Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured of H1015 tomato hybrid with different bacterial treatments (B0–B1–B2–B3) and three irrigation treatments: regular irrigated (RI), deficit irrigated (DI) and non-irrigated conditions (I0). The aim of the experiments was to show the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the yield, dry m...atter and vitamin C content of processing tomato during different irrigation treatments, and measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence during the ripening and development stages. According to the results, none of the bacterial treatments had a statistical effect on the quantity and quality of the tomato and on the chlorophyll fluorescence, only the irrigation. Further studies are needed.
Hungary lies on the northern edge of rice production area. According to this, the climatic conditions area not perfect for this species. The production area of rice involves typically the poorer quality soils, however these meet the requirements of rice. In Hungary exclusively domestic types are grown which have high yield and good quality and...these are usually wore successful than foreign types. On the other hand, these Hungarian types should be improved considering safety in production. Nowadays, rice is grown in large scale companies with 300-1400 hectares, where production technology already exists, machinery is suitable, however the latter one a little bit old.
The average yields of the analysed companies were 3-4 t/ha in the past few years, which were a little bit above the national averages. The operating cost per hectare is almost 200 thousand HUF, from which the main part is the cost of machinery (35%) and the material cost (34%). The main part of the latter one is the irrigation costs (30%). The average cost, calculated from the total production cost, is 80 thousand HUF/t. Considering the above-mentioned costs and the price of rice (75 thousand HUF/t) it can be stated that the profitability of the rice sector is not the best, the cost rated profitability is -6.6%. According to the results of this analysis possibilities for the increase in profitability and improvement are increased subsidies and market price, as well as genetic improvement.
Nowadays, many methods have been worked up in the interests of objective expression of winter wheat rheological quality. These define wide spectrum in view of their complexity and apparatus claim. The needs for the methods are definitely increasing in Hungary, too. It is very important to get acquainted with the alveographical quality and quali...fication and also their using in wide range.
In our research we examined the alveographical parameters of 12 winter wheat varieties in Szeged (in Hungary) on the basis of the results in three years (2005-2007).
We established with correlation analysis that there is no statistical relation between the alveaographical W and G values. The other alveographical parameters have significant correlation.
The author examined the possibilities of increasing the labour efficiency at 6 large-scale farms and at 109 small-scale farms in Hajdú-Bihar county. He stated that the level of labour efficiency was higher for large scale farms than for small-scale farms. However, there is potential for work organisation of milking, feeding and other jobs on t...he large-scale farms, too. The reason for the low labour efficiency on small-scale dairy farms is the small number of livestock, obsolete machinery, and lack of expertise. The author points out that the quality of raw milk is also an important issue. Using examination methods of work organisation, he determined the critical points of raw milk production.
According to the sales results of the past two years we can draw the conclusion that although the Hungarian hybrids have very good capabilities, they are still in a big disadvantage in the corn seed sales sector, considering other foreign varieties. These above mentioned disadvantages, as published in prior essays, are not because of the variet...y’s low quality, but the lack or little presence of marketing. In order to gain position and market on the seed sales sector in Hungary, a lot more has to be done in the area of advertisement.
Seed advertising is very particular and different from all other types of goods. To make growers familiar with your product, you have to be in continuous contact with them, through field days, exhibitions and presentations, besides the well known and in other areas also used quotidian advertisement methods.
Although Hungarian breeders reach better and better results each year, they still cannot catch up with the multinational companies spending millions of dollars on development and advertising, thanks to their financial position.
Finally we can state that choosing the appropriate variety for our needs and possibilities of land and machinery is of great importance in order to reach the best results we can.
Predator fish species are in great demand, both in fish production and consumption. Because of their rarity and perfect meat quality, these species have considerable economical significance and increasing domestic and foreign demand.
The brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) has been in Hungary for more than 100 years, but not popular because
Our objective is to ensure the adequacy of the brown bullhead in intensive fish farming and its biological, technological and economic references. The pre-experiments were performed at the Bocskai Fishing Co-operative in Hajdúszoboszló, where we reared the juvenile age class. In our university’s recirculating system we examinated the brown bullhead from the fingerling age class.
The black bullhead prefers artificial feed, and produces excellent growth parameters and a specific feed-live weight conversation ratio.
Based on the results of a previous experiment, we concluded that by choosing a suitable cultivar, it is possible to produce artichoke in a one-year cultivation system in Hungarian weather circumstances. The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the performance of two Californian artichoke cultivars (Green Globe, Imperial Star)...under the local conditions. Experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003, by using four
different sowing and two different planting dates (03.01. and 03.20. – planting 05.07.; 04.24. and 05.06. – planting 06.12.). For both cultivars, 100% of the plants initiated buds. In most of the cases, Imperial Star produced higher total and marketable yields than Green Globe did, while it formed bigger and more uniform buds. Our opinion is that the main reason for this result was that Imperial Star tolerated the dry and warm Hungarian summer much better. Irrespective of the variety by earlier sowing dates higher total yield was achieved. Based on our results, we found that under Hungarian circumstances, both cultivars could produce acceptable total yields. However, the weather circumstances of the given year influenced bud quality, and thus marketable yield, to a great extent.
Transformation of pesticides in the environment is a highly complex process affected by different factors. Both biological and physical-chemical factors may play a role in the degradation, whose ratio depends on the actual environmental conditions.
Our study aims to reveal specific details of photolytic degradation of pesticides as important
The photolytic degradation of frequently applied pesticides of distinctive types (acetochlor – acetanilide, simazine – triazine, chlorpyrifos – organophosphate, carbendazim – benzimidazole) was investigated. A special, immerseable UV-light source was applied in order to carry out photodegradation. The degradation processes were followed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry coupled with gas chromatography (GC/MS). EI mass spectrometry was used to identify the degradation species.
Each of the studied pesticides underwent photolytic decomposition, and the detailed mechanism of photolytic transformation was established. At least four degradation species were detected and identified in each case. Loss of alkyl, alkyloxy, amino-alkyl and chloro groups might be regarded as typical decomposition patterns. Deamination occurred at the last stage of decomposition.
In Hungary the dairy sector is in a long-term critical period, the stock has been in constant decline. The consumption of milk and dairy products in Hungary is slightly rising compared to the world tendency, and it is fallen behind the level in 1990. The milk consumption per capita in 2006 was with 75 liters less than the EU-15 average. Dairy e...nterprise is a very risky activity: the profitability of the enterprise is affected by the fluctuation of feed and animal health products prices from the side of inputs, and by the fluctuation of end-product prices. Under these circumstances it is vital for the
cattle breeders, in order to survive, to harness the reserves in the breeding as effectively as possible. In our research we made a multi-faceted efficiency analysis of an agricultural holding’s three dairy farms. The chosen method for the analysis was Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The
selection of the method is justified by the fact that there is not such a reliable database by which we could define production functions, and that DEA makes possible to manage several inputs and outputs, i.e. multiple decision problems, simultaneously. By using DEA the sources that causes shortfalls can be identified, analyzed and quantified on farms that does not operate efficiently, thus it can help the corporate decision support successfully. In the model inputs are the cost data per one liter milk – feed, medicinal product use, logistic costs -, and the main parameters
concerning the keeping and rearing. Outputs are indicators concerning milk production, milk quality and others. We prepared the model in MS Excel, the linear programming model series were programmed by Visual Basic. After solving the model, in light of the shadow prices we can determine why either of the farms is not efficient.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The comparative trial has been set up in the Demonstration Garden of the Institute of Crop Sciences of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Studies, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management in 2012, with 24 hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing periods. The soil of the trial is lime-coated chernozem, with a humus layer of 50–70 cm.
The present paper explored the influence of breeding native pigs on livelihood conditions and the contribution of native pigs to the rural development and rural poverty reduction in the rural areas of Lao PDR. Pig production plays an important role in meat supply for both urban and rural areas of Laos. It is clear that most of the pig produ...cts in the country come from smallholder pig farms, and more than 90 percent of those products are the native pigs mostly raised by farmers in remote areas. In general, livestock production distributed between 15–18 percent to GDP, while most of animal production still remains as the traditional methods. Rural development is always the first priority of the Laos government since its independence in 1975, however, the poverty rate in rural areas remained high at 23% in 2018. It might block the development goal of the government which will lead the country out of the least development status by 2020. The food security and malnutrition in the rural or mountainous areas are considered as the majority issue that both government and several international organizations have been thriving hard to overcome, which researchers showed that more than 45% of children under 5 years of age were stunted, and 28% of them were underweight. Inspired of more than 50 % of the households in the rural areas of Laos reported they consumed chicken and pork at least one day a week. While native pigs play an important role on meat supply, it also constituted around 9–14 % of annual income of the households in rural areas. Therefore, the increase the production of pigs and poultry is one option to promote the meat supply to households in the rural areas of Laos. This paper will be a pathway to guide and identify for the final decision to what experiment will be implemented on Lao native pig in Laos (2021–2023) to complete the comparative study on reproductive physiology and reproductive management methods of Hungarian and Lao Indigenous pig breed. Which found it still needs further afford to research and improve more about native pig performance for all areas of productive and quality management.
revolutions and changes. Effects of these changes can be sensible at all parts of agricultural production. It results in new ownership and organisation structure. Agriculture has to suit to the new circumstances of changed firm-size and structure. These kinds of changes essentially define conditions of agricultural production in the future, and... they have an affect on husbandry of enterprises.
To be succeed in managing changes, we have to know the reasons of these alterations and nature of them. It is very important to get to know the advantages and disadvantages of the typical change-management methods and its typology. These methods are more elaborated and widespread at industrial enterprises. It is necessary to get to know the nature, characteristics and reasons of changes, and we should work out ways agricultural companies, taking notice of their speciality.
The methods and means of examinations
We aimed to point out what kind of changing processions were typified the activity of agricultural ventures. What are the speciality, strains, the arousing and obstructive factors of nowadays changes. We made questionnaire and sent them to numerous enterprises.
Most of the answers show that leaders are „floating with flow” and most part of their power is used to fight back actually challenges. Generally consciousness is missing, so they are not govern the events still more they are passive objects of occurrence.
Naturally, the given answers show, that the most important changes of past are changing of markets, importance of quality production and changes in the structure of enterprises. And – especially at companies, which deal with plant growing –, modifying of structure because of compensation.
Wine has always played an important role in the Hungarian culture and gastronomy. Today, average wine consumption is about 33 liter per person per year, which figure, comparing with datas in Western Europe, is acceptable. However, cultured wine consumption has begun to develop only in last few years. Consumers, whose knowledges about wines have... been widening, demand quality wines. The number of high standard scientific contributions on this subject has risen greatly. But comparisons of them are rather difficult because of adopting different surveying methods. This research has supported and confirmed that wine is a confidental product and previous experience could be an important determining factor during wine-purchasing. Wine is popular as a present, so the nice, elegant look, proper bottles and labels are essential for the higher rate of selling. Further, price-value rate could also be a main factor during the customers’ decision. This survey is a result of a test-research and its methodolical experience will have been used in my following researches.
Soil structure and its quality are fundamental properties because they control many processes in soils. Tillage, crop and other factors influence soil structure. Efficient protection of it needs indication of changes in soil structure. A new Normalized Stability Index proposed by Six et al. (2000) tries to evaluate these changes, which was comp...ared with some former used indices. The most common method (wet sieving) was modified to reduce the confounding effects of different particle size distribution of different soil types and method used to the investigation. Changes in soil structure caused by tillage and crop management therefore have been made quantitative and comparable. In this paper, we review the new method and Normalized Stability Index proposed by Six et al. (2000) and present the results of our investigations.
Molybdenum is not a well-known microelement, but being a constituent of several important cellular enzymes it is an essential microelement. Molybdenum occurs in all foods, but at very low levels. There does not appear to be any particular foods or types of foods, which in the absence of extrinsic factors, naturally have high levels of molybdenu...m. However, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high level of the metal in plants.
Our study is based on the long-term field experiments of Nagyhörcsök, where different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected from the experiment station to study the behaviour of molybdenum: total concentration, available concentration, leaching, transformation, uptake by and transport within the plants, accumulation in different organs, phytotoxicity and effects on the quantity and quality of the crop. In this work we present the results of maize and peas and the soil samples related to them.
According to our data molybdenum is leaching from the topsoil at a medium rate and it appears in the deeper layers. In the case of plant samples we found that molybdenum level in the straw is many times higher than that is in the grain, so molybdenum accumulates in the vegetative organs of the plant. The data also show differences in the molybdenum-uptake of cereals and Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
After hundreds of years of drought in the area of Hortobágy and its surroundings brought up the idea of building a channel in Tiszántúl. It started with the idea of an irrigation canal but it ended up in a canal with high importance which can be used in many ways. Because of financial problems the necessary renovations cannot be achieved, an...d as a side effect the amount of silt in the water started to increase, water exploitation started to decrease, and the construction works started to get spoiled. Guided by the Water Directive the East Main Channel has become one of the most significant surface water base in Hungary. To use its water as drinking water brings up a few questions, like solving the pollution problems which problems have already occured. If we want the East Main Channel to be a solution for a long time, further steps and researches are needed to solve the problem of diverting the huge amount of precipitation of the last few years and miantaining the quality of drinking water.
Age at first breeding and lifetime reproductive performance was analyzed on 17,558 F1 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts from 9 piglet producing herds of Midwest, United States entered in herds between 1st Jan 2014 and 31st July 2016. At the time of data collection Dec 2018, 15% of the sows were still active in the herds hence exc...luded from the analysis. Individual gilt data included date of birth, age in days at first mating, piglet total born by parity, lifetime piglet total born and reason for culling. Quality data checks were done before analysis to eliminate all outlier values together with sows that had no entry information for any listed category. The total database of the sows was classified into 6 classes according to age at the first mating in days 170-190(n=754), 191-211(n=4683), 212-232(n=7123), 233-253(n=3385), 254-274(n=1002) and 275-369 (n=611). Piglet total born obtained from each sow during the lifetime production was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for gilts bred between 233-253 days of age at first mating. Gilts that were bred at <233 days appeared to have a higher risk of removal by farrowing productivity as compared to the other groups. However, the results show that the risk of being culled due to health problems and conformation issues increases as the age at first mating is delayed. Overall reproductive failure appears to be the most economical culling reason across all age groups. There is a need to evaluate the best management decisions for gilt initiation in a herd to maximize her lifetime performance. The results indicate that gilts mated for the first time at the right age, 233–253 days, are more productive, both in lifetime total born and have a minimal risk of culling due to farrowing productivity.
This examination for employee’s satisfaction analyzes relationships which influence the general feelings of workers and which are revealing in horizontal and vertical. On the whole we can observe that the workers find their horizontal relationships good. In the co-worker’s relationship the appreciation and the confidence appear. Inside depa...rtments and between departments the good relationship is typical which is indispensable for the effective work. It is interesting that more than 40% of employees find their chief as „ideal superior”. The quality of vertical relation is determined by human relationships. This result is interesting because the management style is not participative in this organisation.
Field experiments were conducted to study affects of pH and hardness of spray water on efficacy of a herbicide combination (terbuthylazine + mesotrione) influenced by several pH adjusters and adjuvants in Debrecen, Hungary in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Favourable or unfavourable effects of pH and hardness of spray water could be observed under field...conditions. Evaluation of weed control efficacy is suitable for examination of affects of spray water pH and hardness on herbicides. The terbuthylazine and mesotrione herbicide combination is suitable to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weed species, however, significant effects of hardness and pH of spray carrier was observed only in control of monocotyledonous weeds. Certain pH adjusters (e.g. ammonium nitrate) can lessen harmful affects of water hardness effectively. Significant loss of efficacy of sensitive herbicide was found in hard water (by about 50-60%), and surfactants was not able to eliminate that harmful affect. However, biological activity was the same as in soft water with ammonium nitrate which can overcome the antagonism of salts. That pH adjuster had a more significant affect on the efficacy of the herbicide than the surfactant had in that experiment.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Cattle behaviour on rangeland depends on external factors, such as grass allowance and quality, temperature, net solar radiation, distance from water-source, wind speed and direction, air pressure changes and the applied breeding technology. Our research is based on previous empirical observations and modern methods to analyze the behaviour of the Hungarian Grey Cattle. Today it is crucial to use cost-effective solutions in modern beef cattle farming therefore we introduce a cost-efficient method to study and follow cattle herds. We are studying relation between traveled daily distance and air pressure. The various weather fronts influence behavioural characteristics and traveled daily distance. According to our hypothesis, the pressure-change and the wind direction has significant effect on cattle activity on pasture. As the different air masses alter the barometric conditions and unbalance the neuroendocrine system, indirectly cause relaxed or agitated behaviour
Heating with wooden chips would provide a significantly cheaper energy production alternative for the local governments in heating their facilities and in district heating as well. The raw material should be available in the appropriate quality, quantity and at the right time. This type of heating requires the well-organized and joint work of t...he forestry, transporting, processing and receiving plants. This activity might be realized in the form of non-profit clusters. In order not to suffer any losses, the participants of the product path should carry out a very careful planning regarding the factors appearing in heating with wood but missing from gas heating. One such critical element is the transportation distance which might make the basically cost-efficient wooden chip-based heating process significantly more expensive.
One of the main findings of my paper is that the transportation distance should be at most 23 kilometers for the wooden chips to be worth (economical) using against gas. From the viewpoint of practical use, this can be interpreted as the distance between the forestry and heatproducing units. By determining the constant and varying costs of transporting and chopping and from calculating the initial contribution, I concluded that the profit-making capacity of the product path would be sufficient for an energy-related investment. According to my calculations, by remaining within the economical transporting distance of 23 kilometers, such long-term savings might be achieved compared to gas heating which would partly cover the establishment of a biomass-based power plant or heating plant.
The Hungarian Large White and Hungarian Landrace pig breeds have outstanding lifetime performance, production parameters and crossbreeding ability. Nevertheless, during the recent decades, these breeds could not compete with the West European hybrid pigs concerning on production results. In this study, we made a complex andrological evaluation...of boars in different Hungarian nucleus breeding stocks. After taking blood and semen samples, performing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge, ultrasonic and thermographic examinations were done. Laboratory tests were accomplished in reproduction labs of NARIC ABNMS. Our goal was to determine the reproductive performances of boars and collect samples for future genetic examinations, respectively.
Increasing the intensity of plantations is a basic precondition for the renewal of fruit growing in Hungary.
The intensification of production of stone-fruit species is difficult for several reasons. In particular, knowledge of dwarfing rootstock is very limited. In this study, we tried to achieve smaller-sized, intensive crown formation by
In intensive cherry production, the most important variety-dependent characters determining the formation of the required productive surface are vigour of growth, branching potential and quantity and quality of the buds.
In this paper we have demonstrated that significant differences exist between varieties in these characters.
Maize is a worldwide dominant plant. According to nowadays plant production principles it is important to investigate and optimize the site-specific nutrient-supply and other production factors, such as hybrid and irrigation, in the case of this plant as well.
At the Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, Center of Agricultural Sc
We have chosen three maize hybrids – that have been bread in Martonvásár – for our investigations. The effect of macronutrients is investigated in this experiment on five levels. The half of the experimental area can be irrigated during the vegetation period – whenever it is needed – by linear irrigation equipment, but on the other half only the water amount originating from the precipitation can be used by plants.
In the year 2008 the hybrid affected the grain moisture content at P=0.1% level, while nutrient-supply had an effect at P=10% significance level. We haven’t revealed either any effect of irrigation or of interrelationship between production factors. It can be stated that there are differences between the hybrids on each nutrient-supply and on both irrigation levels. The grain moisture content increased parallel to the longer vegetation
The starch content of maize is mostly affected by the hybrid,
so on P=0.1% significance level. Regarding our results, it can be
stated, that the starch content shows a decreasing tendency
parallel to the longer vegetation periods.
The influence of honey on human health has been known since ancient times. Different components, like vitamins, amino-acids, enzymes, and the so called antioxidant activity of the honey play role in this effect, and also in the excellent quality. The aim of present study was to determine the total antioxidant activity and the flavonoid content...of some honey samples. These two parameters are widely studied, and a lot of data can be used to compare and analyse. On the basis of them we can state that our results are quite similar than those we can find in literature. Characteristic feature of the examined honey samples is, that the antioxidant activity increased with the darkening of the colour. The lowest antioxidant activity and flavonoid content was produced by the acacia honeys with greenish shade of colour. The highest values was found in the very dark honeys (forest, sage, golden rod). The only exception was the coriander honey, where despite of its lighter colour, very high antioxidant activity was