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Evaluation of blue and red corn landraces
Published July 16, 2007
239-243

Corn breeding can be successful only on a broad base of genetic material. The expansion of breeding aims includes the research of germplasm materials. In our experiments, we examined 11 blue, purple and red exotic corn varieties on two locations in Hungary. We conducted a complex study to obtain more information. We studied several morphologica...l and phenological features and determined the most important qualitative parameters (protein, fat, ash). We applied the Tassel Area Index (TAI) under Hungarian conditions and compared it with the pollen producing ability of different genotypes. Results show that there are great opportunities in exotic corn varieties. Their quality exceeds that of the yellow ones in many cases. There are significant differences in yield and nutritional parameters. The favorable nutritional composition is not coupled with great productivity. Based on their flowering time and their agronomical features, they can be cultivated under Hungarian conditions as well. They match the new breeding aims, so they can be used as functional food or energy plants. With their high pollen producing ability and TAI, they can be utilized as markers in future pollen research.

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Interactions of the scientific results and practice in the biodiesel plant in Mátészalka, in the eastern tri-border area of Hungary
Published October 20, 2009
23-27

This study summarises the observations about the operation of the first Hungarian model-like biodiesel plant (which has a producer background). In order to efficiently and safely operate the applied technology and to produce biodiesel that conforms to international standards, it was indispensable to apply the scientific results in practice and ...to develop a cooperation with the University of Debrecen (Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering). The biodiesel plant has a significant importance from the aspects of the Eastern tri-border area and the North Great Plain region. 

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Findings on the cultivation of potatoes in organic farming
Published November 20, 2011
113-116

This paper explores the effectiveness of organic and plastic mulching for potato production in the Czech Republic. The mulching with chopped grass (GM) and black textile mulch (BTM) were compared to non-mulching control variant (C) with mechanical cultivation. Especially in plots with BTM were first formed ridges and covered by the black polypr...opylene non-woven textile and then they were planting. During vegetation the infestation of Colorado potato beetle (CPB), weeds biomass, course of soil temperature and soil water potential were assessed. The results showed that surface of GM had a positive effect on soil temperature reduction, soil water potential depression. This study also indicated a positive effect of GM on the larvae of CPB diminution, on the other hand higher incidence of larvae and higher defoliation was observed in BTM. GM had a significant effect on the yield of potatoes. The yield of ware potatoes was higher by 27 % higher on plots with GM and by 16 % lower on plots wit BTM in comparison with C. NeemAzal T/S decreased statistically significantly % of defoliation and increased yield of ware potatoes by 35 % in comparison with control.

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Development of precision apple production technologies in Institute of Water and Environmental Management
Published July 18, 2012
97-101

From the precision agriculture point of view, by the rapid development of the investigated technological elements – global positioning system (GPS), remote sensing (RS), global information system (GIS) – the number of services, which were not available in the past, because of their speed, complexity or price are increasing. The high accurac...y high-tech instruments provide opportunity to elaborate several fruit production technologies, which aim is creating and operating water and energy safe quality fruit production systems. To evaluate these possibilities, experience was carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer, and a ScanStation C10 laser scanner by Leica. The results show the absolute applicability of these equipments in precision horticulture.

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Role of living bacteria and other amendment in early development of maize
Published April 23, 2014
53-56

Different bacteria and wood ash, as a possible micro-nutrient, and liming material, was examined in our experiment on the early growth of corn seedlings.

The development of renewing energy resources includes the use of energy grasses and energy forests. The intensive land use in forestry and in agriculture may cause the acidification of... soils due to the harvest, or leaching of cations. To maintain the sustainability of soils necessary to maintain it’s the buffer capacity, and pH. Beside the lime the wood ash can is one of the most effective sources to provide the sustainability of intensive land use. The soil born micro organisms play a significant role in the maintenance of soil quality. The bio fertilizer, that contains soil originated bacteria (Azotobacter, and Bacillus sp.), was used in the experiments. The plants release several organic acids by their roots lowering the soil pH, and make more available the sparingly soluble minerals. The amounts of released organic matter depend on stress intensity, as the high pH is. The soil life has a significant role to keep the soil conditions on sustainable level, since there are several similarities in nutrient uptake mechanism between the bacteria and higher plants. Advantageous effects of bio-fertilizer were observed in our experiments.

We came to the conclusion that the use of wood ash is recommended instead of lime for the improvement of acidic soils, on the evidence of its pH increasing effect. The wood ash contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants. The solubility of heavy metals is very low; therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture by our experiments. The retardation of growth at higher ash doses can be explained by the modification effect to the soil pH, as far as the original soil pH was pH 6.8, and when ash was given to the soil, the pH increases to 7.8 pH, that is unfavourable for the uptake of most nutrients.

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Challenges – the impact of climate change on the nutritional management of Hungarian orchards
Published September 5, 2018
323-334

The agricultural sector is increasingly exposed to both environmental and economic risks due to the phenomena of climate change and climate variability. Fruit growth and productivity are adversely affected by nature’s wrath in the form of various abiotic stress factors. Climate change and extreme climatic events are predicted to increase in i...ntensity, frequency, and geographic extent as a consequence of global climate change. It is no doubt that frequency of unexpected climatic events and their growing rate result in an increasing amount of problems for fruit growers globally. Today, climate change impacts are the most serious problems for Hungarian fruit growers as well. It can be stated that the nutrient demand of fruit trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.

Therefore, it is so important to know and apply adaptation and mitigation strategies in horticulture to improve fruit quality and yield. In the last ten years, at the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management at University of Debrecen expanded studies have been made to prove the importance of groundcover management in horticultural applications. In this mini review paper, is presented, how the university's researches contributed to the expansion of knowledge of preservation of soil moisture and what advice we can provide for fruit growers to face the challenges of climate change.

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Possibilities of ecological farming in the North Great Plain Region
Published May 23, 2006
69-71

Agriculture plays a significant role in the North Great Plain Region. Organic farming is a sustainable farming method controlled by regulations. Active environmental protection and conservation play significant roles in organic farming, along with food quality and safety, originality and the monitoring of products. Organic farming offers opport...unities to create employment, social safety and high profitability. As a result of these characteristics, organic farming could become one of the most important means of developing our region in the future.

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The examination of roe deer feeding on agricultural and woody habitats in winter
Published November 24, 2008
23-26

sorting because the micro organisms, which help the digestion of high fibre plants, are missing in his stomack, that is why they are mostly called „concentrate selectors” (Hoffmann, 1985, 1988, 1989).
These animals should mostly eat easily digestable plants with high nutrition level (pulses, buds, sprouts and flowers), and they are able ...to do this sorting because of their mouth size. In winter there is a lack of these plants, so the high selectivity occurs only when the feed is in abbundance.
Examining the amount and quality of vegetation available on the habitat of roe deer we can identify the species which can satisfy their feed demand. It is known, that roe deer as other large ruminants, from the plant abundance prefer certain plants and plant parts while there are others which are avoided. The identification of the eaten species and the rate of their occurrence in the feed is the first step to become acquainted with the interaction between animal and the surroundings.
On the examined territories there was significant difference between the disembowelled body masses. The does which come from the hunt Nagyszénás weighed 4-5 kilos more than the does from the Csongrád territory. The main feed components were present in different rate in the samples of the territories, in the Nagyszénás samples grain, dicotyledonous herbacous plants were dominant, and were eaten more. The high level of grain in the feed result in better condition and larger body mass.

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Identification and specific variety of actinomyces of streptomycetes genus in some chernozems of Ukraine
Published November 3, 2010
67-74

Is definite the quantitative and quality composition of chernozem usual and southern streptomycetes cenosis. It is rotined that humus horizons of chernozem usual more biogenic, than chernozem southern. Analysis of specific structure of streptomycetes association and calculation of some biodiversity indexes by Margalef, Berger-Parker and Serense...n it was allowed to set the specific features of forming of these microorganisms cenosis in investigated soils.

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Economic questions of maize production on different soil types
Published November 13, 2012
289-292

The requirements and objective of cultivation are in constant change. For example, different cultivation systems are developed for the purpose of soil protection, the preservation of its moisture content and on soils with various precipitation supply or production site conditions. Traditionally, one of the most important cultivation aims is cro...p needs. Further cost saving in fertilisation and crop protection can only be achieved by reducing the quality and quantity of production or it cannot be achieved at all. Furthermore, the costs can be significantly reduced by means of the rationalisation of cultivation. Energy and working time demand can also be notably reduced if ploughing is left out from the conventional tillage method. The key requirement of economicalness is to perform the cultivation at the optimal date, moisture level and the lowest possible cost.
Within production costs, the cost of cultivation is between 3–17%, while they are between 8–36% within machinery costs. It is the vital condition the usability of each technological method to progressively reduce costs. Our evaluation work was carried out with the consideration of the yield data obtained from cooperating farms and the experiment database of the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. Three technological methods (ploughing, heavy cultivator and loosening tillage) were used on several soil types which differ from in terms of cultivability (chernozem, sandy and sandy clay soils) from the economic/economical aspect. We examined the sectoral cost/income relation of maize production as an indicator plant. The maize price during the analytical period was 45 thousand HUF per t. On chernozem soils, the production of maize can be carried out on high income level, while maize production on sandy soils has a huge risk factor. The role of cultivation is the highest on high plasicity soils, since they have a huge energy
demand and the there is a short amount of time available for each procedure in most cases.

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Application of different compost doses in Pinova and Golden Delicious apple orchards
Published May 6, 2013
91-94

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. The animal husbandry is getting decrease, thereby there is the lack of organic fertilizer and it is suggested to find alternative nutrient supply methods. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far, which is appropriate for the requirement of organic farming.

From the year of 2010 in each year, compost doses were applied in biological apple orchards in cooperation with the Institute of Horticultural Science. In the function of the years different changes were resulted by the compost treatments in the examined parameters in case of both apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova). It was concluded that the dry matter, ash, total acids, sugar content and the vitamin C changed versus time and species. It is supposed that the effect of compost treatments is getting visible.

According to the data higher dry matter, total acids and sugar content, (in some cases) ash were measured in case of the apple species Pinova, while the measurements showed higher vitamin C content in case of the species Golden Delicious.

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The effect of drought and cropping system on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published December 28, 2018
51-53

Different Cropping Systems have many advantages and ensure better crop growth and yielding. Its combination with other agronomic measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximum crop growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems on monoculture and biculture rotatio...ns [maize- wheat]. The study found that crop rotation does not have a significant effect on the grain nutrition quality, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) but has a significant effect on the Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD). Yield and yield components were significantly influenced by crop rotation in this study as yield, plant height, cob weight and number of grains per row all recorded lower mean at 5% probability levels.

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The effect of daytime and nighttime temperature on the cover colour of fruits in an apple gene bank
Published September 14, 2005
45-53

Skin colour of fruits is an important fruit quality parameter. Fruit growers know the phenomenon that the apple colouration is very good in one year while in other years the green and red apples can be differentiated only on the basis of the morphological characteristics of the fruits. There are great differences in values of cover colour betwe...en years.
In the first step, the relationships between day and night temperature, the difference between day and night temperature and fruit skin colour should be determined. In this study, the authors investigate and quantify this relationship.

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Examinations connected with productive life in Hungarian Holstein Friesian populations
Published November 15, 2007
32-39

In Hungary, an intensive dairy population has developed in the last few decades as the result of upgrading to Holstein-Friesian. Intensive milk production, adjusted with housing and feeding, unfavorably affected secondary traits. The number of days between two calvings has increased remarkably and productive lifetime has decreased drastically. ...In the interest of profitable milk production, it is important that cows should be able to stay in the herd as long as possible, in order to have great lifetime productivity.
The aim of this paper was to compare the production and pedigree of cows with eight or more lactations to cows which were culled after their first lactation.
It can be stated that cows with longer herd lives produced more milk in their first lactation than those which were culled after their first lactation. When analyzing the pedigree effect of sires, this could not be proven, although some bulls, mainly of Hungarian origin, appeared at a higher frequency. In the analysis of the effect of dams, it was found that many of the offspring of the cows with longer herd lives had similarly great lifetime productivity. Correlation between herdlife and milk production quantity traits was found to be mild or stronger (r>0,60), while according to our analysis, there is no correlation between herdlife and milk production quality traits.

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The effects of joining The European Union in the area of tourism within health tourism in Hungary
Published September 2, 2009
169-177

The occasion of Hungary joining to the European Union caused difficult tasks and questions for tourism in Hungary. Tourism sector must have been prepared for joining to European  Union, which means developing a well-functioning and future planning strategy. It has to improve taking parts our tourism into international market without signif...icant deficit. The main aim is achieving the sustainable tourism by approach marketing and environmentally sound of way that is able to become competitive.
My aim is to analyze by numerous indexes what are the effects of joining Hungary to the European Union in tourism sector. However the results need to extend survey into many years. It is very important to reach long-term economic results and development, next to it has to be suitable impacts for social and natural environment, quality of life and developing health tourism as well.
To sum up we can establish extension of European Union area has improved diversity of tourism destination and goods, accessibility of natural and cultural features. 

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Biofuel production and its quality standards
Published February 10, 2013
137-141

The increasing consumption due to the decreasing amount of fossile energy resources, as well as the increasing fuel prices and living standard will justify the better utilisation of the opportunities lying in biofuel production. Certain countries produce biofuels for their own use or they even export them. However, there are countries which hav...e not decided which feedstock and technology to use. Biofuel – mainly biodiesel and bioethanol – use greatly contributes to environmental protection, decreased CO2 emission and reduced greenhouse effect.

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Variation of boza nutrition parameters based on raw materials
Published February 3, 2016
67-70

Boza is a ceral based fermented drink. Raw material of boza could be rise, millet, wheat and rye. Because of the diversity of raw materilas and the method of fermentation boza might show varied quality and nutrition value.

Nowadays healthy and conscious nutrition are playing more and more important roles in our lives. People pay an ever... growing attention to the nutrition value of products, such as protein- and sugar content, components with antioxidant properties, and the mineral content of the products. In our research we wanted to know how the protein,-, sugar-, total polifenol-, mikro- and macro element content of products change.

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Characterization of Water Resources in Transcarpathia
Published December 6, 2005
277-281

Transcarpathia is located in one of the wettest parts of the Ukraine. There are 9429 rivers and creeks in the county with a total length of 19.86 thousand kilometers. The length of 152 rivers exceeds 10 km, 4 exceed 100 km (Tisza, Latorca, Ung and Borsava rivers). The average density of rivers is 1.7 km/km2, which is the highest in the Ukraine.... The existing water resources are distributed unevenly in the county. The river with the greatest mass of water is the Tisza. Tisza carries 75% of all existing water resources, the remaining 25% is made up of the water in the river Ung and Latorca. Disregarding the uneven distribution of water resources, 80% of water is used up in the basins of the rivers Ung and Latorca from the water resources of the county, which leads to the overload of rivers.
The main sources of water supply in Transcarpathia: subsurface waters – for the population of cities and settlements, surface and subsurface waters – for the industry, surface waters – for irrigation.
In the interest of protecting existing water resources, it is required to follow current regulations, detecting and averting contaminating sources and establishing water conservation zones.

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Effects of some herbicides on the microbiological characteristics of soil nitrogen cycle under maize plantation
Published December 21, 2008
93-100

Nitrogen is a key element for the living organisms and influence not only for the quantity but for the quality of the yield, considerable. Availability of nitrogen from the soil is influenced by several microbiological processes of the Nitrogen-cycle. Among the intensive agricultural production the herbicide application cannot be omitted more i...nformation needs therefore about the inhibitor effect of herbicides on the different microorganisms.
An experiment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil under maize culture. Effect of four different herbicides (Acenit, Frontier, Merlin, and Wing) was investigated. The effect of herbicides was measured to four microbiological parameters of the Nitrogencycle (abundance of nitrifying bacteria, nitrate solubilisation, biomass nitrogen and urease enzyme activity). There were singledouble-  and five times of recommended doses of herbicides applied for two onsecutive vegetation periods.
From the results of the different doses of herbicides, the following can be stated:
– The Acenit has a stimulating effect on nitrifying bacteria in general. The Frontier and Merlin also influenced the quantity of nitrifyers, however in certain cases decreased in another cases increased the number of bacteria.
– The double doses and five times doses of herbicides was found to be increasing the nitrate content of soil, -especially in 2006.
– The quantity of microbial biomass nitrogen increased in the 60% of treatments and decreased in the 40% of the treatments.
– Except of the result of Wing in 2006 and Merlin in 2005, the effect of simple dose herbicides was the smallest on the urease enzyme activity. According to the results the effect of Merlin was positive; the effect of Wing was negative on the soil enzyme’s activity.
Regarding the application of four different herbicides in three  different doses on the microbiological parameters of soil (at two consecutive years-) in 39% of the treatments has resulted a significant inhibitory effect, 28% of the treatments, however have significant stimulating effect on the parameters measured. More than 50% of the inhibitory effect was measured in case of the Wing, at more than 50% of the Frontier the microbiological parameters have not changed.

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Stand evaluation, crop estimation and yield analysis of winter wheat for the optimization of yields
Published May 23, 2019
103-109

The authors have been carrying out stand evaluation, crop estimation and yield analysis in winter wheat since 2012. The sampling areas were assigned at the fields of the Training Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences of Széchenyi István University Mosonmagyaróvár according to the structure of the cropping system. According t...o their observations the value of field emergence is always lower than the laboratory germination. The weak emergence is important because the lower plant density cannot be compensated by the increased tillering in spite of having larger plant growth space. It is proven by the fact that they detected strong productive tillering even at 5 and 10 mm plant spacing while there were single-spiked plants at 40-50 mm plant spacing as well. The analysis revealed that the total ear mass and grain mass of wheat plants bearing two or more ears is almost the double than that of the single-spiked plants. It was a further basic experience that the largest ear of ”multiple-spiked” plants is always heavier than the single ear of one-spiked plants. Plants with intense tillering and more ears demonstrate the importance of proper seedbed preparation and drilling and the significance of sowing good quality seeds. These are the factors that determine field germination and emergence, influence the speed and intensity of initial development and by all these factors the sufficient productive tillering. The authors emphasize the use of exact and objective methods at crop estimation, e.g. the relationship between the ear mass and the yield which is in strong correlation whilst ear length and grain mass are not suitable for a precise estimation. The authors conclude that crop estimation and yield analysis must be inevitable tools of modern crop production and will be particularly important in precision agriculture. These tools also qualify the job done by farmers and helps to identify the areas that require special attention.

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Comparative study of special honey products and herbhoneys
Published June 30, 2018
117-120
Honey has a positive effect on human body due to its high content of biologically active substances (e.g. monosaccharides, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, polyphenolic compounds). The properties of honey depend on its botanical origin due to the bioactive plant components, mainly secondary metabolites that are inc...luded in honey made by bees from nectar. Herbally infused honeys are delicious products that combine the therapeutic action of herbs and honey. Additionally, herbs can provide nutrient fortified syrup for honey bees and protect them against diseases and other ecological threats.
The aim of this study was to define the physicochemical properties of multifloral honey, herb enriched natural honey and herbhoney samples. We measured the moisture content, pH value, electrical conductivity and proline content. Although great diversity was observed in the basic properties of the examined products. In our study, we found that the electrical conductivity shows the significant differ between the groups. All the samples, including the herbhoneys passes the quality standards of honeys.
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Risk effects of the spread route of mycotoxins
Published October 5, 2010
90-95

In Hungary the mycotoxin is a great problem, because there are many natural toxins in wheat and maize. These cereals can be found on
considerable proportion of the country’s sowing area, and they are deterministic food for the population. The direct human and animal
utilization of the contaminated cereals mean a serious risk in the food... chain. In Hungary’s climate the soil is contaminated with pathogen
moulds, particularly Fusarium species, which increase by respective temperature and moisture content in cereals. The Fusarium can
decrease the quality of the wheat in different ways: decrease the germination capability and cause visible discoloration and appearance of
mould, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of the grain. From the toxins produced by the Fusarium genus, the trichotecene (T-2,
HT-2, deoxinivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscxirpenol, Fusarenon-X) and the estrogenic zearalenon (F-2) are the most common in Hungary.
The fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3) first identified in 1988, relatively newly discovered, are also important. Major proportion of mycotoxins in a
healthy organization is metabolized by the enzyme system of liver and intestinal bacteria. The toxicity is reduced or even leaves off.
However, more toxic and biologically active compounds can be formed. For the reduction of mycotoxin-contamination several possibilities
are available in the case of storage, processing and feeding.

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Name Brands and Symbols Used Organic Products in the European Union and in Hungary
Published May 4, 2004
174-180

In 2002, the area which was monitored according to the requirements of organic farming numbered 103 thousand hectares in Hungary (this is some 1.7% of all cultivated land) and almost 1000 plants producing organic products were inspected. It is a realistic assumption, when considering these data, that within a short period time the area used for... organic farming will reach the optimal 600.000 hectares.
Contrary to overproduction in the EU – cereals, maize and other plants – organic products can be sold in unlimited quantities. Practice also indicates, that 90% of Hungarian certified organic products are sold in EU and Swiss markets.
Thus, it is important to label Hungarian products according to EU standards. This way standard quality products can be sold easier and by increasing their income, manufacturers can contribute to the improvement of the environment.

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Applied EDI technologies in food traceability
Published July 28, 2008
69-74

Due to globalisation, the new technological developments and the complexity of food supply processes, the European food sector is increasingly becoming more complex. The consumers’ trust in food, triggered and affected by a number of food crises, is low. Today, consumers increasingly expect safe and high quality food and demand information ab...out the origin of their food. Also, economic health of food industry can be greatly affected by food crises; therefore efficient and effective mechanisms are required to assist food industry in tracking and tracing products along the food chain. In this paper we discuss the criteria for efficient and effective traceability system from an IT perspective (mainly data exchange) and we identify key requirements for ICT enabled traceability.

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Macro element contents of different genotype cows’ milk
Published December 1, 2010
27-31

The level of mineral elements is important factor regarding the quality of milk. The aim of our research study was to determine the content of mineral elements in milk of Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, Norwegian-red, Swedish-red cows in the first stage of lactation. All cows were fed with the same type (composition) of feed and they w...ere kept under the same condition. The concentration of macroelements (K, Na, Ca, P, Mg, S) in digested milk samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

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