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Loss and Disease Development of Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey in an Organic Apple Orchard
Published December 14, 2004
6-8

In a two-year-study, yield loss and temporal development of incidence of Monilinia fructigena were quantified in organic apple orchards and the importance of fruit wounding agents was determined. The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in 2001 and 2002. Disease development was continuous until fruit harvest in both ye...ars. Pre-harvest yield loss caused by Monilinia fructigena amounted on average 27.2% in 2001 and 41.6% in 2002 by fruit harvest. The growth rate of disease development was almost double in 2002 compared to 2001. All infected fruits were injured by wounding agents such as aboitic and mechanical injury factors, codling moth (Cydia pomonella), common earwig (Forficula auricularia) and birds. In this study, the most important wounding agents were codling moth and mechanical injury factors in organic apple orchards. In both years, our results showed that 70-80% of the infected fruits were damaged by codling moth in organic apple production. Moreover, 10-15% of the infected fruits were mechanically injured in the two years. Our results indicated that most of the damaged fruits fell on the orchard floor before harvest and they became an important secondary inoculum source of M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

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Challenges and limtations of site specific crop production applications of wheat and maize
Published November 13, 2012
101-104

The development and implementation of precision agriculture or site-specific farming has been made possible by combining the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Site specific agronomic applications are of high importance concerning the efficiency of management in crop production as well as the protectio...n and maintenance of environment and nature. Precision crop production management techniques were applied at four locations to evaluate their impact on small plot units sown by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in a Hungarian national case study. The results obtained suggest the applicability of the site specific management techniques, however the crops studied responded in a different way concerning the impact of applications. Maize had a stronger response regarding grain yield and weed canopy. Wheat was responding better than maize concerning plant density and protein content performance.

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Contributions to the 2014 and 2015 flight pattern and damages of Carpomyia schineri Loew.
Published June 2, 2015
96-99

The fly Carpomyia schineri Loew is a pest of the berries of the feral Rosa canina group but is can also be found in the berries of grown rose cultivars. The larva damages the flesh of the berry, several larvae can develop inside a single berry. It can decrease the quantity and ascorbic acid content of the tea and jam, which are important human ...ascorbic acid sources during winter. At the same time in trapping experiments the adult can be confounded with adults of the walnut husk fly (Rhagoletis completa Cresson). In collections of berries at several sites in Hungary damage levels ranged from 0.88% to 65.08 %. Based on these damage levels we had the impression that the yellow sticky traps CSALOMON® PALz or PALs baited with the synthetic Rhagoletis lure caught moderate numbers of adults and were not satisfactory for detection, consequently improving trapping methods is necessary in the future.

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Global Issues of RangelandManagement
Published September 5, 2002
39-46

Rangelands occupy about 50% of the world’s land area. They are ecologically and economically as important as rain forests and in even greater danger of degradation and disappearance. This paper reviews the definitions and distribution of rangelands and describes their global environmental importance in terms of erosion control, carbon storage... and methane emission. Condition and degradation of rangelands are defined and discussed and it is argued that soil protection and carbon storage can be increased and methane emission per animal decreased by conservative use and improvement of rangelands, whilst at the same time alleviating hunger and malnutrition in developing countries. It is concluded that policies should be adopted by national governments and international deve-lopment programs to conserve and improve rangelands.

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Comparison of Reproductive Performance of the Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus, L.) Among Different Regions
Published October 11, 2006
41-46

The potential and actual number of offspring of roe deer and the difference between these figures (prenatal and postnatal loss) significantly vary in each population yearly. The objective of this study is to examine the potential and actual number of offspring, the number of losses, and to find a link between the most important biological chara...cteristics of does (body weight – BW, condition – KFI) and the number of raised offspring on four territories on the Great Hungarian Plain.
Where the number of corpora lutea (CL) is the highest, there the losses are the highest as well, and the number of raised offspring is the lowest (region I.). Here, the rearing loss is double that of the weakest territory (region IV.). Rearing losses can be associated with the fenotype of does (BW, KFI) but environmental factors also have determinative importance. Where the number of twin-calving does was the highest, I found four times more does without a fawn than where the number of twin-calving does was the lowest. The nursing success was the best (the losses were lowest) in the region where the potential offspring (number of CL) was also the lowest, but the coverage of the habitat and the proportion of forests were largest. The food supply for the animals in autumn and winter are not enough, the structure of the habitat has to be improved as well, so that it might become adequate for game protection in extreme weather conditions.
The results have to be considered as preliminary ones. It is essential to continue and extend the research to increase the reliability of the results.

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Validation of the competence profile of agri-environmental engineering bachelor course
Published December 22, 2010
63-71

As member of the European Union, the development if the Hungarian agriculture is determined by the Common Agricultural Policy. After the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003, the environmental protection has got a crucial function. The constant changing role of agriculture has reacted students in higher education. For firms connecte...d to agriculture, human resource management based on competency has an important role in custody of competitiveness. One of the most important goals of firms is to supply the demands of their economic partners. To make it successfully, highly qualified human resource is required. The quality of human resource is determined not only by its qualification, language skills, professional experience, and practise, but extant competencies that can also be developed. To choose the expectant employee, it is not enough for them to have intelligence and proficiency; it is also decisive to examine their particular competencies. All of these will define the employee’s
achievement that will definitely contribute to the success of the enterprise. Basically, closer cooperation is needed between higher education institutions and employers to achieve this goal. At the same time, the higher education institutions can revise their training systems considering the actual requirements of labour market, and accordingly, they can form syllabus in a way to train auspicious experts. In this article examination of the requirements of labour market for graduates from agri-environmental engineering bachelor course is presented.

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The hydric stress influence on quantityand quality of the maize yield in the Crisurilor Plainconditions
Published May 6, 2013
21-27

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper is based on the researches carried out in an experiment placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain during 2008–2011in the following variants: V1=Irrigated, without irrigation suspending; V2=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in May; V3=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in June; V4=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in July; V5=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in August; V6=Unirrigated. The hybrid used: Fundulea 376. In the variant with optimum irrigation, water reserve on 0–75 cm depth was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity. Pedological drought was determined every year and the irrigation was also needed. The irrigation determined the increase of the total water consumption and yield gain in comparison with unirrigated variant. Irrigation suspending in different months determined the yield losses very significant statistically. The biggest protein content was registered in the variant without irrigation suspending; the values registered in the variants with irrigation suspending in May, June, July and August and in the unirrigated variant are smaller, with differences statistically assured. There was a direct link between de Martonne aridity index values and water consumption, yield and protein content and an inverse link between pedological drought and yield quantity and protein content. These are the arguments for irrigation opportunity in maize from Criurilor Plain.

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Change of soil nitrogen content in a long term fertilization experiment
Published March 5, 2015
39-44

The most important aim of sustainable agriculture is to ensure our natural resources – such as soils – protection, which includes fertility preservation and the use of appropriate methods of cultivation.

If we want to get accurate information about the occurred changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and eff...ect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest.

Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms and it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only a low percentage of the total nitrogen content can be used directly by plants in the soil. The mineral nitrogen is incorporate by plants into our bodies. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it gets into the soil by fertilization. This is how nitrogen turnover occurs when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.

The objective of this publication was to introduce – through some element s of nitrogen turnover- how changing the properties of soil in a long term fertilization experiment.

We established that the fertilization is influenced the soil pH. With the increase of fertilization levels increased the acidity of the soil, maybe it is related with the number of nitrification bacteria. The fertilization and the rotation affected to the quantity of nitrate.

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Managing the relationship between natural spawning areas on unprotected floodplains and on protected man-made fishponds
Published November 15, 2007
25-31

The economic land management of unprotected floodplain areas is possible only if considered jointly with protected floodplain areas, for which facility fisheries provide a solution. One solution could be that a part of the natural fish increment of the spawning-grounds on unprotected floodplains be raised in protected side fishponds and then la...ter sold. This kind of fishery utilization is also favourable from economic, conservationist and flood protection aspects.

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The effect of long-term fertilization on the 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable nutrient content of a meadow soil
Published December 16, 2012
73-79

During my research, I studied the 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable NO3--N, NH4+-N, Norg, P and K contents of the soil samples originated from a long term fertilisation trial in the experimental site Hajdúböszörmény. Relationships among the soil nutrient contents, the agronomic nutrient balances... of the 2009 year, and fertilization were studied. 
From the results of the study it was concluded as follows:
– Fertilization significantly increased the CaCl2 extractable NO3--N, NH4+-N, and K contents of soil.
– Norg fraction increased as a function of the increasing yield. Hence, it can be assumed that the greater the produced yield, the more the stubble and root residues remain on the arable land. These organic residues can result significant increase in the Norg content of soils.
– The CaCl2 extractable P and K contents were compared with the calculated P and K limit values. According to these, the experimental soil has a good phosphorus and lower potassium supply capacity. These results are in accordance with the results of the conventional Hungarian fertilization recommendation system.
– It can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 is able to determine not just inorganic N forms but Norg fraction as well that characterize the easily mineralizable nitrogen reserves. The results proved that AL-P and -K (ammonium lactate acetic acid, traditional Hungarian extractant) are in good agreement with the P and K reserves, but it is important from the aspect of environmental protection and plant nutrition to measure the easily soluble and exchangeable K-, and P-contents of soil. 0.01 M CaCl2 method is recommended for this.

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Practical experiences of a designing and operating a pilot aquaponic system
Published March 20, 2014
27-32

Aquaponics is the combination of fish farming (aquaculture) and the soilless cultivation of plants (hydroponics). The aquaponics system is an artificial, recirculating ecosystem, in which bacterial processes convert the waste materials in the water used for fish rearing into plant nutrients, and therefore with the generated heat it is suitable ...for culturing economically valuable plants, and thus it mitigates the nutrient laden and quantity of the intensive fish producing systems’ effluent water.

The primary goal of our 12 separate unit’s aquaponics system was to gain experience. We would like to find the right plant species, which are fit for that medium, and their crop can be sold. Besides the plants, our attention focused on the fish. Two fish species were included in the experiments, the common carp and barramundi. It was difficult to create them a perfect living space, besides a constantly changing conditions temperature. Apart the above mentioned we had a problem with the number of individuals per tank, the deformity of the fish body and the too high volume of pH (we registered continuous values above 8.4). We get by carps 4.7 grams of weight gain during 15 weeks, because of the bad conditions.

The main problems at the plants are caused by aphesis and protection against sunburn. Even so we have got the multiples of field yields for each plant species. At salad has grown twice of field yields, tomatoes one and half, kohlrabi than 3.5 times more. The causes of multiple yields are the continuous balanced water and the nutrient uptake of plants. Each plant species fit for cultivating in aquaponics and their crops are delicious, chemical -free, safe and marketable. The plants should be more concentrated. After the experiment, it has been determinated that the carp is suitable for aquaponics, but greater weight gain could be achieved with optimal selection of size of rearing units.

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The scientific background of competitive maize production
Published September 5, 2018
33-46

The effect and interaction of crop production factors on maize yield has been examined for nearly 40 years at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen in a long-term field experiment that is unique and acknowledged in Europe. The research aim is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, tillage, genotype, sowing, plant densit...y, crop protection and irrigation. The analysis of the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate maize yield, as well as the effect of crop production factors and crop year, as well as the interaction between these factors.

Based on the different tillage methods, it can be concluded that autumn ploughing provides the highest yield, but its effect significantly differed in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The periodical application of strip tillage is justified in areas with favourable soil conditions and free from compated layers (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening). Under conditions prone to drought, but especially in several consecutive years, a plant density of 70–80 thousand crops per hectare should be used in the case of favourable precipitation supply, but 60 thousand crops per hectare should not be exceeded in dry crop years. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation is significant both under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it is much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment.

Selecting the optimum sowing date is of key importance from the aspect of maize yield, especially in dry crop years. Irrigation is not enough in itself without intensive nutrient management, since it may lead to yield decrease.

The results of research, development and innovation, which are based on the performed long-term field experiment, contribute to the production technological methods which provide an opportunity to use sowing seeds, fertilisers and pesticides in a regionally tailored and differentiated way, adapted to the specific needs of the given plot, as well as to plan each operation and to implement precision maize production.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001
47-54

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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Influence of Hydrological Parameters on the Biodiversity of the BerettyóRiver I.
Published December 6, 2005
215-229

The DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL orders the measurement of the state of natural and artifical waters. We therefore applied environmental qualification methods, which allow inductions of the searched area in environmental management, conservation and water quality protection points of view. These methods are... accepted in interdisciplinary sciences, and are in use in Hungarian and international practice. We applied the range data measured along the Berettyó River, and ratified by the remote sensing, to count hydrological-hydraulical attributes of the stream, by the framework of the Hec-Ras programme. We processed the physical, chemical and biochemical water qualifications, determined the MMCP-index (the point-system of the Hungarian macrozoobenthos taxons), and estimated the Spencer index-numbers, which were based on complex environmental qualification and bioindication. Appointed, that the different results of researches are not inconsistent. This results together the spatial analysis reveal the natural and anthroponetic specialities of the river and the landscape, which determine the environmental flavours and biodiversity. The bioindicators represent better environmental status, than the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters. The natural conservationist importance of drainage canal network of Bihari-Plain is appreciated by these facts.

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The occurrence and phenology of moth pests in different granary of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
Published November 10, 2010
70-75

The aims of my studies were the followings: primarily to find correlation between the conditions of granary and the occurrence of moth pests. Secondly I studied the effect of disinfection on individual numbers in the population of moths. My studies were started in May 2009 in six different places of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. Indianmeal mot...h (Plodia interpunctella) and Mediterranean Flour Moth (Ephestia kuehniella) traps with pheromone were installed in four repetitions as well as Angoumois Grain Moth (Sitotroga cerealella) traps in also four repetitions. Control traps without attractant were also placed at every place.
From my researches, it became clear that the disinfection alone is not enough to protect cereals from moths. As in the case of crop protection, we need to apply integrated pest management.
We have to make differences between preventive protections from moth pests and the elimination of them by chemicals.
Up to my opinion, the regular checking and cleaning of the granary are important as well as the prognosis of the possible occurrence of moths. The prognosis is considered important because the studied moths do not feed at the adult stage or only at a low level. However, the caterpillars coming from the eggs placed by females can cause a significant damage in the stored cereals.
The studied sex pheromone traps are proved to be useful for the reduction of number of moths since the traps caught lots of them. These traps are relatively cheap because only the temporarily changes of pheromones increase the cost.

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Old-new disease is maize smut (Ustilago maydis)
Published June 2, 2015
43-46

Corn smut disease (Ustilago maydis) is one of the most common maize diseases. In the previous years the disease lost some from its importance, however nowadays it turns into more and more important and widespread one. The control encounters great difficulties, therefore it should be emphasized the preventive and resistance-based protection.

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Mycotoxin contamination in maize triggered by arthropod pests and the related protection possibilities
Published May 16, 2017
59-64

Mycotoxin contamination in harvested maize has increased in the last decades, which can be unequivocally back to the plant health troubles caused by global warming. The increasing of wounds in maize crops was occurred by climate change both on direct (hailstorm) and indirect
(newly appeared pests) ways. In additional, the settling phytopatho...genic microfungi on these plant wounds inflict serious human and animal health problems.
The changing of Hungarian arthropod pests assemblages stand in the background of this dangerous nuisance complex. The spreading of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) bivoltine ecotype as well as the newly appeared adventive species [cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Hbn.), western corn rootworm (Diabrotica v. virgifera LeConte), fourspotted-sapbeetle (Glischrochilus quadrisignatus Say)] in Hungary can be responsible for this situation. In total, all technological elements, which obstruct the damage of these chewing mouthparts pests, as well as moderate the mechanical damage of maize, can be contribute to the reduction of both these phytopathogens injuries and mycotoxin contaminations.

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Comparison of Scab Warning Systems in Integrated Apple Production
Published September 15, 2003
53-57

In the present study, the suggestions for infection risk and sprays of the most frequently used PC-based scab warning systems (RIMpro and WELTE) and the conventionally used Mills table as a reference were compared in integrated apple production. The efficacy of the spraying programs based on the three different warning systems was evaluated by ...assessment of apple scab incidences during primary infection periods.
13 and 11 Mills infection periods were detected in 2000 and 2001, respectively, during primary infection periods (from 15 March until 5 June). Taking into consideration the heaviness of Mills infection periods, 11 and 9 sprays were applied in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The two PC-based scab warning systems detected 1-4 less infection periods and suggested 1-3 less sprayings compared to the numbers of infection periods and sprays according to the Mills table. Our results proved that the 9-11 sprays according to the Mills table could be reduced to 7-9 sprays by RIMpro scab warning systems which did not reduce the efficacy and did not increase the symptoms of leaf and fruit scab significantly. The WELTE scab warning systems detected generally one or two more infection periods and suggested one additional spray compared to RIMpro warnings and sprays.

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Possibilities of ecological farming in the North Great Plain Region
Published May 23, 2006
69-71

Agriculture plays a significant role in the North Great Plain Region. Organic farming is a sustainable farming method controlled by regulations. Active environmental protection and conservation play significant roles in organic farming, along with food quality and safety, originality and the monitoring of products. Organic farming offers opport...unities to create employment, social safety and high profitability. As a result of these characteristics, organic farming could become one of the most important means of developing our region in the future.

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Significance of biogas production in Hungary
Published February 10, 2013
127-129

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">It is known that the quantity of fossil energy sources are rapidly reducing, therefore it is necessary to determine a new direction which has to point directly to renewable energy sources. Increasingly comes into view the agriculture’s energy producing nature next to it’s traditional food producing one. The enviromental protection is connected to the energy production by the ultilization of biomass for energy purposes, within the biogas production has an emphasized importance. Quasi every organic material can be used in biogas production, such as: food processing by-products, manure, sewage sludge, hoousehold waste.

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Hungary’s correspondence with the EU regulations regarding liquid bio fuels
Published July 28, 2008
119-128

During the recent years researchers from different countries have found that our environment is at risk. It has been recognised by the leaders of the member countries and they have made decisions together concerning environmental protection in several agreements, contracts. Unfortunately, these decisions have been weakened and adumbrated on num...erous occasions by certain interests.
However, the energetic exploitation of the biomass has been supported by the economic and social changes of the previous years, more specifically, that of the bio fuels. The significant increase in the price of the traditional energy sources, the import dependency of the countries, the foreseeable exhaustion of the resources, the changes occurred due to joining the EU are all such problems that facilitates the application of bio fuels, as a good solution.
Our country decided to modify the then existed bio fuel component rate of 2% to 5.75% which has to be achieved by 2010. Since then, in March 2007 it has been expanded to 10% until 2020 (concerning energy content). This decision was taken knowing that this year (2006) the bio fuel rate has been 0.5%. However, the rate of 2% has not been achieved even in the EU. One can understand that the implementation cannot be fulfilled without significant political decisions and support. The main reason for this is that the price of bio fuels is not competitive with the present fossil-origin energy prices in Hungary. So in 2007 several regulations were modified. The most important one is perhaps the regulation of the revenue tax, which caused the successful tax-differentiation concerning bio fuels in more member states between 2007 and 2008. Its essence is that the revenue tax is not decreased, but if the fuel does not contain a bio fuel component of 4.4 bulking percentage per litre, „punishment” tax has to be paid. Moreover, on behalf of the implementation, regulations concerning bio fuels and bio fuel components are improving
At present the production and the application of bio fuels without any support are not economical yet. That is why it is important to emphasize the support policy of our country. After joining the Union, the new members can receive some shares from the direct disbursements, but only a tan increasing rate, we can achieve the 100% in 2013, though there is an opportunity for national contribution. Energy plants produced in agriculture receive separate supplementary support which is an advantageous opportunity for the farmers of the sector. Bio fuels cannot only be supported through agriculture, of course, but by research development, investment etc.
All in all, it can be concluded that Hungary seeks to fulfil the EU responsibilities taken and by this, to contribute to the maintenance of the sustainable progress, decrease of environmental pollution and the import dependency of energy sources.

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Host plant preference of Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae) in the north of Hungary
Published June 2, 2015
84-95

Citrus flatid planthopper, a native insect to North America had for a long time a scarce economic importance there. However, being polyphagous made little damage on citrus trees and some ornamentals. In 1979 it was introduced to Italy where it established and spread quickly. It is now an invasive alien species continually spreading in South and... Central Europe causing considerable damage in fruit crops and various ornamentals. Present study shows the results of a series of observations carried out from 2011 to 2015 at a number of habitats in north of Hungary. The pest could be found at each habitat but the hedge, the tree row, the gardens and the orchard/vineyard were the most infested. Frequency and population density of Metcalfa pruinosa were considerable on Asteraceae, Cannabaceae, Fabaceae, Juglandaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Sapindaceae. Typical vegetation could be functionally classified as ornamental plants, trees/shrubs, fruit plants, weeds and feral plants. Feral plants – some of them also invasive alien species – were found at each habitat. Plant species native to America were among them the most populated. As the hedgerows were neglected, and most gardens, orchards and vineyards abandoned, these are excellent conditions for the quick and long-lasting establishment of the pest as well as they may be reservoirs to infest cultivated fruit crops and ornamentals. The hedgerow was situated along a railway line. The length of similar hedges can be merely in Pest county several hundred km, which means M. pruinosa has plenty of opportunity for spreading along the railway and infest agricultural and ornamental cultures. On the surveyed alfalfa and maize fields, accidentally very few nymphs and adults were observed. Although, the population density of M. pruinosa was considerable on many hostplants, economic damage or yield losses could not be detected. Economic or significant damage was observed only on roses, raspberries and stinging nettle. This later is cultivated in Germany and Finland. The applied horticultural oil was efficient.

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Economic Assessment of Biodiesel Production for Hungarian Farmers
Published May 12, 2002
72-76

Utilisation of oil of plant origin as a fuel is gaining acceptance in the European Union and elsewhere. Besides environmental protection, energy saving, and decreasing over-production of food. Additionally, the subsidisation of farmers and the development of rural sub-regions also contribute to its spread. This study specifically focuses on the... direct effects biodiesel's raw materials and final products are now having on farmers, while reviewing and quantifying these effects. I have purposely restricted my analysis to these two elements of the biodiesel chain.
The biodiesel chain seems to be a great method for improving the economic and social position of participant farmers in many ways. Presently, the profitability of raw materials’ production looks to be the crucal point in the chain, and could be strengthened best with intensive, habitat-specific agrotechnic. It would only be possible to reach a favourable profit margin for farmers if yields reach unrealistic averages or if there is a significant hike of the 2000 producer’s price in the oil plant branch.
The main attraction of sunflower- and oilseed rape production lies in the stabilization of market conditions, which is not only gong to appear in oil plant branch but – thanks to the reduction of outputs – also in the cereal branches. Better economic safety for farmers may play a role at least on the same level as in plant production, which involves more risks than profit maximalization.
The reduction of the prime cost of biodiesel could be possible through the direct combustion of the whole oilseed plant or its residues or electricity production using them. Whereas energy demand for biodiesel production is low (appr. 5%) but it needs subsidization and the prices of natural gas and electrical energy presently look favourable in Hungary. Additionally harvesting and baling of the residues is technically problematic, which is why their use may seem to be reasonable just over the middle or long term. Another possible factor of cost reduction could be the centralization of some partial operations, which needs serious financial resources to reduce amortization cost per product, provided there be several biodiesel projects near each other during establishment. Creation and operation of a logistical system could also be a good method for improving the viability of the biodiesel chain, in order to optimize transport schedule and distances. However there are also some organizational difficulties in this case.

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Impact possibility of hedgerows on plant protection and on the yield of winter wheat
Published May 23, 2006
95-101

Agricultural hedgerows have various impacts on the surrounding cultivated area and on the landscape. They serve as a windbreak, help manage humidity and precipitation, and are also sources of plant species richness which can contribute to the animal biodiversity. One of their beneficial effects is the yield improvement of agricultural crops. Ou...r investigation tries to prove this hypothesis in Hungarian circumstances in the case of several winter wheat fields near Debrecen. Regarding the results, it seems that the majority of data supports the relevant, mainly German and Austrian information, but in some cases, the correlation has not been significant.

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Possible alternatives in crop nutrition
Published November 20, 2011
109-112

The protection of the environment is our common task. All pollution that exposes our soils, plants or the environment – as taken in any proper or extended sense – will appear sooner or later in the food chain and in human beings who are on the top of the food-chain pyramid. The aim of our work is to give a brief overview of the effects of s...elected industrial wastes on the physiological parameters of corn plants. Sewage sludge and lime sludge were examined. These materials contain lots of useful element for plants (e.g. iron, phosphorus, potassium, zinc). However, their aluminum, chrome and lithium contents are also considerable. The element contents in sewage sludge and the filtrates of lime sludge, as well as the dry matter accumulation and relative chlorophyll contents, were measured. The disadvantageous and advantageous physiological effects of the examined materials were confirmed. The compensation effect of the environment is excluded; however, the neutralization of environmental impacts is not infinite under natural circumstances.

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