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The application of bentonite and zeolite for soil amelioration in acidic sandy soil
Published November 2, 2009

In a pot experiment, we have studied the effect of bentonite and zeolite in different dosages [control; 5; 10; 15; 20 g kg-1] on acidic (pHH2O=5.65) humus sandy soil. The experiment was set up in 2007 and 2008 in the greenhouse of the UD CASE Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science. As a test plant, perennial ryegrass... (Lolium perenne L.) was used. 
In laboratory examinations, pH(H2O), pH(KCl), hidrolytic acidity, nitrate-N content, readily available phosphorus and potassium content were determined. Among soil microbial parameters, the total number of bacteria, the cellulose-decomposing bacteria, the carbon-dioxide production, the microbial biomass-C content of soil, and the saccharase enzyme activity were measured. In the experiment the biomass of the test plant was determined.
The effect of bentonite and zeolite in different dosages can be summarized as follows:
− The pH increased under the effect of low dosages. With the increasing of the pH the hydrolytic acidity - at the bentonite treatments significantly – decreased. 
− Regarding the readily available nutrient content of the soil, low and medium dosages proved to be effective. High dosages of bentonite treatments reduced the nitrate-N content, the readily available phosphorus, and potassium content of soil, by zeolite treatments the high dosages reduced the nitrate-N content of soil. 
− Regarding the measured soil microbial parameters in both treatments low and medium dosages proved to be also effective, but the high dosages didn’t cause decreasing at the total number of bacteria, and by zeolite treatments the biomass-C content of soil.
− Also the bentonite and zeolite treatments enlarged the biomass of the test plant. We experienced significant increasing by bentonite treatments by the effect of medium and high dosages, while in zeolite treatments only the high dosage caused significantly increasing in plant biomass. The largest dosages decrease the plant biomass. 
− Under the statistical analysis we found many medium and tight correlation between the studied parameters. 

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A szervetlen-C és a szerves-C mennyiségének változása egy homoktalajban, meszezés hatására
Published March 27, 2002

The effect of liming on different organic and inorganic carbon forms in soil was studied in a pot experiment on acidic sandy soil (pH(H2O)=4.38; pH(KCl)=3.42). We used three kinds of liming doses (which were signed M1, M2, M3,). M1 was half of the M2 dose; M2 was the calculated lime dose and M3 was one and the half dose of M2. Lime (CaCO3) was ...mixed into the soil in powdery form. In addition to liming treatments, a uniform N, P and K treatment (1-1-1g N, P2O5 and K2O per pot) was given. Water supply was set up to 75% field water capacity of soil. Pots were watered daily. During the vegetation period soil and plant (oats; Avena sativa L.) samples were taken from each treatment three times (after 6-10-15 weeks). We determined inorganic- and total-C of the soil by Vario EL element analyser (based on dry combustion method) and calculated the organic-C.
The conclusions can be summarized as follows:
– Liming treatments had a significant positive effect on the soil-pH and caused quantitative change of different carbon forms of soil.
– Increasing tendency of liming doses caused more intensive changes in inorganic- and organic-C forms of soil.
– A significant correlations was found between the soil pH and the inorganic-C fraction of soil.
– A decreasing correlation was found between the vegetation period and the organic-C fraction.

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Impact of ammonium nitrate and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer on dry matter accumulation of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published November 3, 2010

Pot experiment was performed to investigate the effects of increasing NH4NO3 doses with or without Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer
application on dry matter production of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Experiment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil of Debrecen-Látókép and on humus sandy soil of Őrbottyán. The bi-factorial trials w...ere arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Grass was cut three times. Dry matter production was determined and the sum of biomass of cuts was calculated as cumulated dry weights. Analysis of variance was carried out on the data in order to provide a statistical comparison between the treatment means. The least significant difference (LSD5%) test was used to detect differences between means. On the basis of our results it can be concluded, that the dry weights of ryegrass cultivated on chernozem soil were higher than on sandy soil. With increasing nitrogen supply the dry matter production of grass significantly increased in both types of soils. In case of sandy soil the increasing effect was more expressed, but dry weights of this soil never reached the appropriate values of chernozem soil. Application of Microbion UNC had positive effect on dry matter production of ryegrass grown on both two types of soils but the effect was more expressed on chernozem soil. Finally it can be concluded that the increasing effect of NH4NO3 on biomass weights was more expressed in both types of soils, the biofertilizer application also increased the dry weights of plant in a small degree. 

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Evaluating changes in nitrogen and sulphur content in a soil-plant system in a long-term fertilization experiment
Published December 1, 2020

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of long term NPK fertilization (considering that S containing superphosphate was supplied for 26 years of experiment, but since 9 years S has not used any longer) on sulphur- and nitrogen content and N/S ratio of winter wheat. The second objective of this work was to determine the of the amount of the different nitrogen and sulphur fraction in chernozem soil in a long term fertilization experiment. The third aim of the work was to determine if a relationship could be established between the studied parameters. Based on our results, it can be stated that the sulphur containing superphosphate supplied in the period of 1984-2010 has no longer significant effect on total sulphur content of plant in 2018. The NPK fertilization treatments had positive effect on total nitrogen content of winter wheat. In general, increasing NPK doses resulted in significantly higher nitrogen. The effect of irrigation applied in previous years has no statistically significant effect on the sulphur and nitrogen content of wheat. The wheat grain produced in our experiment, especially in fertilized treatments showed S deficiency. Analysing the changes of CaCl2 soluble nitrate-N and total N of the soil, it can be stated that the effect of increasing fertilizer doses clearly appears in these parameters, because the treatment with increasing fertilizer doses resulted higher CaCl2 soluble N forms compared to the control treatment in soil. These values increased until flowering stage of wheat and after that a slightly decrease was observed as a result of higher N uptake of plant. In overall, it can be stated, that the effect of superphosphate on measured sulphur fraction is prevailed. With increasing fertilizer doses higher sulphate content was detected in soil, but the sulphate content measured in different soil extractant is not enough for the wheat in this experiment area. Studying the correlation between the measured parameters of plant and soil, it can be concluded, that the relationships between nitrogen in the plant and in the soil is stable, and did not change during the growing season. The correlation between plant S and soil S varied in the measured periods and the r value was low in most cases. At the stage of flowering the highest r value was found between KCl-SO4 and plant S. In the stage of ripening the strongest correlation was detected between KH2PO4-SO4 and grain S content.

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Measuring of nitrogen leaching using ceramic suction cups at different locations
Published December 4, 2001

Ceramic suction cups were used for the measurement of N-concentration in soil solutions under different soil and climate conditions in both field experiments of Rostock University and Agricultural University of Debrecen (Hungary). Depending on the soil utilisation the change in the N concentration of the soil solution can be proved on both site...s.
The experimental field of Rostock University can be characterised by its high groundwater table. The nitrogen concentration of soil solutions in the different soil layers were determined by the trend downward of water. In the dactylis (Dactilis glomerata) experiment, the quadruple treatments involved the following: with and without N-fertiliser, with and without harvesting, respectively. In the lower soil layers, the least rising N concentrations were established in case of the treatment without N-fertiliser combined with harvesting. The nitrogen leaching calculated from the infiltrated water quantity and the nitrate N concentration increased in the following order: without N-fertiliser, with harvesting < without N-fertiliser, without harvesting < with N-fertiliser, with harvesting << with N-fertiliser, without harvesting.
The field experiment site of Debrecen can be characterised by a low groundwater table. The effect of N-fertilisation on the nitrate-N concentration of soil solution in the soil layers can be stated unanimously. Permanent nitrate-N leaching cannot be established due to the water upward movement under semiarid climate conditions. Intermittently transfer of nitrate-N between the soil layers is probable in cases of remarkable precipitation.

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Different soil fertility conditions depending on different land use methods
Published November 13, 2012

In precision nutrient management the most important aspect is adaptation but we should consider the possibility of the long-term improvement of soil fertility within the less fertile landscape zones.  This possibility can be evaluated principally by long-term field experiments, which are running on similar soil types. The results of these ...field experiments can indicate that which soil fertility status should be attained. Some more important soil fertility data, (such as pH, P-, K- and soil organic matter (SOM) content) of a long-term field  experiment with increasing farmyard manure(FYM) doses or equivalent NPK fertilizers, set up on an Eutric cambisol, are presented. The yieldincreasing capacity of FYM doses was only 82%, as compared to the equivalent amount of mineral NPK, but long-term FYM treatments resulted in 10% higher SOM content than that of equivalent NPK
fertilizer doses. The studies indicate that SOM content is a function of local climate and clay content of the soil, and neither long-term high FYM doses can increase SOM content steadily above a supposed steady-state value. However we have to make efforts to keep the optimum level. The lowest soil reactions developed both with the highest NPK doses and without any fertilization. AL-P2O5 content of soil was increased more by mineral fertilization than by FYM treatments, but in case of AL-K2O content there was no difference between the fertilization variants. However the highest doses of both fertilization  variants increased soil nutrient content to an excessive degree. Wecould get very valuable data from the unfertilized control plots as well, where long-term yield data suppose 48 kg ha-1 year-1 air-borne N-input.

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The effect of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the growth and nutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published June 30, 2018
Sulphur is an essential element for plants. Decreasing sulphur deposition from the air, and the use of more concentrated phosphate fertilizers, which contain no sulphur, has led to reports of sulphur deficiencies for wheat. Sulphur deficiency significantly affects yield and also the quality of wheat. The pot exper...iment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil at Látókép, Hungary, test plant was spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Seven treatments were used where nitrogen and sulphur were supplied as soil fertilizers in increasing rates (NS1, NS2, NS3) and in foliar fertilizer as well (NS1+fol., NS2+fol., NS3+fol.). Plant aboveground biomass production was determined in samples taken in the stages of development BBCH 29-30, 51-59, 61-69, 89. The nitrogen and sulphur content of straw and grain were measured. N/S ratios of grain and straw were calculated. The weights of grain were ranging between 8.6–16.1 g/pot. NS2 and NS2+fol. treatments produced the highest values. Foliar fertilizer had no further effect on grain. Analysing the values of the straw, it was observed that tendencies were similar to values of grain. The NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of straw and the NS3 rate already decreased that amount. The obtained results show the unfavourable effect of excessively high rate applied in NS3 treatment. The supplementary foliar fertilizer had no significant influence on the weight of straw. Both N and S-uptake of plant was very intensive at the stem elongation stage, then the N and S-content of plant continuously decreased in time in all treatments. The N-content of grain ranged between 2.215–2.838%.
The N-content of grain slightly increased with increasing of nitrogen doses. In the higher doses (NS2, NS3) foliar fertilization slightly increased the nitrogen content of grain, although this effect was not statistically proved. The N-content of straw varied from 0.361 to 0.605%. The growing dose of soil fertilizer also considerably increased the nitrogen content of straw. Foliar fertilization further increased the nitrogen content of straw. The S-content of grain ranged between 0.174–0.266%. The lowest fertilizer dose (NS1) significantly increased the sulphur content of grain. The further increasing fertilizer doses (NS2, NS3) did not cause additional enhance in sulphur content of grain.
The foliar fertilizer also did not change the sulphur value of plant. The increasing amount of soil fertilizer and the supplementary foliar fertilizer had no effect on the sulphur content of straw. The treatments influenced the N/S ratios of grain and straw. On the basis of experimental results it can be concluded that the examined nitrogen and sulphur containing soil fertilizer had positive effect on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown on the calcareous chernozem soil. The soil fertilizer application enhanced the grain nitrogen and sulphur content. The highest rate of fertilizer (600 kg ha-1) proved to have decreasing effect on the yield. The sulphur and nitrogen containing foliar fertilizer did not have significant effect on the yield parameters but slightly increased the nitrogen content of plant.
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Study of the microbiological activity in the agrocenosis from Crisurilor Plain
Published May 6, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The seasonal variations of soil microorganisms depend on changes in the soil chemical properties and the microbiological processes of soil are determined in main by different cropping systems, soil management and season. Investigation of the microbiological properties of a haplic luvisol, under different cultivation conditions showed that anthropogenic factors such as fertilization and treatments with pesticides was favourable for certain microorganisms while others were inhibited by these factors. In order the quantitative occurence of microorganism was aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs (105–107 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil) were followed by Actinomycetes, yeast and mould (103–106 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil), nitrogen fixing bacteria (102–105 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil) and nitrifying bacteria (10-1–103 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil). The highest values of aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs were found in cropland and undisturbed meadow of haplic luvisol. Actinomycetes are more developed in undisturbed soils than in the cultivated soils. The number of yeast and mould was high in the apricot tree orchard, and Azotobacter and nitrifying bacteria were identified in a small number in all the soil variants studied. Among the total number of aerobic microorganisms, pH and humus content statistically proved relationship was established. Total number of yeast and mould depends on the proportion of 10.89% by moisture content and pH. The numerical presence of Azotobacter depends in a proportion of 9.6% by the ammonia nitrogen content and pH variations. The numerical presence of nitrifying bacteria depends in a proportion of 1.69% by the nitric nitrogen content and humus content variation.

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The effect of different bacterial fertilizers on the AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, and the biomass of the rye-grass (Lolium perenne, L)
Published December 16, 2012

In pot experiment the effect of different bacterial fertilizers on some soil properties, and the amount of plant biomass were studied. The
experiment was set up in 2010 at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, in a three replications in a random block design. The ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) was used as a test plan...t. The studied soil type was calcareous chernosem soil from Látókép. In our laboratory AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, the phosphatase enzyme activityof soil, the dry weight of rye-grass, and the phosphorus content of rye-grass were determined.
The results of the study were the following:
– The bacterial fertilizers - by basic treatments NPK - had significant positive effect on the AL- soluble phosphorus content of the soil.
– The soil phosphatase enzyme activity was increased in all cases strongly by the microbial preparations used, the greatest impact was the Bactofil A bacterial fertilizer.
– The plant educed P values significantly increased by the effect of microbial products, in addition to the fund NPK. In this case, the EM-1 and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer were the effective.
– In case of the rye-grass biomass none of the bacterial preparations used caused any significant changes, either alone or when used them with straw treatment.

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The Role and Significance of Soil Analyses in Plant Nutrition and Environmental Protection
Published March 4, 2006

Hungary has a rich history of soil analyses and soil mapping. Our main tasks today are the preservation of soil fertility as well as balancing the goals of production and environmental protection. The main requirement of agricultural production is to adapt to ecological and economic conditions.
In a series of consultative meetings in the pas...t seven years, representatives from Central and Eastern Europe have analyzed nutrient management practices in their respective countries. According to a joint memorandum agreed upon in 2000, in the countries awaiting accession, the quantity of nutrients used per hectare is considerably smaller than the Western-European usage targeted through special subsidies. The current low nutrient usage contradicts the principles of sustainability and that of the efficient use of resources, jeopardizing soil fertility.
In Hungary, the use of inorganic fertilizers underwent a dynamic development, which manifested itself in an almost tenfold usage growth between 1960 and 1985. This growth slowed down somewhat between 1985 and 1990 and then reduced dramatically after 1990, reaching record lows at the usage levels of the 60s. The nutrient supply has had a negative balance for the last 15 years.
The increasing and then decreasing usage trends can equally be detected in the domestic yield averages of wheat and corn as well as in the nutrient supply of soils. Yields were the largest when usage levels were the highest, and decreased thereafter. Draughts have also contributed to smaller yields. The dramatic decrease in the use of inorganic fertilizers when adequate organic fertilizers are lacking endangers our soils’ fertility.
About 50% of soils in Hungary are acidic. Acidity is mostly determined by soil formation, but especially on soils with a low buffering capacity, this acidity may intensify due to inorganic fertilizers. Sustainable agriculture requires the chemical improvement of acidic soils. According to their y1 values, the majority of our acidic soils need to be improved. This chemical soil remediation is required in 15% of the acidic soils, while it’s recommended for another 20% of these soils.
Results of the analyses conducted in the framework of the soil-monitoring system set up in Hungary in 1992 show that in 95% of the analyzed samples, the toxic element content is below the allowable limit. Cultivated areas are not contaminated; toxicity above the legal level was found only in specific high-risk sampling areas: in the vicinity of industry, due to local overload. The basic principle of sustainable agriculture is to preserve soil fertility without undue strain on the environment. The intensity of the production needs to be considered according to the conditions of the site; i.e.; nutrient management needs to be site-specific. It is recommended to differentiate three types of cultivated land in terms of environmental sensitivity: areas with favorable conditions, endangered areas, and protected areas, and then to adopt nutrient management practices accordingly. To meet all the above-mentioned goals is impossible without systematic soil analysis. Tests conducted by the national monitoring system cannot replace regular field measurements.

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Urgent agricultural issues of soil protection
Published June 30, 2018

The primary aim of this study is to draw attention to the importance of legal problems of soil protection. The basis for my study is the ombudsman’s 2016 principle of soil protection. This resolution summarizes the most pressing soil protection measures in 15 points that need to be taken as soon as possible to preserve soil resources. To narr...ow the wide range of topics, I will examine three points: (1) preservation of soil resources, (2) soil sealing, (3) brownfield instead of greenfield. Hungary is in a special position concerning this most ancient natural resource, as only 11% of all the land covered area of Earth consists of soil, the EU average is less than 30%, while in Hungary it is more than 60%. Despite the existing protective legal requirements, soil degradation is a constant issue. The persistence of population growth spells the need for more arable land, but as a result of the stressful impacts caused by people we are running out of useable topsoil.

Assessing both the short and long term process of land reclamation, it can be stated that more and more farmland becomes permanently and imperviously covered for other purposes each year, and as the arable land area decreases, the impervious surface area grows despite all respective decisions, regulations and prohibitions.

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Impact assesment of soil conditioners on a high clay content soil
Published February 17, 2015

Our measurements were done in a soil conditioner experiment started in 2014 which was set in conventional tillage system at the Karcag Research Institute where a soil conditioner was used from 2010. Effect of two different soil conditioners on compaction, moisture content of the soil and on CO2-emission was studied. Measurements were... done after sowing of maize and millet, and on stubble after harvesting. It can be established that less degree of compaction was characteristic to the soil of the plots treated for several years with the soil conditioner during the vegetation period than in case of untreated plots. Higher CO2-emission values were observed on the plots treated for several years than on the control plots. This effect can’t be established in case of soil conditioners used for first time in this year.

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Role of living bacteria and other amendment in early development of maize
Published April 23, 2014

Different bacteria and wood ash, as a possible micro-nutrient, and liming material, was examined in our experiment on the early growth of corn seedlings.

The development of renewing energy resources includes the use of energy grasses and energy forests. The intensive land use in forestry and in agriculture may cause the acidification of... soils due to the harvest, or leaching of cations. To maintain the sustainability of soils necessary to maintain it’s the buffer capacity, and pH. Beside the lime the wood ash can is one of the most effective sources to provide the sustainability of intensive land use. The soil born micro organisms play a significant role in the maintenance of soil quality. The bio fertilizer, that contains soil originated bacteria (Azotobacter, and Bacillus sp.), was used in the experiments. The plants release several organic acids by their roots lowering the soil pH, and make more available the sparingly soluble minerals. The amounts of released organic matter depend on stress intensity, as the high pH is. The soil life has a significant role to keep the soil conditions on sustainable level, since there are several similarities in nutrient uptake mechanism between the bacteria and higher plants. Advantageous effects of bio-fertilizer were observed in our experiments.

We came to the conclusion that the use of wood ash is recommended instead of lime for the improvement of acidic soils, on the evidence of its pH increasing effect. The wood ash contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants. The solubility of heavy metals is very low; therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture by our experiments. The retardation of growth at higher ash doses can be explained by the modification effect to the soil pH, as far as the original soil pH was pH 6.8, and when ash was given to the soil, the pH increases to 7.8 pH, that is unfavourable for the uptake of most nutrients.

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Changing of some parameters of the soil-plant system as an effect of different composts
Published October 5, 2010

Composting is an alternative way for practicing site-specific and environmental friendly plant nutrient supply. Our aim was to study the effect of different composts on plant and soil system. 
Pot experiment with acidic sandy soil blended with three composts in five (0%, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50%) proportion was set up. Our experimental plan...t was perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). After the harvest of ryegrass we measured the fresh and dry weight of harvested plants, the P-, K-, Mg-contents, and the pH of soils.
The three composts had different effect on dry weight production and on nutrient-supply of soil. We established that one of the compost had significantly larger effect on the dry weight of ryegrass compared to the others. In this study we proved that favourable compost/soil proportion is different in the case of different composts.

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Effect of soil-compost proportion on the abiotic and biotic parameters of soilplant system
Published December 15, 2010

The environmental awareness, coming to the front in the 21st century, motivates us to supply the plant nutrient demand (in point of the plant, the environment and the human health) with natural materials.
Composting is known since the beginning of civilization. We came to know more the processes of composting as a result of last d...ecades’ research, but numerous unexplained questions remained up to this day. The good compost is dark gray or brown, and it should not create an odor. It has aggregate structure, and it’s pH is neutral. Compost is soil-like (Fehér, 2001), nutrient-rich material, which contains valuable nutrients extracted from soil, so if we recycle this, we can decrease the chemical fertilizer and other (example: mineral energy) expenses.
The reason of that we chose the more accurate cognition of compost utilization is to do more effective the site-specific nutrient supply. This increases the average yield and the quality of yield. Besides we can decrease the harmful effects, which endanger the plant, the environment, and the human body.
During the compost utilization experiment we blended the  acid sandy soil with compost in 4 different volumetric proportions (5 treatments) than we set the pots randomized. The advantage of this method is that we can provide equal conditions for plants so we can measure the effect of  treatments correctly. Our experimental plant was ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), that grows rapidly, tolerates the glasshouse conditions, and indicates the effect of treatments well. After the harvest of ryegrass we measured the fresh and dry weight of harvested leaves and the total C-, N-, S-content of the dry matter and of the soil, we examined the pH and the salt concentration of  soil as well. 
Our aim was to study and evaluate the relations between the compost-soil proportion and the nutrient content of soil and plant. In our previous experiments we confirmed (based on variance analyses) that the compost has a beneficial effect on soil and increases the nutrient content of the soil (Szabó, 2009). But it’s important to appoint that the compound of compost is seasonally change: in winter the selective gathered municipal solid waste contains salt that were applied for non-skidding of roads, but salt has a negative effect to the plant. We proved that in our experiment the 25/75% compost/soil proportion was ideal for the plant. This content of compost effected 6 times higher green matter weight compared to the 100% sandy soil. 

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Influences of different organic fertilizers on nutrients of humic sandy soil and on the growth of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
Published October 24, 2016

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of manure with different origin (horse, cattle), various bedding materials (straw, sawdust) and diverse doses (30 t ha-1, 60 t ha-1) and the impact of food waste compost on the plant growth and the available plant nutrient content of soil. The study was condu...cted on humic sandy soil and consisted of 9 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was grown as the test crop. The treatments were: 1. unfertilized control; 2. horse manure with straw (30 t ha-1); 3. horse manure with sawdust (30 t ha-1); 4. cattle manure (30 t ha-1); 5 food waste compost (30 t ha-1); 6. horse manure with straw (60 t ha-1); 7. horse manure with sawdust (60 t ha-1); 8. cattle manure (60 t ha-1); 9. food waste compost (60 t ha-1). Plant growth was monitored for 4 weeks. Shoot and root weights per pot were measured, total biomass weight per pot were counted.

On the basis of the results it can be concluded, that among treatments the application of horse manure with straw enhanced spinach growth most significantly compared to other treatments and to the non-treated control, resulted the highest weights of leaves and roots of spinach. At the same time even small dose (30 t ha-1) of this fertilizer caused increased plant available nitrogen and phosphorus of soil and the higher dosage further increased these values. The horse manure with sawdust applied in lower dose did not alter the leaves and roots weights, but higher portion (60 t ha-1) caused significantly decreased plant biomass. The results proved that the bedding material may significantly alter the composition of manure and may change the plant nutrition effect of organic fertilizer. Cattle manure and food waste compost in both applied doses enhanced plant growth. Both fertilizers increased the plant available nitrogen forms and phosphorus content of soil, but cattle manure caused higher increase.

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Comparative studies to model bioavailability of pesticides in distinctive soil types
Published February 23, 2008

Bioavailability of pesticides is determined by two major factors: soil characteristics and pesticides’ chemical feature. These factors result in a definite adsorption capability whose extent varies on a large scale. By revealing interactions between pesticides and soils it is of high interest to model bioavailability of widely used pesticides..., as it is a key element in terms of prospective toxicological aspects. Our work signifies steps forward improving pesticide soil mobility prediction models as we created model systems representing correctly natural relations. Comparison of different solvent extraction methods proved to be an efficient tool to gain information on the bioavailability of some widely used pesticides as well as to model actual environmental processes.
Comprehensive comparison has been made between different experimental methods by applying 5 extraction models showing diverse efficiency in extracting capability of pesticides. In some cases chloroform excelled in mobilizing pesticides from soil, however mostly application of humic acid solution as extraction model was found to be at least as efficient as methanol, chloroform or CaCl2-solution.
Four chemically much different pesticide (simazine, acetochlor, chlorpyrifos and diuron) were applied to two soil types (both sandy and brown forest). The extracted amounts were determined by GC/MS technique. Adsorption coefficients (Kd) were also calculated for the examined samples.
Obtained results for Kd indicated that chemical feature of pesticides seemed to be of utmost importance in terms of soil binding capability preceding the relevance of soil characteristics. Adsorption capability of chlorpyrifos proved to be the most pronounced preceding simazine and the least prone to bind to soil acetochlor and diuron

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Sight-specific development of the tools for the measurement of CO2-emission of the soil
Published October 10, 2008

Soil is the main source and at the same time the potential sink of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2, CH4). Measurements were carried out in the experimental sites (soil tillage experiments and an extensive pasture) of the Karcag Research Institute of University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences to determine the CO...b>2-emission of the soil. The in situ CO2-emission of soil was measured by means of an ANAGAS 98 infrared gas analyser in plastic (PVC) chambers, but this previously applied method (cylinders) was not suitable for the soil surface covered with grass,
hence a new instrument was needed to be invented. In order to measure CO2-emission on a larger area without deep disturbance of the soil, a special metal frame was created with a matching bowl. The most problematic part was the spatial delimitation of the measurement area as the surface of the soil can be very various and proper isolation is a must. We consider the frame+bowl method we developed suitable for measuring CO2-emission of pastures as well as other crop-fields. 

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The effect of biopreparations in pot experiment
Published March 20, 2013

In pot experiment the effect of Amykor and Organic Green Gold bioproducts and their combinations with NPK fertilizer on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass of testplant were studied. The experiment was set up in 2012 at the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block... design. The studied soil typein the pot experiment was humus sandy soil from Debrecen-Pallag with onion (Allium cepa) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 4 week) in our laboratory the samples of soil and plant were determined. The nitrate-nitrogen, AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green onion leaves, the wet weight of bulb and root of onion and biomass of onion. The results of the study were the following: – The treatments influenced positively the nitrate-nitrogen, the AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil. – The most effective treatments were the artificial fertilization (NO3-N) and the NPK+ simple dose of Amykor (AL-P2O5 and Al-K2O). – The NPK fertilization and the NPK+OGG (sprinkle in every 10 days) combinations had significant positive effect on the weight of green onion leaves. – The biofertilization and the straw+biofertilizer combinations stimulated the AL-soluble potassium content of soil occasionally. – The OGG treatment (sprinkle in every 10 days) had significant effective impact on the wet weight of bulb and root of onion. – The biomass of onion was increased by the artificial fertilization and OGG (sprinkle in every 10 days) treatment.

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The study of the fertilizing effect of wheat straw ash in a greenhouse experiment
Published October 24, 2016

The effect of wheat straw ash as a fertlizizer was studied in a pot experiment with an acidic sandy loam soil (pHKCl=4.9) with weak K and P supply. The test plant was ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The treatments were the following: 1. control untreated soil, 2. NPK fertilizer, 3. small dose of ash (1.4 g kg-1), 4 large dose o...f ash (2.8 g kg-1), 5. small dose ash completed with NP fertilizers. Soil parameters (pHH2O, pHKCl, ammoinum-lactate soluble P, K, 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble PO43--P, K, Mn, Cu, Zn ) and plant parameters (yield, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn uptake) were investigated. Based on the analysis of the straw ash sample and the results of pot experiment it can be stated that the wheat straw ash is suitable for the fertilization of the studied soil. The small dose ash completed with NP resulted in the largest yield increment (43%). In order of the treatments the pHKCl changes to: 4.9, 4.8, 5.2, 5.8, 5.1. As the N : P2O5 : K2O ratio is 0 : 1: 3.5 in the wheat straw ash sample, to reach optimal yield ash should be completed with N and P.

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Soil Biological Activity within Integrated and Ecological Management of Soil
Published May 12, 2002

The effects of the integrated (IS) and ecological (ES) management of soil on chosen parameters of soil biological activity were investigated in the period 1999-2000. The following characteristics were determined: biomass of microorganisms (Cmic), dehydrogenase activity (DHA), an amount of potentially mineralizable nitrogen (Nbiol), and nitrific...ation intensity. Soil samples were collected from a stationary field experiment established in 1990 on gley brown soil at the Experimental Station of Slovak Agricultural University, Nitra. For each field with a different crop rotations two fertilization treatments were selected: (a) no fertilization and (b) use of manure for silage maize and, within IS, also mineral fertilizers. There was a statistically significant difference at α = 0.05 in the amount of biologically released nitrogen (Nbiol) between both systems and in the nitrification intensity in favour of ES. A higher amount of microbial biomass (Cmic) was noted for ES but without statistical significance. Cultivated crops and the timing of soil sampling were found to have the greatest effect on all the parameters observed in individual experimental years and within the two systems of soil management.

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Regulation in Hungary of the Use of Waste Water and Sewage Sludge in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004

Regulating the use of waste water and sewage sludge in agriculture in such a way as to prevent harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man.
In European Union there is a Council Directive (86/278/EEC) on the protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture.
In the enlargement ...process of the European Union the Hungarian Government created a new rule (50/2001. (IV. 3.) Government regulation) which regulate using of waste water and sewage sludge in agriculture. This Hungarian rule is legal and reconcilable with the Council Directive.
The Regulation lays down limit values for concentrations of heavy metals in the soil, in waste water, in sludge and for the maximum annual quantities of heavy metals which may be introduced into the soil.
Waste water, sludge and soil on which it is used must be sampled and analysed.
Sewage sludge must be treated for six months before being used in agriculture.
The use of waste water and sludge prohibited on grassland, on nature reserved areas, in ecological farming, and soil in witch fruit and vegetable crops are growing, with the exception of fruit trees.
The states soil conservation authority must keep records registering the following:
– the quantities of waste water and sludge produced;
– the composition and properties of sludge;
– the type of treatment carried out;
– the names and addresses of the recipients of the sludge and places where the sludge is to be used.
The Government every four years must prepare a consolidated report on the use of sludge in agriculture, specifying quantities used, criteria followed and any difficulties encountered. This report must be forwarded to the Commission.
Last but not least in the light of Member States reports, the Commission will if necessary submit appropriate proposals for increased protection of the soil and the environment.

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Preliminary Critical P-limit Values of 0.01 M CaCl2 Soil Test Procedure
Published December 4, 2001

In the last decade, the 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction procedure was tested as a multi-nutrient extractant. In 1995-97, international joint research activities were carried out within the COPERNICUS project. Detailed calibration of conventional and the 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction procedures for pH, Mg and K were published.
The amo...unt of phosphorus extracted using a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution is very low and reflects the intensity parameter of phosphorus bio-availability. As a readily desorbed P fraction of soils can reflect the soil P-supply and the CaCl2-P values are in close correlation with P-fertiliser rates and P balance. However, the effects of various soil characteristics on CaCl2-P values are different and their interpretation is difficult.
Relatively poor correlations were found between amounts of P extracted by conventional and CaCl2 soil test methods and, therefore, P limit values could not be calculated directly. To characterise the soil P supply at different sites, the CaCl2 desorbed P and the adsorbed P in a modified Baker Soil Test were also applied.
Soil test results of Hungarian long-term fertiliser experiments and recommended CaCl2-P limit values, calculated on yield effects and soil characteristics, are discussed.

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The zooecological remediation of technogen faulted soil in industrial region of Ukraine steppe zone
Published November 3, 2010

In Ukraine’s Steppe zone the extraction of minerals is important. To eliminate the consequences of coal mining the agricultural recultivation of the disturbed soil is used. Thus toxic compounds for human beings and the majority of plants and soil biota representatives, which can be found mining rock, get into plants and invertebrates by troph...y chains. When remediating soil, it is necessary to create tropic conditions in order to provide the life of soil biota. Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are the primary decomposers of the organic material. They are numerous in soil and facilitate the improvement of natural and artificially created soil. This paper studies the possible influence of different variants of substrates, which are used in re-cultivation, the leaf litter from leaves of different wood species, as well as different levels of humidity on the representatives of soil saprophages. Optimal variants of artificial mixed-soil providing the stable existence of animals have been shown, which are recommended for the implementation of rehabilitation measures.

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Evaluating of soil sulphur forms changes in long-term field experiments of Látókép
Published December 15, 2019

The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes of different sulphur forms (soluble, adsorbed) in chernozem soil in a long-term field experiment supplied with increasing doses of NPK fertilizers for a long time. In addition, other objective of this study included the examination of the applicability of recommended extractants of the different ...sulphate fraction in Hungarian soils. A long-term field experiment was established at the Research Station of Látókép of the University of Debrecen in 1984. In addition to control, two levels of NPK fertilizer doses have been used with irrigated and non-irrigated variants. Winter wheat and corn were cropped in a crop rotation on plots. Soil samples were collected in three different development stages of winter wheat, at the stage of stem elongation (April), flowering (May) and ripening (June of 2018) from the topsoil (0–20 cm) of experiment plots. Water-soluble inorganic sulphate was extracted with 0.01M CaCl2 solutions. The soluble plus adsorbed sulphate was extracted with 0.016M KH2PO4 solution. Sulphate was measured by turbidimetric method. 0.01M CaCl2-SO42— ranged between 0.293–1.896 mg kg-1 and the 0.016 M KH2PO4-SO42- varied between 5.087–10.261 mg kg-1. The values of KH2PO4 SO42- was higher than that of CaCl2-SO42-, because KH2PO4 extracted the adsorbed and soluble fractions of sulphate, while CaCl2 extracted the soluble sulphate fraction. The amount of absorbed sulphate was calculated by the differences of KH2PO4- SO4 and CaCl2-SO4. The KH2PO4 characterizes mainly the adsorbed sulphate fraction much more than the water-soluble fraction. KCl is the most widely used extractant for the determination of plant available sulphate content of soil in Hungary; therefore, KCl-SO42- fraction also was determined. The KCl-SO42- ranged between 0.328–2.152 mg kg-1. The CaCl2-SO42- and KCl-SO42- fractions were compared and based on Pearson's linear correlation, moderate correlation was established (r=0.511) between them. In all three extractant (0.01M CaCl2, 1M KCl, 0.016 M KH2PO4) higher sulphate fractions were measured in the fertilized plots where superphosphate had been supplied for ages until 2010. The arylsulphatase activity of soil also was determined and ranged between 9.284 and 26.860 µg p-nitrophenol g-1 h-1. The lowest value was observed in the treatment with highest NPK2 dose, both in irrigated and non-irrigated areas.

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