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Modelling forestation alternatives
Published February 17, 2015
35-41

 

Agroforestry systems are part of the history of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase of size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century, thereby it has radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. However, this cause conflicts between interest of agricu...ltural and forestry sectors. The agroforestry land uses could be a solution of this conflict management. One real – ecological – problem with the remnant forests and new forest plantation is the partly missing of network function without connecting ecological green corridors, the other problem is verifiability for the agroforestry payment system, monitoring the arable lands and plantations.

Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise European Union payments. Nowadays, next to use satellite imagery the airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technologies are becoming more widespread use for nature, environmental, forest, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring and it is an effective tool for monitoring biomass production.

In this Hungarian case study we made a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to create agroforestry site selection model. The aim of model building was to ensure the continuity of ecological green corridors, maintain the appropriate land use of regional endowments. The investigation tool was the more widely used hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR remote sensing technologies which can provide appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build a decision support system.

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Development of a Decision Assisting Soil Information System in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004
130-133

Hungarian agriculture may be characterized by the industry-like, conventional farming of the past decades. This form of management concentrated exclusively on functions aimed at production. We have to decrease this disproportion, especially when joining to the EU, by reducing the intensive agricultural regions and adjusting to the goals of the ...2000-2006 NAEP programmes, forming such an agricultural system which integrates the advantages of both environmental protection and complex agricultural systems based on rational foundations. Nevertheless it’s a rational decision to make the soil information system with an exact spatial informatics background as a foundation of agricultural system, because this promotes easy handling as well the connection to possible subsequent modules.

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The aggregate stability of the soil in respect to the uniform aggregate stability indicator
Published July 16, 2007
83-99

Soil structure and its quality are fundamental properties because they control many processes in soils. Tillage, crop and other factors influence soil structure. Efficient protection of it needs indication of changes in soil structure. A new Normalized Stability Index proposed by Six et al. (2000) tries to evaluate these changes, which was comp...ared with some former used indices. The most common method (wet sieving) was modified to reduce the confounding effects of different particle size distribution of different soil types and method used to the investigation. Changes in soil structure caused by tillage and crop management therefore have been made quantitative and comparable. In this paper, we review the new method and Normalized Stability Index proposed by Six et al. (2000) and present the results of our investigations.

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Change of mineral and organic nitrogen forms in a long term fertilization experiment (literature)
Published March 11, 2014
43-47

The research topic has timeliness, since the rational utilization and protection of the soil, besides the conservation of its diverse functions is part of the sustainable development. Research of the long-term experiments is esentially important, because it can model the term effects in the same place, under the same conditions. If we want to g...et accurate informations about the occured changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and effect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest. Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms, it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only only a low percentage of the total nitrogent content can be used directly by plants in the soil. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it get into the soil by the fertilization. The plants incorporote the mineral nitrogen into our bodies. This is how nitrogen turnover is realized when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.

The purpose of our paper is to make a literature before our research.

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Testing disease resistance in autumn wheat genotypes by means of field experiments
Published September 7, 2001
30-40

According to our scientific results we can state that we have to use integrated pesticides management in crop protection against the diseases of winter wheat. One of the most important elements of IPM is to select a genotype characterised by good resistance to diseases (and by high yield ability and excellent baking quality). It is especially i...mportant that the wheat variety have tolerance against not only to one or two leaf and spike (grain) diseases, but „complex” tolerance. It is not necessary to give up the growing of a variety which has susceptibility to different diseases because we can protect it using appropriate chemical management. In the intensive growing stage of wheat (BBCH 32-37) we can use a noncompulsary fungicide-treatment (depending on e. g. the infection, ecological conditions) and, at the beginning of the flowering stage
(BBCH 59-65), we have to use a compulsary fungicide-treatment (in spite of e. g. special weather conditions, resistance genotype)to ensure high yield and good quality.

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The Role of Cultivation Systems in Quality Sugar Beet Production
Published December 6, 2005
134-138

Producing sugar beet, as it is a demanding field crop, has contributed to the raising standard of plant production. It has an outstanding place among the plants that are cultivated in the intensive plant production system. Rentability of sugar manufacture is determined by the stability of yield and the quality (saccharose content) of sugar beet.... In this way, the fundamental interest both of the producers and the processing industry is high yield and quality, year by year. The yield and the quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, so we studied the effect of fertilization, irrigation and plant protection.

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European best practises for district heating
Published May 16, 2017
47-49

In my current article I deal with the broadening extension of district heating that is highly beneficial from environmental and climate protection aspects. I present the energy efficient and environment friendly district heating upon some outstanding European best practises.
District heating is of utmost importance concerning sustainable and... secure energy supply because the share of the renewable energy sources continuously and gradually increases against the fossil energy sources (natural gas, crude oil) within the total energy consumption due to the directives for heat production of the European Union. As a consequence of that import energy dependency and coal-dioxide emission decrease in several countries like Hungary as well.

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Comparative Vertical Migration of Three Different Strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and a Single Strain of Heterorhabditis megidis in Sand at 25°C
Published September 15, 2003
47-52

Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Heterorhabditis megidis) were tested for downward migration in 9.5 cm vertical sand columns at 25°C with and without a larva of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, at the bottom. The number of infective juveniles (IJs) in the upper section decreased since the IJs gradually migrated down toward the Galleria larv...ae into the lower section of the shell vials. Only the isolate OH 25 behaved differently, because the number of IJs decreased this isolate in the lower section. This isolate was the quickest, since after 12 hrs, most IJs could be found in the lower section of the vials from this isolate. The number of IJs was so small in the lower section that 12 hrs after injection, only the isolates MHG 3 and OH 25 could kill the Galleria larvae.
Besides the fact that mortality occurred among the Galleria larvae with the above isolates, neither IJs nor adults could be detected in either living or dead Galleria larvae 12 hrs after IJ injection. It is noteworthy that the behavior of the isolate Megidis was different from the other isolates: the number of IJs was so negligible in the lower section of the vials that even after 36 hrs none of the Galleria died and, consequently, neither adults nor IJs could be detected after dissecting the Galleria larvae. Each isolate could reach the lower section of the vials, yet only the isolate Megidis could not infect and kill the host. After dissecting the larvae, most IJs and adults could be found in the isolate MHG 3 (95 IJs and adults altogether) 36 hrs after injection.

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Agronomical and economic evaluation of different soil cultivation systems
Published May 23, 2006
47-52

In the interest of profitable plant production and environmental protection, we have to make an effort to protect and improve the productivity of our soils while moderating production limiting factors. Due to different soil cultivation methods, the quantity of yield and required expenses also differ.
We examined the production costs in four ...different production technology systems. Overall, it can be said that farming standards are good, since cost prices were low (2001: 14-15 HUF/kg, 2002:15-21 HUF/kg, 2003: 39-49 HUF/kg) in the case of all main products per 1 kg. Cost prices were lowest in the case of direct sowing, probably due to low machinery costs.
All economic indicators have to be compared when choosing the most suitable production technology in a specific farming environment.

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Agronomical and economic evaluation of various cultivation systems on meadow soil
Published February 10, 2013
103-106

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The requirements and objectives of cultivation are in constant change. There are different cultivation aims if the objective is soil protection, the prevention of its moisture content or on areas with different precipitation supply or production site endowments. Based on the experimental database of the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences and the KITE Plc., the various cultivation systems in Hajdú-Bihar country were examined with maize as indicator plant. The sample area can be found in the outskirts of Biharnagybajom on meadow soil. On the examined plot, spring strip basic cultivation, loosening and autumn ploughing were applied on 15-15-15 ha, respectively. At the time of taking undisturbed soil samples, soil conductivity measurements were also performed with a Penetronik penetrometer. Undisturbed soil samples were taken from each treatment before sowing (on 5th April 2012). The yield obtained in the strip cultivation treatment increased that of the ploughing and the loosening technology. The economic indexes are the most favourable in the strip cultivation.

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Research of different adjuvants and yeast dosages in honey fermentation process
Published February 3, 2016
5-7

In order to ferment honey it is necessary to add in the fermentation environment some substances with the role of adjuvants, to improve the honey must composition and to help the fermentation process. There were tested 2 different combination of adjuvants which were analyzed in the fermentation process. Also the physical and chemical properties... of the final products were analyzed. After establishing the most suitable mix of adjuvants it was necessary to test the right dosage of the yeast used to metabolized sugars: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to obtain appropriate organoleptic properties.

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Yield components of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) in different sowing technologies on acidic sandy soil
Published December 15, 2019
83-88

Nearly a quarter of the agricultural utilized area of our country is made up of sandy soils. Sandy soils are poor in nutrients, and, therefore, the effectiveness of farming is basically determined by the method of maintaining soil fertility and the fertilization practice.

The hairy vetch called Vicia villosa Roth (Sandy Roth.), also kno...wn as a sand pioneer, plays a significant role in the exploitation of sandy soils. Its cultivation was started in Hungary in the late 1800s. It is primarily used as green fodder, most recently as a green manure and as a soil protection plant. The lupine is grown mainly as a supportive plant, which was previously rye, and today it is triticale. The ratio of the two plants to each other and the spatial location of plants depend on the method of sowing.

The aim of our work was to present the yields of some of the grain grown in different sowing methods and some of its crops.

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From the Concept of Sustainable Development to the Subsidies of Agricultural Environmental Management
Published December 6, 2005
354-361

The most important aim of the study is to introduce the theoretical background of my PhD dissertation – agricultural environmental management –, in order to help the scientific foundations for my dissertation, which is in progress. For this reason I will try to clarify and systematize facts found in the special literature according to my ow...n thoughts, from a new aspect.
In my study, I therefore attempt to introduce the theoretical background of sustainable development as pertains to the subsidies of agricultural environmental management (National Agricultural Environmental Management Program, National Regional Development Plan, agricultural environmental management measures). Having clarified the concepts I place sustainable development in the economic theories directed to the treatment of environmental problems, introduce where subsidies are within the environmental regulation implements and I dwell on to the institutional questions in the explanation. I then study questions of sustainable agricultural economics. Accession to the European Union has to be considered as one of the most important concrete motivities of domestically coming into prominence of agricultural environmental subsidies therefore I think it is important to study how the problematic of sustainable development, sustainable agricultural development and agricultural environment protection worked out in the EU. Finally I survey the main characteristics of domestic agricultural environment management programs fitting into the theories explained above, how the program adjusts to the theories of sustainable development and sustainable agricultural development.
In the dissertation I begin with sustainable development as the broadest theoretical background, then I survey a narrower category, the theories of sustainable agricultural development and how concrete agricultural environmental programs fit into the studied theoretical relations.

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Economic policy strategy of UNITAB
Published July 28, 2008
83-90

Under the leadership of the International Association of Tobacco Producers – UNITAB – there is a struggle going on for stabilizing the situation of European tobacco growers. UNITAB unites the tobacco associations and tobacco growers of all EU countries.
Tobacco production ensures economic stability for more than 100 thousand small- and m...edium-sized farms in the rural areas of 10 EU countries. In addition, its social importance in the survival of rural communities is emphasized by the 400 thousand direct or related seasonal jobs.
Within the framework of the CAP reform, the European Union is gradually changing the regulations of production. This is based on the decoupling of subsidies, which will be implemented in two phases. Between 2006 and 2009. the decoupling will be 40% and then after 2010, 50% (the other 50% will be used for restructuring within the second pillar). The question is raised, how will the second 50% be restructured to the second pillar. Between regions and how it can be ensured that this support would go to tobacco production.
With its participation in the principles of the European Tobacco Charta, UNITAB targets for production under economically-balanced conditions, the production of products meeting the customer requirements, consideration of the working conditions (especially for seasonal workers) and adherence to the health regulations related to the consumption of the end product already in the production and environmental protection. They aim to ensure the survival of the sector via tobacco growing with sustainable development and high quality. To maintain the continuity, there is a need for the support of regional, national and EU authorities. Future of the sector is dependent upon adaptation of tobacco growers and upon meeting the social expectations.
According to UNITAB, efforts should be made to modify the decisions so that the majority of the funding could be used by the grower. The tobacco industry has been able to effectively fight for its survival.

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Plant growth analysis of wheat populations in a long-term field-experiment
Published July 31, 2012
147-151

The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The whea...t variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

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The effect of different herbicide on the number and activity of living microorganisms in soil
Published May 23, 2006
76-82

Sustainable plant growth, considering the difficulties of weed elimination, cannot be effective without the application of herbicides. However, these chemicals have enormous ecological implications, including effects on the microbiological communities of soils. It is advisable to use herbicides that have minimal secondary effects on the environ...ment and soil-living microorganisms. In contrast, herbicides with prolonged growth stimulating or inhibiting effects are not suitable, because both types have strong influences on the number and activity of bacteria, thus causing changes in the ecological equilibrium.
Preceding small plot experiments, laboratory tests were carried out to study the effect of herbicides used in maize cultures on the number of bacteria and growth of microscopic fungi.
Substances that were observed to have stronger influences were applied in small plot experiments set up in the experimental garden of the Department of Plant Protection of the University of Debrecen. We studied the effects of four herbicides (Acenit A88EC, Frontier 900 EC, Merlin SC and Wing EC) on the microbiological properties of the soil. These herbicides were used in different concentrations in maize culture, and we investigated the effects in different soil layers.
In the laboratory experiments, we determined the total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi and examined the growth of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum on peptone-glucose agar containing herbicides.
During the small plot experiments, soil samples were collected 3 times a year from 2-20 cm depth. The total numbers of bacteria and microscopic fungi were determined by plate dilution method, while the method of most probable number (Pochon method) was used to determine the numbers of nitrifying bacteria and cellulose decomposing bacteria. To evaluate the microbiological activity of the soil samples we measured carbon-dioxide release (after 10 days incubation), nitrate production (after 14 days incubation) and the concentration of C and N in the biomass.
We can summarize our results as follows:
• In laboratory experiments, herbicides caused a decrease in the number of bacteria and inhibited the growth of microscopic fungi.
• Frontier 900 EC and Acenit A 880 EC had the strongest inhibiting effect on microorganisms.
• In small plot experiments, herbicide treatment decreased the total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi.
• Herbicides caused a significant increase in the number of nitrifying and cellulose decomposing bacteria.
• Different herbicides containing the same active compound had similar influences on soil microoorganisms.
• A significant increase was observed in the physiological processes of tolerant microorganisms surviving the effects of herbicides

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The effect of different compost rates on the yield of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published November 20, 2011
95-98

Protection of natural resources and sustainable natural resources management are essential for the long-term survival of humanity. This makes necessary nowadays the development of environmentally conscious living and spread of that in the future. The amount of organic waste materials, produced during human activities, could be decreased by comp...osting instead of dispose them in landfills. Applying appropriate treatment technology and additives, the compost could be used as fertilizer for horticultural crops and it could increase the easily available nutrient content of soils. Compost utilization prevents nutrient deficiencies and by using the optimal rate, we could reach significant yield increases.

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Comparison of the technological background of aquaponic systems
Published May 20, 2020
47-52

Aquaponics is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculating aquaculture systems, an ecologically sustainable horticultural production technique with long traditions.

The objective of this study is to compare flood-and- drain, and the water crossflow system and examine the differences in the water quality, fish yi...eld and plant growth parameters for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). During the study, water quality parameters of two treatments were compared in temperatures, pH, EC and NON were significantly different (p <0.05). Leaf area of the basil plants grew to an average of 20.37 cm2 (± 9.02 cm2). The plants’ biomass production was significantly different (p< 0.05) in the two systems. The biomass production showed lower yield, 458.22 g (± 214.59 g) in the constant flow system that in the flood- and- drain system 692.9 g (± 175.82 g). Fish Growth parameters were better in constant flow system (FCR 5.48 g/g ± 0.19). However, the specific growth rate (SGR) demonstrated that fish grew faster in flood- and- drain system 1.38 %/day (± 0.29).

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The possibilities of biomass utilization in the field of spatial development
Published July 16, 2007
59-63

By joining the European Union, Hungary made a commitment to increasingly utilize renewable energy sources. Keeping in view the agricultural circumstances of Hungary, we can state that biomass utilization has, overall, the greatest range of possibilities to use its products as ‘energy sources’. Biomass raw materials are useful in meeting emi...ssion control regulations for environment protection and to reduce climate change. The role of biomass production in spatial and rural development and in rural employment, and also in the decrease of Hungary’s energy dependence, supports development in biomass energy use. My aim in studying biomass utilization is the creation of a micro-regional level, decentralised, agro-energetic system-model for the use of plant and animal biomass for energy purposes, whether naturally or by anthropogenic activity, on agro- and sylvicultural areas, and on animal breeding farms. This model simulation method serves as a planning base for policy-makers during the spatial planning processes. The examination is presently in the stage of data collection. The collection of the basic data of the examination area and the purchase of the necessary equipment, materials and maps has already started. Contact has been made with local stakeholders, municipalities, municipality associations and micro-region managers.

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Spectral analysis of stress symptoms caused by apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha
Published February 25, 2014
83-88

An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Calculated on the basis of such hyperspectral data from different index numbers the water supply of foliage conditions can be well characterized....>

The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in University of Debrecen, Agricultural Sciences Centre, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During my experiments the preliminary evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by Podosphaera leucotricha.

Based on the results narrow band greenness indices (NDVI705, mNDVI705, mSR705 and REP) can be used for determination of diseased canopy and for the detection of stress symptoms of Podosphaera leucotricha,. These statements can be utilized in precision plant protection systems, since it can be a basis for such integrated active sensors with LED or laser light source, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can facilitate real time status assessment of orchards and can control precision fungicide utilization.

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Economic impacts of applying EU animal protection regulations in hog breeding farms
Published May 27, 2001
76-80

Hungary’s intention to join the EU makes it necessary to adopt, introduce and use the EU system of law. In Hungary, the legal control of animal welfare has improved (XXVIIIth law in 1998); however, most of our pig farms do not meet the EU animal welfare law requirements for some reason. We examined 9 pig farms in Hajdú-Bihar, Borsod-Abaúj-Z...emplén and Heves counties. We chose those farms which use the combined breeding
technology most frequently used in Hungary. The most important part of the welfare directive is the definition of the minimum space per animal. We analysed the data in comparison with EU laws. On the basis of the analysis, it can be said that there is a narrow cross-section: the breeding of piglets. During the cost analysis, we analysed cost and highlighted the permanent cost. We studied how these costs would change if EU animal welfare laws were observed. We also examined the specific data per 1 sow and per 1 kilogram of slaughter pig. We compared the present data (1999) with those we get if EU animal welfare laws concerning minimal space per pig were now followed. It can be stated that after decreasing the sow live-stock in accordance with EU directives, the permanent cost would increase by 17,7% per sow. If the required space per sow were provided, the total cost per sow would increase by 1,9% from 421,1 thousand forints to 429 thousand forints, on average. This would mean a decrease of 7,9
thousand forints profit per sow. As with the decrease of the number of sows, the number of slaughter pigs also decreases. Total cost per 1 kg of slaughter pig would increase from 214,7 forints to 218,2 on average. 

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New occurence of woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa [Thunb.] Kunth) in Hajdúság area, East-Hungary
Published June 14, 2017
51-54

Because of the globalization and global warming the emergence of invasive weeds in Hungary are more common. The woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa [Thunb.] Kunth) is published as an important invasive weed in Hungary. Woolly cupgrass is native in East Asia and it spreads into several parts of the World and causes difficulties in plant protectio...n. It has been spreading extensively during the last few years,as the weed shows a very serious invasion potential.

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Agri-environmental subsidies and the National Rural Development Plan
Published May 23, 2006
52-59

The financing of agri-environmental target programs which is a prominent area in the EU became possible during the implementation and successful operation of the National Agricultural Environment Protection Program (NAPP) launched in 2002. Through this program we gained experience in the field agri-environmental measures which are financed from... the Guidance Section of European Agricultural and Guarantee Fund in the European Union. The agri-environmental measures which are included in the National Rural Development Plan (NRDP) were implemented in Hungary in the fall of 2004 when the farmers handed in their application after the publishing of the related law. The NAPP financing is still active, but not significant since most farmers have chosen NRDP measures.
We are examining the experience of the above programs after studying some theoretical aspects of the agricultural economics and the EU laws. We try to analyse the most important experiences of NAPP including the legal background, news opportunities yielded by target programs, the financing, organisation, and institutional background. We will present the results taking into consideration the data of the winning applicants.

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Long-term experiments on chernozem soil in the University of Debrecen
Published September 5, 2018
357-369

The impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fert...ilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production.

Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.

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