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Carcass and the Meat Quality of Hungarian Lambs
Published May 12, 2002

The author investigated 153 lambs of nine genotypes originating from breeding flocks, and 50 lambs originating from production flocks. The investigations were performed between 1995 and 1998. The authors discuss the evaluation of comformation and fat cover according to EUROP standards. The authors also investigate the proportion of valuable mea...t by genotype, and – out of the internal value indicators – the dry-matter, protein, fat, connective-tissue and hemin contents comparing the flavour, aroma, tenderness, and oven loss of the different genotypes.

The following findings should be highlighted:
♦ The Hungarian Merino breed should be improved, as – according to EUROP standards, more than 70% of these animals were rated as quality „R”.
♦ Hungarian fattening technology has to be preserved, as the lambs reach the desired slaughter weight within a short period of time, and without over-fattening.
♦ Readiness for slaughter, typical of each genotype, has to be defined, and slaughter at proper weight be achieved.
♦ It has to be re-evaluated whether the Hungarian Merino is the only breed which can be used in Hungary, as none of the investigations really proved the special characteristics and significance of this breed.
The author summarizes the findings of the investigation in five tables.

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Study of some cooking and eating quality characters on some Egyptian rice genotypes
Published April 23, 2014

Some Egyptian rice genotypes [i.e. Japonica (Sakha 104), Japonica/Indica (Egyptian hybrid1) and Indica (Giza 182)] were investigated to evaluate the cooking and eating quality characters. High significant differences in grain shape were observed among rice genotypes. Hulling, milling and head rice percentage were higher in Sakha 104 than other ...rice genotypes, while Indica type (Giza 182) recorded the lowest values in milling and physical characters. No significant differences were found in chemical composition of the three genotypes of rice was recorded, but Giza 182 had the highest protein content. All Egyptian rice genotypes were low in gelatinization temperature and soft in gel consistency. Japonica and Indica rice varieties were low in amylase content, while Japonica/Indica rice variety was intermediate. The use of RVA is considered a good index for palatability evaluation for milled rice flour and starch. The Indica and Japonica/Indica types are low in breakdown viscosity, but higher in cooked pasta than Japonica type. Japonica type recorded the best score in panel test, followed by Indica type, while Indica/Japonica rice variety was the least accepted by Egyptian consumer.

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Monitoring the oxygen level in the Szarvas-Kákafok Deadarm
Published October 5, 2010

The water quality of the Szarvas-Békésszentandrás Dead Körös is generally meso-eutrophic, and meso-saprobic. However, particularly
under higher temperature conditions, the water body may change toward the eutrophic state, even algal blooms could be observed
The present measurements were conducted during a two week peri...od, twice a day. Three water samples were taken horizontally, from
the surface, bottom and the middle of the water body. The samples were examined in situ. The oxygen content, the temperature, the pH and
the conductivity were measured by potentiometric methods.
Increasing pH was detected in correlation to the temperature, which indicated a rising photosynthetic activity. Also, the O2
concentration showed high variations, especially, when the fresh water supply from the river was stopped, due to a small flood in the river
These results indicate the increasing eutrophication processes in the deadarm, and the high load and instability of the ecosystem.

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Application of GIS, precision agriculture and unplugging cultivation in plant breeding of Karcag
Published December 15, 2019

In the last two decades, the prevailing ecological conditions and climate change have caused negative effects. Therefore, a paradigm shift is needed in the field growing of plants. The latest inventions, digital technologies, precision cultivation are not enough, the mentality of the farmers is more important. For this reason, not only big fina...ncial sacrifices, but adequate receptivity are needed on behalf of farmers. Adequate skills and continuous self-education are necessary. The yield of plant growing farms is determined by ecological conditions to a 40% extent, genetic background of the seed has a 30% share and the applied agricultural technology has a proportion of 30%. In different agroecological conditions, bred varieties of plants have bigger tolerance to unfavorable factors of the regions and significant yield stability. Farmers, who buy and sow seeds, can only contribute to the genetic potential of the seeds with cultivation technology. Plant breeding provides stable genetic background and good quality seeds. Breeding activity – choosing variety proposants, breeding them, selection work, classical breeding process for 8-10 years – must create new landraces, which can produce balance, high yield and have good quality parameters in extreme ecological conditions, yearly excursion and have higher tolerance to unfavorable factors of the region giving significant production stability for farmers. In Karcag GIS technology, precision cultivation elements and soil-friendly agrotechnical methods have been introduced which largely support the aims of breeding and can also provide optimal cultivation conditions in extreme years. Because of the specificity of breeding the main aim is not only to increase yield but to provide harmonic growing for bred materials, to decrease the number and the cost of cultivation and to be punctual. In this study, applied new methods and technologies are introduced.

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Correlation between cultivation methods and quality in some vegetable species
Published November 13, 2012

Quality parameters of 5 table root varieties were tested on 3 sowing dates with different cultivation methods: open field on 15 April and 9 July 2010 and under plastic tents on 19 August. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was measured in the varieties Akela and Mona Lisa (~ 80 mg 100 g-1) of the second (July) crop. This crop in general use in Hungary. In comparison, in the late sown varieties (August, under plastics) a further pigment increase (10–20 mg 100 g-1) was observed in the same varieties as related to the earlier sowing dates. Yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) showed similar trends. Roots of the late sowing date (with harvest in December) contained the highest vulgaxanthin values (103.3–124.18 mg kg-1).
Varieties reacted differently to temperature changes during the production period and thus to sugar accumulation. In the second crop (July) higher water soluble solids content was measured on the average of varieties (10.12%) in comparison to the April sowing (7.76%). Beetroots of the spring sowing are recommended for fresh market while the second (July) crop with autumn harvest can satisfy industry requirements. Late sowing under unheated plastic tents supply us with fresh beetroot in late autumn and early winter and prolong the usability of plastic tents. 
Six lettuce species/subspecies were tested in the open field and under plastic tents in 3 repetitions for nitrate nitrogen, vitamin-C, polyphenol (gallus acid equivalent – mg GAE 100 g-1) and mineral element (Ca, K, Mg, Na) contents. Our measurements showed lower nitrate nitrogen values under plastic than in the open field (89.10± 8.13 and 127.06±14.29 mg kg-1) on the average of genotypes. Lettuce grown in the field had higher vitamin-C content (1.4 mg%) which is nearly 50% more than in plants under plastic. The highest polyphenol content was found in samples from the field with a conspicuous value of 804.17±56.47 mg GAE 100 g-1 in Piros cikória. Samples grown under plastic were richer in mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) which can be explained by the higher nutrient content of the soil. In this environment superior Mg content was observed in Edivia (4616.33±
311.21 mg kg-1). 

Besides the well- known headed lettuce, Piros cikória (Red chicory),the red leaved Lollo Rossa and Tölgylevel (Oak leaf lettuce) should be
mentioned which well deserve further testing in order to supply us with nourishing, healthy food. 

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Microbiological status of bulk tank milk and different flavored gomolya cheeses produced by a milk producing and processing plant
Published December 28, 2018

The microbiological quality of milk is important not only for food safety, but it can also influence the quality of dairy products. In this study, our aim was to assess the microbiological status of the bulk milk of a milk-producing farm, and some natural and flavored (garlic, dill, onion) gomolya cheeses made from pasteurized milk produced by ...their own processing plant. We determined the number of coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and molds of three milk and eight cheese samples. The tests were conducted between July and September, 2017.

In bulk milk, the mean coliform count was 3.83±0.17 log10 CFU/ml; the mean E. coli count was 1.38±0.14 log10 CFU/ml; the mean mold count was 3.74±1.30 log10 CFU/ml; and the S. aureus count was <1.00 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. The mean coliform count in gomolya cheeses was 3.69±1.00 log10 CFU/g; the mean E. coli count was 2.63±0.58 log10 CFU/g; the mean S. aureus count was 3.69±1.35 log10 CFU/g and the mean mold count was 1.74±0.37 log10 CFU/g. The amount of coliforms detected in different flavored gomolya cheeses were significantly different (P<0.05). More than 10 CFU/g of E. coli was found only in the dill flavored cheeses, and S. aureus was found only in dill (3.66±1.86 log10 CFU/g) and onion (3.71±0.52 log10 CFU/g) flavored gomolya cheeses. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the amount of coliform bacteria and E. coli in bulk milk exceeded the limit set in regulation of the Hungarian Ministry of Health (MoH) 4/1998 (XI. 11.) and the amount of S. aureus was below the limit. For gomolya cheeses, the S. aureus count exceeded the limit. The amount of coliform bacteria remained above the limit in cheeses, except for the garlic flavored gomolya cheese. In cheeses, a larger E. coli count was detected than in the bulk milk, but there is no specific limit for cheeses in the regulation. The mold count exceeded the limit specified in the regulation in cheeses, but a lower value was detected relative to milk.

The results show that, in the case of bulk milk and gomolya cheeses, certain detected quantities exceeded the limit values set forth in regulation of MoH 4/1998 (XI. 11.). The results indicate an inadequate microbiological state of the raw material and the finished products. The reasons for these are due to reduced technological hygiene or the inappropriate handling of raw material and finished products. In this study, we have summarized the results of our preliminary studies, which can provide a basis for further hygiene studies.

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Analysis of the efficiency of higher education systems
Published September 2, 2009

The aim of the higher education reform process both in Hungary and in the European countries is establishing a competitive, qualitative higher education. The Education Minister of our country regularly emphasizes in his statements that the quantitative changes of he past 15 years are completed, from now the emphasis must be on quality :„a deg...ree in itself is not sufficient, the actual knowledge behind is necessary”. To achieve
this aim, the government carried out several changes in the field of higher education in the past years, one of them was implementing a budget support system in accordance with the performance of the institutions. The objective of the three year long support agreement between the state and the higher education institutions is considering quality parameters and outputs beside and instead of normative (input-based) support. The other occurent and debated issue is the introduction of tuition fees. Although this plan was rejected by the national referendum on 9th March, 2008, some weeks ago an amendment bill was passed, which would mean bringing tuition fees back in the system.
In my paper I am examining whether the efficiency of higher education systems are influenced by the extent of the contribution of the state and the private sector to their expenses. Furthermore I’d like to find the answer to the following question: Does it matter what principles and mechanisms play role by the distribution of the state support between the institutions of higher education. 

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Examination of the usability of the MALDI-TOF method in sunflower genetic identity analyses
Published May 16, 2017

Economically, one of our most important crop is the sunflower. Regarding its production it is essential to use top quality seeds. As the conditions of seed certification and the certification parameters are regulated by laws and ordinances, it is highly important to farmers and seed producers to detect seeds of low quality or dubious origins....r>Nowadays, the examination of the cultivar homogenity of sunflower is based on a reference method of the International Seed Testing Association Rules International (ISTA), Chapter 8. This standard reference method uses ultrathin poliakrilamid isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis (IEF-UTL, or simply IEF). With this work we have set out to compare the results of MALDI-TOF to the test results – used as reference results – achieved by this reference method. The aim is to develop a new, quick, cheap and reliable method. In this article I summarized the results of some of the experiments that will provide basis for my further work.
During our previous experiments we have concluded that out of four extracting agents we can get the most protein markers using NaCl acid buffer, 1 propanol buffer.

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Evaluation of reaction to plant density of sunflower hybrids by regression and Kang’s stability analysis
Published December 21, 2008

The world production area and the total production of sunflower has significantly been growing. The harvested yield was 23.4 and 21.1 million ha in 2005 and 2001, respectively. The total sunflower seed production has also unexpectedly increased.
Although sunflower is produced on lower quality soils in Hungary, in 2005 the average harvested y...ield was 2.43 t ha-1, which was the highest in the world. 
Sunflower is a typical commercial plant and fits well in the crop structure. Since in terms of acreage the most significant crops are corn and cereals, the partial monoculture cultivation cannot be avoided. Sunflower production is a way to eliminate this problem, therefore it has an important role both in cultivation and ecological points of view.
Accordingly, sunflower has an important role in reducing the monoculture cultivation of some plants, as well as increasing biodiversity. Sunflower well adapts to Hungary’s climatic conditions and its production is easily practicable in our country.
The reaction of sunflower hybrids on crop density change is different. Some hybrids are more some are less sensitive to this parameter. In different crop years, the crop density optimums of the different genotypes are also different. In Hungary, the yield and quality is primarily determined by fungal infections, while viruses and bacteria are less important.
The research was conducted at the Látókép farm and Regional Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. The research institute is situated by Road 33,15 km from Debrecen in the Hajdúság. The duration of the experiment was seven years, 10 hybrids were examined in each year.
Two hybrids used every year, Aréna/PR and Alexandra/PR hybrids were tested by Kang’s stability analysis. We found that Alexandra/PR was most balanced at every levels of crop density. Both hybrids performed most stable yield at 65000 ha-1 crop density level and less balanced at 35000 ha-1 crop density level. As a result of improved environmental conditions, the yield increase of Aréna/PR was higher than that of Alexandra/PR.
Our regression analysis found that the maximum yield of Lympil, Louidor, Hysun 321, PR63A82 and PR64A63 hybrids were harvested at 47000-60000 plant ha-1 crop density level. The statistical analysis showed that the highest yield was harvested from Lympil and Hysun 321. As regards the crop yield, the most stable hybrids were Louidor and Lympil. The optimum crop density interval of Rigasol/PR and Larisol (58000 plant ha-1) was wider than that of Diabolo (46000 plant ha-1). The maximum yield of Larisol was higher at the optimal crop density level. As regards yield, Diabol was the most stable hybrid.
The statistical analysis on the stability of the yield of Alexandra/PR and Aréna/PR showed that Aréna/PR is more stable, and its optimal crop density level is lower than that of Alexandra/PR.

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Mitigation of environment impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species
Published December 16, 2012

The Fusarium fungi hazards the grain quality of cereals, therefore significantly affects their utilization as animal feed or consumable product. The Fusarium can decrease the quality of wheat in different ways: decreases the germination capability, causes visible discoloration, mould may appear, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of ...the grain, causes mycotoxin infection – as a result given by its by-product. Micotoxins produced by Fusarium genus, as the trichotecenes (T-2, HT-2, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, Fusarenone-X) and the zearalenone (F-2) are the most common in Hungary. Occurrence of fumonisins first discovered in 1988 are must be identified carefully. About 20–30% of the overall worldwide production of cereals is infected with Fusarium and its toxins, which situation is similar in Hungary. This infection causes serious yield-losses in cereal production. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems, an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material, but it is also important to examine the effect of the infected cereal on the anaerobe digestion process.

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Dilemma of interpreting the Tisza space in regional dimensions
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">This study deals with the evaluation of an especially important area, since the Tisza river is the basis of the spatial organisation of the Great Plain, the main spatial structural axis of Eastern Hungary and also its ecologic corridor of continental significance. The Tisza is a river which connects five countries to each other and it has an enormous catchment area. Its longest section can be found in Hungary. Two million people live directly in the spatial environment of the river. The safety and favourable quality of life of these people have to be provided. This is a great challenge from the aspect of regional development, economic, technological improvement, the acceleration of innovation processes, as well as the establishment of natural and environmental harmony.

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The effect of season on the microbiological status of raw milk
Published May 20, 2020

Many factors can influence the microbiological quality of raw cow’s milk. In this study, our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the microbiological statuses of milk produced in different seasons. Samples were collected and analysed from five dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County, from February to November in 2019. ...During our studies, total plate count (TPC), coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count of raw cow’s milk samples were determined.

There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the mean TPC values detected in the milk collected in winter and autumn, but that values were significantly (P<0.05) lower than in the milk samples collected in spring and summer. Similarly to the TPC, in the case of coliform bacteria the lowest mean colony count was detected in the samples collected in winter. The difference was significant (P<0.05), compared to the values observed in the samples collected in summer. S. aureus was detected in bulk milk of only two farms in excess of 1.0 log10 cfu/ml. Also in case of S. aureus, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the values observed in the samples collected in winter and in summer. Samples from spring and summer contained the highest amount of S. aureus.

Based on the results of our studies, in the case of almost all farms the mean TPC, coliform and S. aureus counts were lower in the samples collected in winter, than in the samples collected in summer. The fact that the samples collected in winter contained the lowest amount of colonies could be attributed to the inhibition of growth of mesophilic microorganisms below 8 °C. Furthermore, the fact that we observed the highest colony counts in samples collected in summer, can be related to the heat stress of cows during the summer due to unfavorable weather conditions (high temperature and humidity).

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The effects of bioactive feed additives for the production parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings in intensive recirculating system
Published March 24, 2015

For the appropriate quantity and quality of fish meat the pond farmers need to use up to date nutrition and feeding technologies. Recently the intensification of the carp production is stepping up with the availability the proper quality of the artificial feeds. The using of different feed additives make a better feed conservation ratio, faster... growing rates and more uniform stocks.

In our experiment what is made with common carp (duration of the experiment was 8 weeks long) we compared two different kinds of feed additives in different doses. One of them contains only natural mineral elements and the other additive is a natural origin probiotics. Both additives were used in the quantity of 0.5, 1 and 2% of the total feed. By the result of the 8 weeks experiment it could be said, that the using of the humic acid based mineral elements feed additive. Makes a better FCR comparing with the control stock, but was not as good as the using of the probiotics. At the humic acid treatments the more doses, the better FCR value, but at the probiotics it wasn’t true. The 0.5% probiotic treatment gave the best result. It is concluded that the using of the probiotic feed additives always gave a better performance of the fishes (average weight, biomass, FCR) than the humic acid treatments. The using of the feed additives hasn’t got an influence for the survival rate of the carps.

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Application of laparoscopic artificial insemination in conventional Lacaune sheep farm using frozen-thawed semen
Published December 1, 2020

The complex anatomical structure of the ewe reproductive tract accompanied with low quality of frozen ram semen for artificial insemination, resulted in a challenge with regard to using superior genotypes for reproductive ovine performance. Hence, improved genetics in ovine management has not been efficiently and widely used especially in u...ndeveloped countries. Therefore, intrauterine semen deposition by laparoscopic insemination should be adopted in the current sheep production systems. Thus, this study aimed to assess the pregnancy rate and lambing rate of ewe inseminated by laparoscopic insemination techniques using frozen-thawed semen. The research used imported frozen semen from two rams of the Lacaune breed. Ewes were grouped according to age in years (1, 2 and 4). Before insemination, the semen was examined microscopically for its motility and viability and thereafter the laparoscopic artificial insemination technique was performed to 19 Lacaune breed ewes using frozen-thawed semen. The overall pregnancy and prolificacy rates were 31.57% and 42.10% respectively. Out of 2 ewes in the 1-year age group that were inseminated, only 1 ewe lambed representing 50%. However, from 16 ewes inseminated of four-year age group, 5 ewes lambed representing 31.25%. Significant difference based on age group was not evaluated due disproportionate of the data, (such that the data included 2 ewes in one-year-old age, 1 ewe in 2-year-old age and 16 ewes in 4-year-old age). Based on the ram semen, 33.33% and 30% of the inseminated ewes were pregnant from ram A and ram B semen respectively. However, in the case of prolificacy rate, 44.44% and 40 % of the ewes lambed from using semen of ram A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in pregnancy and prolificacy rates based on semen from the two rams. In conclusion, in this research study, ram semen had no significant effect on pregnancy and prolificacy rates using laparoscopic AI on Lacaune sheep. This could be due to the fact that the rams had very good quality semen. Evaluation of ram semen, accompanied with appropriate ewe selection based on age and rightful deposition of semen could lead to better and more consistent results. Overall this could contribute to the successful application of laparoscopic artificial insemination in Lacaune sheep production systems for enhanced productivity.

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Possibilities of Growing Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) in Hungary
Published December 10, 2002

The domestication of choice broadening, special vegetable species offers new market possibilities in Hungary. The production of artichokes has good perspectives due to its high protein, vitamin and mineral contents and its wide usability. According to the literature, in Hungary it is worth examining the annual production technology, which has to be researched in our country. The basic aim of our work was to establish the annual production of artichoke in Hungary with scientific research.
In the experiment, 5 Italian sorts (Valetta di Roma, Gobbo di Nizza, Violetto di Romagna, Violetto S. Francesino and Precoce di Romagna), 1 American sort (Green Globe) and 1 Egyptian sort (Balady) were used. For one half of the plants, we tried to bring on bud-production appearing in the first year only with early planting, while we used also a gibberellic acid hormone treatment for the other half.
Only the sort Green Globe had yields in appropriate quantity (21.4 t/ha) and quality. The low yield and inequable quality of buds of the Italian and Egyptian sorts refers to the fact that these sorts are not applicable for annual production in Hungary. Although the gibberellic acid treatment resulted an earlier harvest, increased the equality of buds and increased the proportion of stems producing buds except for the sort Green Globe, overall it did not have a positive effect. The hormone treatment fastened the physiological processes of the plants, thereby it induced early insenescence and lignifying of the buds. The high temperatures during the bud-formation period largely increased the ratio of flabby, over-blowing buds, so the planting must be timed in the future that the harvest period is in early automn or late spring, early summer months.
According to our results, globe artichoke can become a perspective culture by applying cold-resistant sorts with short growing seasons, which can be produced as annual crops without hormone treatment by the appropriate timing of bud-formation.

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Effect of NPK fertilization on the yield and yield stability of different maize genotypes
Published July 31, 2012

The yielding capacity and quality parameters of 11 maize hybrids were studied in 2011 on calcareous chernozem soil in a 25-year long-term fertilization experiment in the control (without fertilization), in the base treatment of N 40 kg ha-1, P2O5 25 kg ha-1, K2O 30 kg ha-1 and in... five treatments which were the multiplied doses of the base treatment. The N fertilizer was applied in the autumn and in the spring, while P and K fertilizers were applied in the autumn.The sowing time was 17–18 April, the time of harvest was 8 October. The 30-year average of precipitation (April–Sept) was 345.1 mm, the amount of precipitation did not differ greatly from that, however, its distribution was very unfavourable.
It was found that the largest yield increment (as compared to the control) was in the treatment N 40 kg ha-1, P2O5 25 kg ha-1, K2O 30 kg ha-1 in the long-term experiment. The largest yields were obtained for the hybrids P9494, PR37N01 and PR35F38 (13.64–13.71 t ha-1). Due to the dry period at the end of the summer – beginning of autumn, the grain moisture content at harvest was favourably low, 12–18% depending on the treatment and the growing season.

The N fertilization significantly increased the protein content of the kernel, but the starch content of the kernel decreased (significantly in several cases) with increasing fertilizer doses and yields as compared with the control.
The highest protein content was measured in hybrids GK Boglár and Szegedi 386. The oil content was above 4% for GK Boglár, but the two hybrids were not among the best yielding hybrids in spite of their good inner content. The starch content was around 75 % without fertilization, it decreased with fertilization.
For the tested hybrids, the fertilizer dose N 120 kg ha-1, P2O5 75 kg ha-1, K2O 90 kg ha-1 can be recommended with respect to efficacy and environmental considerations.

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The effects of drought stress on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) growth, physiology and quality – Review
Published May 16, 2017

Abiotic stresses are one of the most limiting factors inhibit plant's growth, leading to a serious production loss. Drought stress is one of the most destructive abiotic stresses and is still increasing year after year resulting in serious yield losses in many regions of the world,
consequently, affecting world’s food security for the incr...easing world population. Soybean is an important grain legume. It is one of the five major crops in the world, an essential source of oil, protein, macronutrients and minerals, and it is known as the main source of plant oil and protein. Harvested area of soybean is increasing globally year after year. However, soybean is the highest drought stress sensitive crop, the water deficit influences the physiology, production and seed composition of this crop. We introduce a review for literatures concerning the changes of the above traits of soybean exposed to drought stress, with past explanations for these changes.

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Study on the Work Organization at Dairy Farms
Published September 8, 2020

Joining the European Union Hungarian producers have advantages but they need to solve some problems too. Only those producers can compete who will be able to produce extra quality milk. However the circumstances of milk production are not up to the task.
The author examined the work organization of 7 dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County. Data ...were collected about the situation of farms, equipment of barns, objets of production, work force, qualification of workers, and productivity of work. He examined the applied motivation methods at farms. He concluded that as the number of cows per farm increases work productivity increases too. From the examination it appeared that family farms applied different motivation system from bigger producer organizations. The author put forward proposals for motivation possibilities to improve milk quality, atmosphere, and general feeling of workers.

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Testing disease resistance in autumn wheat genotypes by means of field experiments
Published September 7, 2001

According to our scientific results we can state that we have to use integrated pesticides management in crop protection against the diseases of winter wheat. One of the most important elements of IPM is to select a genotype characterised by good resistance to diseases (and by high yield ability and excellent baking quality). It is especially i...mportant that the wheat variety have tolerance against not only to one or two leaf and spike (grain) diseases, but „complex” tolerance. It is not necessary to give up the growing of a variety which has susceptibility to different diseases because we can protect it using appropriate chemical management. In the intensive growing stage of wheat (BBCH 32-37) we can use a noncompulsary fungicide-treatment (depending on e. g. the infection, ecological conditions) and, at the beginning of the flowering stage
(BBCH 59-65), we have to use a compulsary fungicide-treatment (in spite of e. g. special weather conditions, resistance genotype)to ensure high yield and good quality.

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The effects of fertilization on the protein related properties of winter wheat
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The yield and quality of wheat are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization.

The field trials were set up in 1983 at the Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen. We examined effect of different Nfertilizer doses (60 kg ha-1 N/P/K, 120 kg ha-1 N/P/K) on Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag's protein properties in 2012. During the tests, three quality parameters were determined: wet gluten content (%), wet gluten spread (mm/h) and gluten index (%). In the experiment the effect of different doses of N-fertilizers significantly influenced by the wet gluten content and gluten index of Lupus.

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Effects of the development of production factors on productivity
Published February 17, 2015

In every economic sector, the enacted and expected quality of the products strongly affects its market entry and subsistence. The aim of management is success, competitiveness and subsistence that require adequate human and material resources and enough production stock. We must also notice that the quality of tools and instruments significantl...y influences work productivity. This applies to both plant production and animal husbandry.

The author researched milk production factors with methodical observation, document analysis and interviews. Data were collected with a ten-year interval, thus this assay can highlight the field, volume and sources of investments during this period and that the production stock increased in most farms and decreased in few. The data also shows the influence of investments on work productivity - there are differences between farms of equal size, so there are still ways of development.

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Procurement as enterprise function at vegetable and fruit processing companies
Published July 16, 2007

The first main element of the supply chain is procurement; which has a great influence on the quality of products and services. The most important role of the procurement is the purchase of inputs which are necessary for the operation of companies. This includes procurement planning and the development of procurement strategy, so procurement is... a process that is even more than simply buying raw materials. The functions of procurement are the selection of suitable suppliers, contracting, controlling and improvement of suppliers, and coordination of activities with other parts of the company.
Planning of procurement, strategy formulation, supplier selection and evaluation, monitoring of the procurement process, and modification of original plan are important tasks of entrepreneurial procurement. The importance of procurement in a business organization is reflected by its position in the hierarchy of the firm. There are subjective and objective methods to select suppliers accomplishing their tasks on time and with good quality. Efficient purchasing management activity contributes to an increased competitiveness of the enterprise. The aim of this publication is to describe the procurement activities, to examine supplier selection and evaluation methods, to determine the position of procurement in the organization, and to prove the strategic importance of procurement.

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Study of effects on quality of different wheat flour fraction
Published November 2, 2009

Wheat is one of the most important cereals in the world and the bread made of its flour belongs to the everyday life of human mankind.
The Hungarian standard relating to the laboratory production of wheat flour (MSZ 6367/9-1989) does not mention the type of laboratory mill used for milling, and it only builds up some general criteria, such a...s: the laboratory mill should be provided with four differently nicked barrels, a sieve with appropriate hole sizes, and also with the separated collections of the pilot flour and the bran. Our study was started at this point and the answers for the following questions were aimed to be found: do the flour patterns studied and produced with different grinding and sieving
techniques, widely used in laboratory mills of the same wheat pattern show any alterations after the impact of the formula production as regards chemical constitutions and reologic parameters. Various flours and whole grains of the wheat patterns sieved with different particle sizes were studied in this experiment. In producing this pattern two different mill types of FQC 109 and CHOPIN CD 1 as well as two different grinder types such as PERTEN 3100 and type of RETSCH 200 were applied. There were 3 different corn sizes of 160; 250; 800 μms used in the partition of the fractions. To study the differences the following  measurements were conducted: dry matter, ash, protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index, gluten expansiveness, farinographic value, falling number and amilographic rate.
The results this research confirm that the quality of wheat flour can be modified by different methods of pattern production. In all cases the differences can be explained by the flour-bran ratio, and in some of the cases the higher germ content of the fractions also played a role. The results show differences between the various types of mills and grinders, too. 

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The examination of presumed Escherichia coli count of raw milk samples on several milk production farms
Published May 23, 2006

For dairy farms, it is of great importance to insure the appropriate hygienic status of milk and to examine it regularly. Escherichia coli, belonging to the coliform bacteria type of, is a good indicator of contamination, and therefore suitable for characterising the hygienic condition of milk production.
The aim of our research was to the connection between the Escherichi coli count in bulk tank milk and housing and milking technologies of different-sizes farms. We examined the relation using various statistical methods.
Analysing the connection between the E. coli count and the farm size we found no significant difference between the farms. On the basis of the mean values of the E. coli count, we can say that the hygienic conditions are appropriate for mid-sized farms, and tolerable for large farms. We found differences in the hygienic status among the small farms. Half of the eight small farms, had no adequate hygiene. The results of the analysis of the quality categories show that the probability of inadequate quality milk was the largest on small farms (37.5%).
Comparing the various housing and milking methods with each other, there were numerical differences in the E. coli count, but these differences were not significant. We got higher E. coli count values on those farms using tied stall barn and bucket milking installation. The reason for this could be that in cases of farms using bucket milking installation, it is harder to meet the requirements.
After forming groups by farm size, housing and milking methods, we found that the E. coli counts are adequate on mid-size farms using various housing and milking methods; and tolerable on those large farms using loose housing stable and a milking parlour. At the same time, we found inadequate E. coli counts on the smaller farms using tied stall barns and bucket milking installation.
The results show that if there is suitable attention, independent of farm size, housing and milking procedure, it is possible to produce milk with low E. coli counts, and to insure appropriate hygienic conditions.
Further detailed examinations are needed to decide which factors of housing and milking technologies influence the E. coli count of bulk tank milk.

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Published November 3, 2010

In the frame of a common “Hungarian-Ukrainian Intergovernmental S&T Cooperation Programme” which title is “Change of soils ecological characteristics of Ukraine and Hungary in the conditions of anthropogenic transformed ecosystems and optimization of biological processes of plants primary feeds elements mobilization” a Workshop was ...held in Debrecen. The member institutes of project participated with different presentation in this program.
The title of Workshop was: “Anthropogenic effect on the properties of Middle and Eastern European chernozem soils and on the sustainable agricultural production”.
The aim of the Workshop was to give relevant information about the present situation of the Middle and Eastern European Chernozem soils, especially emphasize the effect of different loading on the quality (properties) of chernozem soils. With the Workshop we would like to create a tradition for discussion about the anthropogenic effect on the soil properties and through it on the productivity of different soils. It was a forum for discussion of research results related to problems and possibilities for prevention of soil quality. With this possibility we would like to contribute to the sustainable agricultural production.
The papers were read for the publisher and we would like to show them in a separate supplement of Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Acta Agraria Debreceniensis as one of the results of the project.
The papers comply with the requirements of the scientific issue except those two which show the university and the department of the Ukrainian partner taking part in this project.
The participant Institutes of the project:
- Dnepropetrovsk National University, Faculty of Biology and Ecology;
- Kryvyi Rig Botanical Garden NAS of Ukraine, Plant Physiology & Soil Biology Department;
- Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Sciences of Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economics;
- Research Institute of Karcag, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economics. The collaboration with Ukrainian partners was successful and we have confidence in the further cooperation in scientific research.

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