The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.
We analysed five parameters (moisture-, protein content, Hagberg’s falling number, wet gluten content and alveographic W (10-4 J) values) and the microbiological changes of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) during storage, to determine the tendency, type and volume of the o...f the change of this five qualitative parameters during storage.
We found that the examined winter wheat varieties retained their moisture, protein content and their Hagberg’s falling number, they did not change during storage.
A slight growth could be experienced in the values of wet gluten content for all the four winter wheat varieties in terms of the duration of storage (129 days). This result proved the theory of after-ripening, when gluten percentage improves qualitatively and quantitatively as well. The value of the quantitative growth was about 10% for all the four winter wheat varieties.
We placed a special emphasis on measuring the alveographic W (10-4 J) values during storage. All the four winter wheat varieties showed decreasing values of about 20-40%.
Microbiological examinations on the four winter wheat varieties showed that mould, mould flora and total germ count remained balanced with some slight variations and they did not change in terms of time under optimal storage conditions.
The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active agents. Tr...eatments were replicated four times.
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments
Honey is our essential food since ancient times. In Hungary about 25 000 tons of honey are produced each year, and most of the product (80%) is exported. Hungarian honeys have excellent quality but because of scandals of honey adulteration the interest and recognition may decrease. Therefore we must elaborate a method with which the establishme...nt of adulteration is simple and cheap. In this study we concentrate on simple quality parameters which inspection is not elaborate. These parameters for example sugar- and moisture contains, proline content, electrical
conductivity, element content, pH, HMF content, degree of acidity. We examined these parameters in producers’ and commercial samples. We succeed fund parameters which characteristic of one type of honey thus we have possibility identify of honey type. For example the proline content was very low in the producers’ linden honey (mean 126 mg/kg). This value is lower than the regulation, but in case of commercial linden honey this parameter is higher than regulation. According to electrical conductivity and Potassium content is provable the type of linden honey.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of sunburn injury on fruit quality parameters (colour-coverage, depth of affected tissue, fruit flesh firmness, soluble solids content) of apple.
The symptoms of sunburn injury appeared in concentric ring shape, differed from each other and surface colour-coverage. This can be due to the rat
Sunburn of apple fruits is a surface injury caused by solar radiation, heat and low air relative humidity that in the initial phase results in a light corky layer, golden or bronze discolouration, and injuries to the epidermal tissue, in the surface exposed to radiation. Thus it detracts from its appearance, but in most cases, it would not cause serious damage to the epidermal tissue. The depth of affected tissue is not considerable, its values are between 1.5-2.0 mm generally. It is commonly known that the tissue structure of apple fruit is not homogeneous. Accordingly, the degree of injury shows some differences under the different parts of the fruit surface.
On the basis of flesh firmness research, the authors established that the measure of flesh firmness of the affected part of apple fruit increases with the effect of sunburn. The consequence of this is the suffered plant cells will die, the water content of this tissue decreases and the fruit gets harder. This water-loss caused the increase of soluble solids content.
The quality of a product is determined by numerous characteristics. As quality characteristics are polygenic, they cannot be improved easily. Moreover, there often is a negative correlation between the different parameters in the case of apricot. The firmness of fruits decreases with increasing size. The year effect also has a great influence o...n the expression of the potential quality of the given cultivar.
Our examinations were carried out in 2004 at Boldogkőváralja, in the cold storage plant of the Northcot Ltd. We monitored the development of fruits from fructification until harvest, and also the quality changes during storage. 100 fruits were observed from each cultivar directly after harvest. We measured height, width, weight, firmness, dry matter content and seed weight. From each cultivar, 100 fruits were stored, of which 25 fruits were observed each week. The value and the dynamics of the changes in the parameters compared to the values at harvest varied greatly for the different cultivars. Strong correlations between the parameters have not been found within one cultivar either. The heavier fruits did not lose more weight, either in absolute value or relatively, than the lighter fruits. The increase in the firmness of fruits was not accompanied with a desirable decrease in the dry matter content.
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of basic agrotechnical factors on the yield and quality of winter wheat. Two experiments were set in 2017/2018 growing season, where we studied the influence of different forecrops, fertilizing treatments and cultivars. 204 samples were measured with Single Kernel Characterization Syst...em and NIR grain analyser to determine protein (NIR-P), wet gluten (NIR-WG), Hardness Index (HI), kernel weight (KW) and kernel diameter (KD). Fertilizing had a significant effect on yield, KW, HI, NIR-P and NIR-WG, except KD. N90PK dosage was enough to realize yield potential for 6 out of 9 cultivars, but considering protein content N150PK dosage was needed. The forecrop had no significant influence on yield, KW, KD or HI, however sweet corn as previous crop had significant improving effect on NIR-P and NIR-WG compared to sunflower as forecrop. According to our data of correlation analysis, no negative relationship was found between yield and NIR-P, however HI was in medium positive correlation with NIR-P. The variety Vyckor had the highest yield, but in quality aspect, the highest NIR-P and NIR-WG values belonged to KG Kunhalom variety.
Nowadays, due to the climate change, it is becoming increasingly important in the occasionally extreme years that the yield and the quality
parameters of a given winter wheat variety should not fluctuate at all or only slightly under similar agrotechnical conditions as a result of the year effect. In four years (2005–2008) we studied the c
In the control, it can be observed that the year had a significant effect on the wet gluten content, the protein content of the flour and gluten speading, therefore, a great fluctuation was detected in these qualities of the varieties in the four studied years. At the optimum fertilization levels (N120-150+PK), the varieties Sixtus, Saturus and Lupus showed a much lower fluctuation and more stable values were measured. The most stable variety in the control treatment was Mv Mazurka for all the three quality parameters, while at the optimum fertilization level (N120+PK), the most stable results were obtained for the variety Sixtus as an average of the four years.
When studying the results using Kang’s method for stability analysis, it can be stated that the most stable values of wet gluten content were obtained at the fertilization level of N120+PK under a variable year effect, the varieties gave also the best gluten content values at this level. The most stable protein content values of flour were obtained at the fertilization level of N60+PK. The results showed that the fluctuation of quality parameters as a result of the changing years differed between the different winter wheat varieties due to their differing genotypes, but this fluctuation could be reduced or minimized by a proper fertilization.
In Hungary, the growing area of potato area dropped dramatically in the last few decades. Additionally not only are we lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields, but the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption hab...its and, often the lack of quality products.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up in 2003 and 2004, in two years of significantly different precipitation, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, from which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
In Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However the effect of irrigation depends on the crop year. In a draughty year, like in 2003, irrigation could increase the yield by 10%, while in a more favourable wet year, the improving effect of irrigation was low.
An improvement in the quality of maize grain by increasing the level of components responsible for its biological value is possible
by using genetic means. However, a change in the genotype, together with improving the nutrient properties of the grain, also has some
adverse consequences connected with a fall in yield and in resistance to
Field experiments were conducted during three years (2003, 2004and 2005) to evaluate environmental effects on grain yield and
quality responses of maize hybrids. Twenty one hybrids of various maturity groups (FAO 150-400) were planted to achieve an optimum
(60-70 000 plants per hectare) plant populations and grown under the medium-N (80 kg N ha-1) fertilization. Environmental conditions
significantly affected maize hybrid responses for grain yield, starch, oil and protein contents, and consequently, starch, oil and protein
yields per hectare. Hybrids of flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil content but the yield averages
were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer growing season and more intense
carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry
years are favorable for protein and oil accumulation. Positive correlation existed between starch content and grain yield and 1000-
weight as well as between oil content and volumetric weight among tested hybrids. Negatively correlation existed between grain oil and
starch content as well as between oil content and grain yield and 1000-weight. Thus, end-users that require high quality maize may need
to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with oil and protein content.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The researches were carried out in 2010 and 2011 on the haplic luvisol cultivated in three variant such as: pasture, cropland, and orchards. Based on the total number of microorganisms monitored in the haplic luvisol (aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs, yeast and mould, Actinomycetes, nitrogen fixing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria) was calculated the bacterial indicators of soil quality (BISQ) and was appreciate the bacterial potential of the haplic luvisol. Seasonal analyses were carried out, and annual BISQs have been calculated too. The values of the bacterial indicators of the haplic luvisol in different cultivation conditions (pasture, cropland and orchards) indicate a high density of the bacterial groups in 2010 and 2011. In 2010 the values of the BISQs are included between 3.617 (minimum in autumn, in pasture) and 5.458 (maximum, in spring, in pasture). In 2011, the minimum value (3.622) was registered in pasture, in autumn, and the maximum value (4.851) in the haplic luvisol cultivated with maize, in spring. In 2010 and 2011, based on the bacterial indicators of the soil quality values, on the first position is the cropland (4.750, 4.721) followed by orchards (4.615, 3.985) and pasture (4.537, 3.758).
The authors studied the effect of rootstocks with different growing vigour on fruit quality of different cultivars. Research results shows that best fruit diamter and fruit weight of all cultivars are for M9 rootstock. Similar tendency was found in skin colour, but in the case of Granny Smith, MM106 rootstock is more favourable because the gree...n skin colour is necessary for the consumers’ acceptance. Seedling rootstok has some unfavourable effects on fruit quality, thus its usage is not expedient.
Although sheep breeding in Hungary is grounded in strong traditions, its activities only comprise 1% of the total production value generated from agriculture, and 2% of that for animal-based products. The most significant portion of incomes earned in the Hungarian sheep sector has, for years now, stemmed from the sale of live animals. The secto...r is decidedly export-oriented, as the domestic demand for its main product, i.e. lamb meat, and is minimal, equaling some 20-30dkg per person per year. Part of the sold animals is sold to market as dairy sheep, while the greater
part is sold in the category of lamb carcasses. For this reason, the average weight of slaughter sheep has lied between 19-22 kg for years now. The target markets for live lamb sales are predominately Italy and Greece. In Greece, movement on this market has shown an upward tendency in recent years; noteworthy are also sales to Austria, Holland, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Poland. In 2003, we exported sheep meat in the form of carcasses to Italy, as well as to Germany, and of these exports, 94% went to Italy, while the remaining 6% went to Germany.
Among sheep products, only the trade balance for live animal sales is positive. But even for such producers, only those who are specialized in intensive breeding and those sheep farms “targeting” meat production can obtain earnings. Specialized literature on the sector argues that the quality of Hungarian lamb has diminished dramatically and is beginning to lose its market position. If Hungarian lamb does not meet market expectations, then it will only be bought from producers at lower prices.
My research focuses on those factors which influence price. I separately discuss the question of quality, as one of the most important decisive factors on price. Within this discussion, I describe the market expectations which actually have an effect on the acceptance of live animals for sale on commission. In practice, after the problems of quality, the next most important question is that of when sale is made. In the course of my research, I studied the development of averages for sales on commission of live lambs using statistical methods. The most important problem of this sector is the hierarchical system used in sales: this is the topic hich neither the producer, nor the buyer, wish to discuss, not even with each other. On the basis of the information at my disposal, I outlined the levels of traders and individual levels used to arrive at commission prices. Finally, I examined the components of the production value of live lamb sales. The results I obtained quantified the key role of the prices and the yield, as well as the factors influencing income.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sunburn-sensitivity of 33 apple cultivars grafted onto 3 rootstocks (M9, MM106 and seedling) in a commercial orchard at Nagykutas (in the western part of Hungary). The authors also searched for any relationship between fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn on the fruit surface.
...>During the observations, the cultivars had rootstock-specific properties in respect to sunburn-susceptibility. Accordingly, the injury decreased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. The differences in the sensitivity were founded on the foliage-morphological characteristics of trees, caused by the growing vigour of the rootstocks. Accordingly, the highest value of sunburn injury was observed on M9 rootstock, because this rootstock has a dwarfing effect on the grafted main cultivars. Thus, the vegetative area of these trees grew very slowly and the foliage was not compact enough to protect the fruits from the strong rays. The largeness and density of the foliage increased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. Relationships were also demonstrated between the diameter of the upper part of crown, the size of leaves, the number of fruits per tree and the injury from sunburn.
The damage values showed, that the gravity of symptoms did not decrease below a well-defined level of dimension on fruit. Determined potential area of injury was necessary for the symptoms to become visible.
The authors categorized the cultivars in the respect of values of sunburn frequency: I. „Not sensitive”, II. „Moderately sensitive” and III. „Very sensitive” categories were constituted. Generally, the Gala cultivars showed low damage (or were free of symptoms), in contrast, Golden mutants suffered relative strongly. The most sensitive cultivar was Jonica on all three of rootstocks.
We searched for any relationship between the fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn. A significant correlation was found in the cases of fruit weight and colour-coverage. The latter can be related to that fact that highly colour covered fruits are found on the peripherial part of crown, so these are exposed to stronger sun rays
In 2007, a new sport strategy was implemented, (XXI National Sportstrategy), which analyses the current conditions in recreational sports in Hungary and describes its developmental potentials. Additionally, last year a new concept for university sport was introduced (Hajos Alfred Program), having as its most important goal, to develop the recre...ational sporting activities within the universities’ environment. The latter is of high importance, as this is the last period, when, on an institutional level, we can establish and enhance the need for physical activity among young generations. In this study recreational sport is analysed in the University of Debrecen Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development. The purpose of the study was to analyse data on the sporting habits of the faculty students, their preference of where they like to exercise, within or outside of the university campus, and the reasons which can be found behind these preferences. Moreover, this study aimed to evaluate the service quality offered in university recreational sports. Data collection was completed on a paper based questionnaire, 42 closed-type questions were included and a total of 123 students completed it. Based on the results, college students usually complete their competitive level sport activity when they enter college and they continue this activity on a recreational level. Almost two third of them choose to exercise in places outside of the university campus. For those who choose university facilities for their recreational exercise, they do so because; it is usually cheaper and closer to access. In the service quality results we see, that females are less satisfied with teaching staff quality than males, it may be possible that females need more and more effective implementations in order for the universities to better satisfy their needs for physical activity.
The most important endeavour of European Union’s regional policy is to moderate disparities. An emphasised strategic objective of member states, based on the principle of solidarity, fairness and justice, is to develop regions and almost forty percent of the common budget is devoted to achieving this objective.
Hungary, as a full EU member
The differences in development among the regions are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, quality and quantity of human resources, accessability of the region and other factors influencing local quality of life beside natural conditions.
The new spatial structure was formed by change of regime, processes of the nineties, primarily the economic renewal based on foreign capital investments and the crisis phenomena in parallel with these. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation significantly changed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities formed which were further aggravated as a consequence due to the formation of the eastern-western slope and local crisis zones. As a result of the outstanding development of the capital, the long term differentiation of regional development differences can also be detected when examining the regional distribution of Hungarian gross domestic product. The collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the eastern markets primarily affected the north-east counties in the eastern part of the country.
Strengthening regional competitiveness is of key importance for the region, which requires the application of consistent development policy. The most important is economic development which, if it operates well, also infers the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. Drawing in external sources to ease the significant lack of capital is important for the processing industry and the development of supplier networks. Agricultural development also plays an important role in transforming economic structure, since the characteristics of the region, its traditions and long term competitive advantages are favourable, therefore it is going to represent a higher ratio within the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting market accession, quality agricultural production and stimulating producer-retailer cooperation. The development of transportation and informatics infrastructure as well as human resource development plays a significantly important role in the development of the region.
In conclusion, the implementation of such a consistent regional development policy is required in the future, based on the strengths of the region, that serves the most efficient utilisation of regional development funds through the implementation of regional policy principles and prevents the irreversible decay of the region while promoting rapid development.
We analysed the crude protein content, amino acid content, amino acid composition of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) from their samples from five following years (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007). We found that quantity of essential and non-essential amino acids rose with increase in cru...de protein content. On examination of protein amino acid composition in relation to crude protein content we found that the crude protein content increased the quantities of the non-essential amino acids also rose, while those of the essential amino acids decreased as the lysine, the limiting amino acid of wheat. We also established that, as crude protein content increased, the biological value of the protein decreased.
The third smallest region of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is the Nagykálló subregion. Its territory is 377 km2 and its inhabitants number 32.526. Due to the fact that industrial development arrived late, the environmental status of this subregion was saved from serious ecological degradation. The quality of the environment shows a reasonabl...e picture in many respects, comparing to the general survey of the country. The air quality of the region can be qualified as acceptable. Leaving some critical points out of consideration, it is better than the national average. It is favourable from the human environment point of view that the region is free of extremes, and has a balanced climate. The supply of drinking water is above 95%, and the remainsing water requirements are supplied by artesian wells. The water supply network is fully extended in the subregion. The most significant environmental noise source is traffic, including public road traffic, which causes a problem in the town of Nagykálló. The situation of the collection, transportation, and placement of the settlement’s solid wastes show a similar picture to the status of the country. The environmental status of the region is included in the SWOT analysis.
the target for the European Union to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. In this process, the education and training are of great importance for the member states. The restructuring of higher education, the modernization of the universities cannot be achieved without new financial resources. They s...hould be ensured by increasing contribution of the private sector. However it is not enough to invest sufficient funds in the educational and training system, they must be expended efficiently. The free higher education itself does
not necessarily guarantee the equal access and maximal participation. The quality of higher education and equal opportunity can be improved, if the rising funds are expended on infrastructure development and creating an efficiently working student support system.
Quality, equal opportunity, efficiency – they are the most important views for the decision-makers in the higher education reform. In my paper, I would like to interpret definitions relating to higher education and in this way I attempt to evaluate the financing systems of the Hungarian higher education formed since the change of the regime, with special regards to the normative financial system combined with the payment of tuition fees. For classification, it is necessary to present the different basic financial models. Furthermore, on the basis of the above criteria, I try to make recommendations on how to improve the present financial model in order to achieve the Lisbon objectives.
The topic is important in our days, because tuition fees will be introduced in Hungary from 2008. The problem is very complex, although the analysts in most cases tend to approach the topic with prejudice, depending on their financial and political interests. My analysis may contribute to discernment in the tangle of the pros and cons.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the production characteristics of new ‘Gala’ apple cultivars (‘Gala Venus Fengal’, ‘Gala Decarli- Fendeca’, ‘Galaval’, ‘Jugala’, ‘Gala Schnitzer (S) Schniga’), which can be described with superior and earlier fruit surface coloration and with larger fruit size comparing with the orig...in cultivar, however they are less well known in our country. The place of our experimental is located in the Nyírség representing adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be easily adapted in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. According to the results it can be stated that among the 3–4 years old ‘Gala’ trees, which will achieve the maximal yields just in the next years regarding yields the ‘Fengal’ and the ‘Fendeca’ cultivars are emerged (43–46 t ha-1).
Furthermore they reached also excellent fruit quality (70–75 mm diameter). The fruit quality of the ‘Galaval’ is also optimal, but the yields are notably smaller. The ‘Jugala’ produced lower yields and the coloration of the variety is also insufficient. In the case of the ‘Schniga’ the excessive increasing yields can cause quality loss easily.
Honey is our essential food since ancient times. Thanks to the excellent dietetic and medical features, it has an important function in our nourishment. In Hungary about 25.000 tons of honey are produced each year. Most of the produce, about 80% is exported to different countries of the world. Hungarian types of honey have excellent quality. Th...rough exporting, the prestige and demand of Hungarian honey can be increased. In recent years the adulteration of honey caused many damages to producers and traders. The adulteration of honey is not easy to prove. Thereinafter, we represent several methods, such as oligosaccharide analysis or 13C/12C isotopic ratio analysis, which can identify the artificial substances of honey (for example: corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup) or can help to determine the ratio by which original honey can be identified.
The quality of sugar is the decisive factor in ensuring the sugar commercializing through the conservation of old markets and
expansion towards new markets. The sugar quality is also the key element which determines the price maintenance in according with the
expenditures performed or even the diminution of the price as a consequence of t
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of dried herbs (Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L., Salvia officinalis L.) to improve the quality characteristics and microbiological stability of Hungarian meat product, pariser. The addition of herbs did not affect the microbial properties of the product. According t...o the Decree No. 4 of 1998 of the Ministry of Health, pariser can be considered safe. The nutritional quality of the different forms of pariser was also acceptable. However, the addition of oregano, sage and thyme changed the flavor characteristics of the parisers and the higher meat content would increase the final price of the product.
In the beginning of the 21st century the matter of food safety plays an accentuated role in the food industry. Important issues in this topic are the risk of bioterrorism, impurities in the food chain and the ascendancy of customer needs. The solutions of these problems are the introduction of modern quality assurance systems, traceability and...identification of products. I review in this paper the possibilities of these systems, the potential advantages and incidental costs. In the tight frame of this paper – omitting the descriptions of technologies – I discuss the most important criterions of systems, which may be able to solve today’s quality food industry problems.
All the research in Hungary and other countries in Europe focus on improving the quality of crops and increasing the competitiveness of production.
In this respect, we have to advance the conventional technological elements, reduce the application of pesticides and fertilizers, and produce new varieties suitable for environmentally-sound pro
We produced winter wheat lines (HP-31-95, HP-82-96) by traditional way, which have high baking qualities and high nutrient efficiency. Some diseases can limit the quantity and quality of a wheat crop. We examined several wheat diseases in our winter wheat candidates, and we found that our progenies have resistance to leaf rust.
With respect to a serious problem was the small quantity of applied fertilizers and the other externals, our research focused onto advance a common wheat selection system, with the help of it, we can handle these problems. We have summarized that our selected progenies can compete with the registered varieties with quality and environmental respect.