest yield was harvested at the third sowing-time. There was no significant difference in the yields at the first and second sowing- time. Examining all the three fertilizer treatments we applied at the experiment, we achieved the highest yields in the control plots. It might be due to the weak efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer under the extremely dry conditions. The highest yield was harvested at the control treatments during the second sowing-time. Regarding the effect of the plant densities, the highest crop yield was achieved at the treatment using 400 000 germs ha-1, followed by 300 000 germs ha-1 and 200 000 germs ha-1.

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Development of technology elements for growing of perennial sorghum
Published September 18, 2014
15-17

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Optimal sowing time for perennial sorghum under irrigation is when soil temperature at the depth of sowing reaches up to 10–11 °С, harvesting for the green mass has to be done when panicle is situated on the stem in 10 sm from the flag leaf and hight of cut must be 11 sm.

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Changes in the Diaporthe helianthi Infection of Sunflower Hybrids Between 1998 and 2002
Published May 11, 2003
214-233

Plant protection, and especially the efficiency of protection against mycosis, is a very important production technological element concerning sunflower. The efficiency of production can be increased on the basis of a thorough pathological survey and its results carried out in a wide variety of hybrids, as the features of hybrids, the reactions... of genetic bases to pathogens can be found out under domestic conditions.
The tests were carried out at variety-test lots of OMMI for hybrids used for food or oil and other sunflower varieties admitted by the state at the Experimental Site DTTI Látókép, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen between 1998 and 2002. The number of the tested hybrids was 49 in 1998, 45 in 1999, 49 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 44 in 2002.
Due to the infection source of high amounts remained from 1997 and the favourable weather conditions for the pathogens, an infection of high degree was experienced in the tested stands. The lowest infection index in the hybrids with a very short vegetative period was experienced with Beni hybrids. Comparing to the average of the hybridgroup with short vegetative period, a low infection index characterised the Baleno, Trident, IBH-166, Hysun 321, Resia, Alexandra, Cergold and Pixel hybrids. In 1999, among hybrids with medium vegetative period, Zoltán, Zsuzsa and Util hybrids could be highlighted because of their low infection index. In 1998, among confentionary hybrids, Marica-2 hybrid had the most favourable index values (2,55).
During our trials, the experienced infection dynamics were compared in the event of hybrids with higher and lower susceptibility under different sowing technological elements. The results call for the fact that when a hybrid with higher susceptibility is produced, production technological elements, such as the time of sowing, influence considerably the damage caused by the pathogen, therefore it must not be ignored when its determination takes place. In the event of hybrids with lower susceptibility the change of the tested production technological elements within the biological optimum does not lead to the increased risk of the damage caused by Diaporthe helianthi.

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Effects of Tillage Systems on Physical Status and Organic Matter Turnover of the Soil
Published November 26, 2003
42-45

The cultivation technology for those plant, that play a key role in arable land production need to be renewed in order to reduce production costs and to protect arable land. The modernisation of technologies can only be achieved by applying appropriate tillage systems. Our measurements were carried out on chernozem soil with lime deposits at th...e Látókép Experimental Station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University, in long term tillage experiments set up in 1989. We examined the typical physical parameters, the albedo, field capacity, the bulk density of the soil, organic carbon content (humus %) and the measured pH-values in the water solution within the two tillage variations. We have also modelled nitrogen cycle formation in different treatments.
A significant difference occured between the albedos of the two soils, which may be the result of significant amounts of stem remaining on the surface in the case of the reduced tillage method. The yellow, waxy stem of maize reflects 21% of the sun’s rays, especially at the beginning of the vegetation period, when its decomposition has only just started. This delys the warming up in early spring, which delays the sowing time of maize and reduces evaporation. In the two tillage variations, the water management characteristics do not differ practically, the wilting point field capacity are in accordance. In reduced tillage methods, the so-called „plough-pan” can be well measured at 15-20 cm, while in winter ploughing it is at 30 cm. The humus % of the soil does not differ in the two tillage variations, but due to the difference in bulk density this means a different humus and organic nitrogen content. The organic nitrogen content is greater in the reduced tillage method. On the basis of pH value evaluations, we could not detect significant differences in the two tillage variations. The organic nitrogen content of areas where reduced tillage method was applied is higher than in areas where conventional winter ploughing was applied.

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Comparative examination of a mineral fertiliser and a bacterial fertilizer on humic sandy soil
Published December 15, 2010
111-116

In our pot experiment, the impact of a bacterial fertilizer, Bactofil® A10 and a mineral fertilizer Ca(NO3)2 applied in different rates was studied on some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics of a humic sandy soil (Pallag). Perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.) was used as a test-plant. Samples were collec...ted four and eight weeks after sowing in each year. The experiment was set up in 2007-2009 in the greenhouse of
the UD CASE Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science. The available (AL-extractable) nutrient contents of soil, among the microbial parameters the total number of bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, the sacharase and urease enzyme activity, as well as the soil respiration rate were measured.
Statistical analyses were made by means of the measurements deviation, LSD values at the P=0.05 level and correlation coefficients were calculated. Results of our experiment were summarised as follows:
− The readily available nutrient content of humic sandy soil increased as affected by the treatments, in case of the available (AL-extractable) phosphorus and potassium content the higher value was measured in high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatment.
− The treatments had also positive effect on several soil microbial parameters studied. The higher-dosage mineral fertilizer treatments had a beneficial effect on the total number of bacteria, cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria. No significant differences were obtained between the effect of treatment in case of the total-number of bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi and nitrifying bacteria.
− On the sacharase enzyme activity the artificial fertiliser treatments proved to be unambiguously stimulating, the urease activity significantly increased on the effect of the lower-dosage Ca(NO3)2 artificial fertilizer treatment. 
− The soil respiration increased in all treatments in related to the amounts applied, significantly increased in the highest rate of Ca(NO3)2 fertilizer addition. 
− Some medium and tight positive correlations were observed between the soil chemical and microbiological parameters studied in case of both nutrient sources. 
Summarizing our results, it was established that the organic and all the mineral fertilizer treatments had beneficial effects on the major soil characteristics from the aspect of nutrient supply. In majority of the examined soil parameters (AL-extractable phosphorus- and potassium, total number of bacteria, number of cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, activity of sacharase enzyme) the high rate of Ca(NO3)2 mineral fertilizer treatment proved to be more stimulating, but at the same time the high rate bacterium fertilizer resulted in significant increases in
the nitrate-N content, the AL-potassium content of soil, the total number of bacteria, the number of cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria and the urease enyme activity. 
Our examinations showed that the mineral fertilizer treatments proved to be more stimulating on most of the soil parameters studied but according to our results, it was established that Bactofil is efficiently applicable in the maintenance of soil fertility and the combined application of
mineral fertilizer and bacterium fertilizer may be a favourable opportunity – also in aspect of the environmental protection – in maintaining soil fertility.

 

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Study on the weeds of maize in the infected field with Cirsium arvense (l.) scop.
Published February 10, 2013
131-135

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of our research was to establish the difference between the weed flora of maize hybrids sown in different times. Our field trial has been performed nearby Szombathely on a field of an agricultural farm, where two different hybrids were grown. The cold tolerant hybrid was sown at the end of March; the traditional hybrid was sown at the end of April. During the vegetation weed survey was conducted on 4–4 model parcels at two times in case of both hybrids. Cirsium arvense gave the largest weed cover in both hybrids. In cold tolerant hybrid gave 4.53%, in the traditional hybrid gave 56.63% weed cover. Considering the number of shoots per square meter C. arvense was also dominant with 64 plant m-2 density in early sown maize and 49.5 plant m-2 in traditional maize hybrid. At the time of the second weed survey the number of weeds increased significantly. The shoot number of C. arvense in cold tolerant hybrid was almost one and a half times more than at the first evaluation, while in case of the traditional hybrid it is nearly doubled. According to the weed density assessment there were differences between the two hybrids in the rate of G3 and T4 weeds. In early sown maize hybrid (MT Milo) this rate was 50–50% while in traditional hybrid was 90–10%. On 26th June the density of the weeds in the cold tolerant hybrid was two times higher than in the traditional one (Kamelias). Based on the experimental results it can be stated that the effective weed control in cold tolerant, early sowing maize hybrids is very important too.

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Examinations of soil waterbalance in different crop-rotation systems of maize
Published November 2, 2009
41-49

We examined the change of the time of water balance of soil in 25 years old experiment, on chernozem soil, in different croprotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture) in dry (2007) and rainy (2008) cropyear in maizestock. According to our findings the values of waterdeficit of soil of maizestock were much smaller in 2008 than values of last y...ear in not irrigated and irrigated plots of three of crop-rotation systems because of favourable supply of precipitation. We found difference between values of waterdeficit of two irrigation treatments. We measured smaller values in irrigated plots of three of crop-rotation systems before sowing.  Waterstock of soil started to decrease with the rising of average temperature and despite of increasing of precipitation quantity in this way we calculated higher values of waterdeficit. Precipitation in August and high average temperature intensified the waterdeficit. Waterdeficit achieved highest values of croptime to front of September. We examined waterbalance of soilprofile in 0-200 cm and we concluded that the waterdeficit of the 80-120 cm soilzone was most intensiv in not irrigated and irrigated treatments because of significant rootmass. 

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Agronomical and economic evaluation of various cultivation systems on meadow soil
Published February 10, 2013
103-106

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The requirements and objectives of cultivation are in constant change. There are different cultivation aims if the objective is soil protection, the prevention of its moisture content or on areas with different precipitation supply or production site endowments. Based on the experimental database of the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences and the KITE Plc., the various cultivation systems in Hajdú-Bihar country were examined with maize as indicator plant. The sample area can be found in the outskirts of Biharnagybajom on meadow soil. On the examined plot, spring strip basic cultivation, loosening and autumn ploughing were applied on 15-15-15 ha, respectively. At the time of taking undisturbed soil samples, soil conductivity measurements were also performed with a Penetronik penetrometer. Undisturbed soil samples were taken from each treatment before sowing (on 5th April 2012). The yield obtained in the strip cultivation treatment increased that of the ploughing and the loosening technology. The economic indexes are the most favourable in the strip cultivation.

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Impact assesment of soil conditioners on a high clay content soil
Published February 17, 2015
137-141

Our measurements were done in a soil conditioner experiment started in 2014 which was set in conventional tillage system at the Karcag Research Institute where a soil conditioner was used from 2010. Effect of two different soil conditioners on compaction, moisture content of the soil and on CO2-emission was studied. Measurements were... done after sowing of maize and millet, and on stubble after harvesting. It can be established that less degree of compaction was characteristic to the soil of the plots treated for several years with the soil conditioner during the vegetation period than in case of untreated plots. Higher CO2-emission values were observed on the plots treated for several years than on the control plots. This effect can’t be established in case of soil conditioners used for first time in this year.

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