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Plant protection praxis on Hévíz Nature Conservation Area (Lake Balaton District, Hungary)
Published June 2, 2015
81-83

The nature conservation park, which belongs to the Spa and St. Andrew Hospital for Rheumatics of Hévíz, is 60 ha in size. The famous Lake of Hévíz, the two overfalls and the main buildings of the hospital are located in the middle of the park. They are surrounded by protective forests, parks and gravel esplanades. During the past few decade...s, the population of neophyton plants and invasive insects have increased considerably. These mean serious challanges to develop efficient control methods. Special care must be taken of environmental and plant protection regulations. Keeping plant protective regulations are especially strict around natural and spa waters.

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Comparative Study of Dutch and Hungarian Environmentally-friendly Apple Orchards on Potential Ascospore Dose of Apple Scab
Published May 12, 2002
31-36

In a 2-year study, Dutch and Hungarian environmentally-friendly apple orchards were compared as regards the amount of apple scab primary inoculum. The PAD (potential ascospore dose) method was used to quantify the potential amount of primary inoculum (ascospores) per m2 orchard floor. Applying this method, the number of lesions per m2 of leaf i...n the autumn (LD), the proportion of the orchard floor covered by leaf litter at bud break (LLD) and potential ascospore dose (PAD) were determined. In autumn, LD values ranged between 2.2 and 13.5 in the integrated orchards, while in the organic orchards the values were between 42.5 and 106.2, with especially high values in the Dutch organic orchard. LLD values ranged between 24 and 43% at bud break in both countries. PAD values were 10-60 times higher than those of the integrated orchards. The PAD values were between 673 and 4275 ascospore/m2 orchard floor in the integrated orchards, while in the organic orchards these values were 37102 and 52390 ascospore/m2 orchard floor, respectively. On the basis of the recorded primary inoculum quantity, the Dutch integrated apple orchard is considered to be excellently protected, while the Hungarian orchard has a medium level of protection. However, both countries’ organic orchards can be regarded overall as being very poorly protected. Accordingly, in the integrated orchards the predicted epidemic risk is low or medium, while in the organic orchards it is very high on the basis of PAD values.

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Researches regarding the influence of the some technological elements on water use efficiency in maize from Crisurilor Plain
Published May 6, 2013
5-9

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Plain and the influence of the hybrid, plant density, crop rotation, nutrient supply, weeds and irrigation on water use efficiency were studied.

Choosing of the hybrid with the best water use efficiency is very important because a hybrid from 500–600 FAO group (Fundulea 376) in unirrigated conditions and a hybrid from FAO group over 600 (Fundulea 365) obtained the biggest water use efficiency; the hybrid Fundulea 365 obtained the highest irrigation water use efficiency, 20.1 kg yield gain 1 mm-1 irrigation water.

One of the most known hybrid in the area is Turda super and the highest water use efficiency was obtained using the plant density of 55 000 plants/ha in unirrigated variant and 70 000 plants/ha in irrigated variant. The highest irrigation water use efficiency, 20.7 kg yield gain 1 mm-1, was obtained at 70 000 plants ha-1.

In maize monoculture was obtained the lowest values of the water use efficiency in unirrigated and irrigated variant: in the wheat-maize crop rotation the values were higher than in maize monoculture and in the wheat-maize-soybean were registered the highest values. The same situation was registered regarding the irrigation water use efficiency.

Farm manure (30 t ha-1) and especially manure (30 t ha-1) +chemical fertilizers (N90P45) determined a higher values of the water use efficiency in comparison with the control. In the variant with organic + mineral fertilization was registered the higher value (19.4 kg yield gain mm-1) of the irrigation water use efficiency.

Water use efficiency was much lower in the variant with weeds in comparison with the variant without the weeds; the differences were of 69% in unirrigated variant and of 64% in irrigated variant, very significant statistically. Irrigation water use efficiency from variant with weeds was lower than the value registered in the variant without weeds; the difference (68%) was very significant statistically.

In average in period 1976–2012, the irrigation determined the increasing in water use efficiency with 22%, 19.4 kg mm-1 vs. 15.8 kg mm-1, but not in all the years caused the irrigation increasing in water use efficiency in comparison with unirrigated maize.

The results research emphasized the need of the optimization for technology elements studied and a better water use efficiency will be obtained.

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Fusarium culmorum isolated from rhizosphere of wooly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) in Debrecen (East Hungary)
Published October 24, 2016
93-96

Wooly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) is an East-Asian originated weed species and it has been spreaded worldwide by now. The first occurrence of this species in Hungary was observed and published in 2008 nearby Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, North-East Hungary) than in the summer of 2011 a significant population was discovered n...ext to Debrecen city (Hajdú-Bihar county, East Hungary).

In 2013 this weed was also reported from Szentborbás village, Somogy county (South-West Hungary). These observations of spreading and its biological features (production of stolons and large number of seeds, moreover herbicide tolerance) indicate that wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) has a great potential of invasiveness, so it may become a hazardous weed not only in Hungary but in all over the world.

The objective of this study was to identify the fungus which was isolated from wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) root residue samples which were collected after maize harvesting on arable land in late autumn, near Debrecen. The identification of the fungus based on morphological characters of colonies and the features of conidia developed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. After the examination of axenic culture we revealed that the fungus from rhizosphere of wooly cupgrass was Fusarium culmorum. Pathogenicity and/or endophytic relationship between the fungus and wooly cupgrass is still uncertain so pathogenicity tests and reisolations from plants are in progress.

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Economic questions of maize production on different soil types
Published November 13, 2012
289-292

The requirements and objective of cultivation are in constant change. For example, different cultivation systems are developed for the purpose of soil protection, the preservation of its moisture content and on soils with various precipitation supply or production site conditions. Traditionally, one of the most important cultivation aims is cro...p needs. Further cost saving in fertilisation and crop protection can only be achieved by reducing the quality and quantity of production or it cannot be achieved at all. Furthermore, the costs can be significantly reduced by means of the rationalisation of cultivation. Energy and working time demand can also be notably reduced if ploughing is left out from the conventional tillage method. The key requirement of economicalness is to perform the cultivation at the optimal date, moisture level and the lowest possible cost.
Within production costs, the cost of cultivation is between 3–17%, while they are between 8–36% within machinery costs. It is the vital condition the usability of each technological method to progressively reduce costs. Our evaluation work was carried out with the consideration of the yield data obtained from cooperating farms and the experiment database of the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. Three technological methods (ploughing, heavy cultivator and loosening tillage) were used on several soil types which differ from in terms of cultivability (chernozem, sandy and sandy clay soils) from the economic/economical aspect. We examined the sectoral cost/income relation of maize production as an indicator plant. The maize price during the analytical period was 45 thousand HUF per t. On chernozem soils, the production of maize can be carried out on high income level, while maize production on sandy soils has a huge risk factor. The role of cultivation is the highest on high plasicity soils, since they have a huge energy
demand and the there is a short amount of time available for each procedure in most cases.

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Study regarding the influence of the nPK fertilizers use in long term trial on heavy metals concentration in wheat grains
Published May 6, 2013
107-109

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper presents research results obtained in stationary experiments, carried out at Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, regarding the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, on Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni concentration on wheat grains.

The minimum concentration of cadmium in wheat grains was recorded in the case of the unfertilized plot N0P0K0, 0.12 mg kg-1, and maximum value 0.22 mg kg-1, was registered at the fertilized plot with N160P80K120, relative difference relative to control was 84.2%.

Lead concentration had the lowest value in the unfertilized plot, the value (0.4 mg kg-1) being under the maximum allowed (1.0 mg kg-1). In case of the fertilized plot with N160P80K120, the lead concentration had the highest value, 0.47 mg kg-1, but even in this case it was located beneath the maximum limit allowed.

In all four systems of fertilization, copper has not exceeded the maximum allowed limit (5 mg kg-1), the values have been comprised between 1.68 mg kg-1 at the unfertilized plot and 2.81 mg kg-1 at the fertilized plot with N160P80K120. In other plots of fertilization copper had concentrations of 1.97 mg kg-1, at the fertilized plot with N80P40K40, and 2.78 at the fertilized plot with N80P80K80.

The lowest concentration of zinc, 26.47 mg kg-1, has been registered in the control N0P0K0. In the other fertilization plots studied, the zinc concentrations had the following values: 27.66 mg kg-1 (N80P40K40), (N80P80K80) 29.87 mg kg-1 and 33.62 mg kg-1 (N160P80K120).

Nickel has registered the lowest value in the unfertilized plot, 3.47 mg kg-1. The fertilized plot with N160P80K120 had the highest value 4.94 mg kg-1, with 42.39% higher compared to the control N0P0K0.

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White rust species (Chromista, Peronosporomycetes, Albuginales, Albuginaceae) on common weeds in Hungary
Published June 2, 2015
30-33

The obligate plant parasite fungi in the family Albuginaceae are responsible for causing white rust diseases on weeds and they are rather common worldwide. Weedy plants with characteristic symptoms have been collected in 2014 and 2015 on location Hajdú-Bihar and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok counties in Hungary. The determination of the species were b...ased on the morphological characters both pathogens and hosts. Albugo candida was determined on shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is a host for Wilsoniana portulacae. The fungus Wilsonia bliti (syn.: Albugo bliti), the causal agent of white rust disease was found on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus).

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Ecological Factors in Settlement Marketing Projection for Balmazujvaros
Published November 26, 2003
9-14

Marketing is a crucial tool for regional and local governments, and should be better employed before Hungary joins the European Union.
In my article I refer to the five-step process of environmental and situational analyses indispensable for a strategic plan, which serves as the basis for a marketing concept for a settlement. Furthermore, I ...present the necessity of the macro, mezo and local levels of environmental analyses. This part of my article is aimed at clarifying the notion of ecological marketing. My objective is to discuss its relation to settlement marketing.
The second part of my article investigated the emergence of ecological factors in settlement marketing, in its process, using the example of Balmazújváros. I presented the correlation between Balmazújváros and Hortobágy National Park, from which I investigated primarily important areas focusing on the protection and development of natural values.
In the course of strategic planning and the everyday operation of the town, ecological aspects have to be highlighted, and this process needs the development of the appropriate system of institutions and relationships. Now we can only see certain elements of environmental protection in the strategic settlement planning of Balmazújváros, and we seek to further enhance this process in the future.

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Population date of Great Cormorant at the area of the Hortobágy Fish Farm Co.
Published February 10, 2013
51-54

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Hungary’s great cormorant stock did not use to be a considerable one before the 1980s. After that, their number has been rising significantly. The size of the stock now is rather stagnating or slightly growing. The presence of cormorants has been significant around ponds of the Hortobágy Fish Farm in the past few years. Due to considerable fish consumption of cormorants it is essential to know which and what kinds of units of the ponds (spawning, supply, and market) are preferred by the birds in order to see to adequate protection. The aim of our research was to discover any differences in the number of cormorants present at particular units of the fishpond system and certain ponds of equal kinds within them.

Our observations were in line with the methods used in ornithological researches. The experiment took place between April and October 2012 on a monthly basis. According to the results we found relevant differences in the number of cormorants based on the seasons and months as well. This fact was supported by statistical data. During the autumn and winter birds prefer supply and market purpose ponds while their presence here is vanishing during the summer. Relevant presence of cormorants around the area of the Old Fishponds (70 to 200 specimens) might be due to lack of disturbance and large sizes of the ponds.

Our research has great scientific relevance since it is vital to be aware of the preferred periods and areas in order to maintain effective protection; this way alerting activities can be applied in a more harmonized way. By keeping our research up as a monitoring activity, we will be able to receive more precise data later on.

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Examination of requirements of labour market, connected with competencies of agrienvironmental engineers and nature protection engineers
Published October 20, 2009
81-87

The most important goal of firms is to supply demand of their economic partners. To make it successfully, highly qualified human resource is needed. The quality of human resource is determined not only by qualification, command of a language, professional experience, practise, but extant competencies that can also be developped. To choose the e...xpectant employee, it is not enough to have intelligence and proficiency. It is also decesive to examine particular competencies. All of these will define the employee’s achievement that can be the right way to the success of
the enterprise. 
It is need to make the cooperation between higher education institutions and employers closer. As a result of this, employers can know theirs ways about possibilities of the new higher educational training system. They can use professional knowledge, competencies of the Bologna system’s graduates at different pointsof the economic life. The higher education institutions can revise their training systems considering requirements of labour market. According to these requirements, they can form syllabus in order to train auspicious experts.

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Usability of vegetable extracts in the protection against Alternaria alternata
Published July 18, 2012
113-116

In our country, wormwood ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) may cause serious problems. Nearly 5 million hectares of agricultural area was infected with ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), which is believed useless weed. Allergological point of view, most problematic weeds adventive. However, many physiologically very beneficial compound also inc...luded, those with the effects have been known also by the Indians. On this basis, herbs can be thought of as ragweed. Our goal was to present that the ragweed contains antifungal active substances as well. In this paper we tested the biological activity of the extracts against Alternaria alternata F.00750 in vitro. We related based on our examination that ragweed contains biologically active agents, by which it is hampered the reproduction of the Alternaria alternata. The minimum effective concentration was 300 mg extract in a Petri dish, which was three days inhibited the growth of fungus. Full fungicidal effect was observed over dose 525 mg.

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The importance of predator species in the population dynamics of the Brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) – Literature review
Published August 29, 2017
43-49

One of the conditions for successful small game management is the good management of predator species. The predator species play an important role in the sustainable utilization of the domestic brown hare populations. A portion of these species are under nature protection and with the rest of the species can be utilizing by the wildlife managem...ent professionals. Important prey species of brown hares: perspective are red fox, domestic dog and domestic cat. Based on latest date of the National Game Management Database in hunting bags increasing every year the number of the European badger, the stone marten and the golden jackal. In Hungary the brown hare’s most important predator bird species are common buzzard, marsh-harries and goshawk. The human race is not only as a top predator affects the number of the population of brown hares with the wildlife management but indirectly with traffic, (soil cultivation, mowing, and pest control) as well. The control of predators is absolutely necessary for successful small game management, but without sufficient habitat size and habitat development it is hardly sufficient.

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The effect of the plant density for the yield of the maize hybrids
Published May 23, 2006
50-61

In order to enchance the yield stability of maize, the effect of plant density on yields was studied on a typical meadow soil in Hajdúböszörmény between 2002-2004. In the plant density experiment, we used the method of Béla Győrffy. The plant densities applied therefore 20 to 100 thousand plants/ha by ten thousand scale. The application o...f fertilizer rates for the maize hibrids in every year were N: 110 P: 90 K: 120 kg/ha. We used a manual soiling-gun in the experiment. In every year we used plant protection techniques against monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds. The harvest was done by hand. The facts were read by variancie analysis and linear regression analysis. The moisture and the temperatures were extreme in 2002, 2003, 2004. We have to mention defficiery of moisture in 2003 which is shown that the hot days number increased. After evaluating our findings we can conclude that most hybrids showed a significant correlation between increased plant density and the volume of yields. On the basis of the experiments we divided the hybrids into four groups: the first group included the hybrids suitable for increased plant density with a wide range of optimal density values; the second group included hybrids, which did not require high plant density, were capable of good individual performance and tended to grow several ears; the third group included flexible corn types, which grew longer ears in favourable years, thus yielded more; and the fourth group included the hybrids, which were sensitive to increased plant density and which showed a narrow range of optimal density values. Finally, plant density determines the yield; we have to consider optimal plant density intervals as well as optimal plant density, and we also have to place a high emphasis on the use of hybrid-specific technologies.

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Occurrence of woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) in Hajdú-Bihar county, Hungary
Published October 30, 2011
119-123

Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) is native to East Asia, it spreads in several parts of the World and causes difficulties in plant protection, especially in maize. Difficulties in control of Eriochloa villosa originated from several reasons: seeds continue to germinate later in the season, significant part of seeds emerges fro...m a deep layer of the soil, and the species is less susceptible to some herbicides applied to maize than other annual grass weeds.
The first report on the occurrence of woolly cupgrass in Hungary was published in 2008, and it reported about the appearance of this species near to Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county), however, no information has been added about spread of the weed in Hungary until now.
A significant population was discovered next to Debrecen (Hajdú-Bihar county) in summer, 2011, and then weed associations were examined in maize, sunflower and stubble-fields on several km2 in the area to estimate the Eriochloa villosa infection. The weed species was found on every maize field bordering with a ground cover of 0.5-4%. Woolly cupgrass occurred inside of the 50% of maize fields, and reached a ground cover of 76% in case of most infected area, in addition it was found in sunflower and stubble-fields.
The spread of woolly cupgrass is expected in this area, which requires the consideration of this species in the planning of weed management technologies.

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Effect of the crop-year on plant protection feature of sunflower
Published March 20, 2013
71-75

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Our study focused on plant density reactions of sunflower hybrids on chernozem soil in years with different levels of available water (2011 and 2012). We studied factors (i.e.infections, yield) that are most affected by the amount of precipitation.

However the amount of precipitation varied in 2011 (average amount of precipitation) and 2012 (drought), Sclerotinia and Diaporthe infections were significant in both years. Diaporthe was stronger in 2011 while in 2012 Sclerotinia infections were greater than average. Higher plant density provided for a favorable microclimate for pathogens meaning that increased stock density enabled enhanced infections. Maximum levels of infections in both the cases of Diaporthe and Sclerotinia were measured at a plant density level of 65 000 plants ha-1.

2012 yields (control: between 2 289 and 3 261 kg ha-1, two-time treated: between 2 699 and 3 659 kg ha-1) were significantly lower compared to the results of 2011 (control: between 2 825 and 3 672 kg ha-1, two-time treated: between 3 059 and 4 059 kg ha-1). Fungicide treatments led to an increased yield in both years: 9.5% in 2011 and a notable, 15.1% growth in 2012. We applied regression analysis to calculate optimum plant density for the examined years and treatments. Based on the calculations we found that in the cases of both treatments optimum plant density was 53 000 plants ha-1, while in 2012 the optimum was higher due to lower level of infections: 56 000 plants ha-1 in the control stock and 64 000 plants ha-1 in the stock treated twice.

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Effect of N, P and K fertilisers and their interactions in a long-term experiment on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Published October 24, 2016
87-92

The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of K, P and N supplies on the yield of winter barley in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment with clearly distinct soil nutrient supply levels in order to develop fertilisation guidelines for winter barley growers. The experiment was set up in 1989 on a chernozem meadow soil calcareous in t...he deeper layers, applying all possible combinations of 4 levels each of N, P and K fertiliser, giving a total of 64 treatments.

The results of analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 can be summarised as follows:

  1. In 2011, when rainfall supplies were deficient in the shooting phase, improved K supplies (324 mg kg-1 AL-K2O) increased the grain yield, but in 2012, when rainfall supplies were more evenly distributed, K supply levels in the range 210–335 mg kg-1 AL-K2O had no significant influence on the yield of winter barley.
  2. An analysis of the P treatments revealed that, compared to the 119–133 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 level (P0), better P supplies (186–251 mg kg-1) led to a significant increase in the grain yield.
  3. In both years rising N rates significantly increased the yield up to an annual N rate of 160 kg ha-1.

      4. A K×N interaction could only be detected in the nutrient supplies of winter barley in 2011. The yield-increasing effect of N fertiliser was more    pronounced at better K supply levels, while K fertiliser led to higher yields in the case of better N supplies.

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Study of a Turkey Population for Gene Preservation
Published May 4, 2004
48-52

Genetic variability is very important in small populations. We examined an indigenous bronze turkey population which is bred for gene conservation in order to see if the current mating system maintains genetic variability. The present generation was surveyed using microsatellite markers and a computer model was used to simulate changes in the p...opulation over 100 generations.
The data was analysed using the concept of entrophy from information theory instead of genetic variance so that we could more accurately measure genetic variability.
The results indicate that the breeding method currently in use, rotational line mating, is acceptable with respect to preserving genetic variability, but new selection methods may provide additional protection against the loss of alleles.

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The character of the Bódva by the composition of the fishassociations
Published April 11, 2007
37-44

The Bódva is one of our rivers that flow outside the Hungarian borders and arrive to the country across the frontier.The Bódva is approximately 110 kilometres long, its upper course is mountaneous- like in its springfield in Slovakia and it reaches the Sajó by flowing among the lower hilly region. The river wall is ravine-like in more places..., the river itself is devious, and the water basin is rather variable as in the underlay muddy segments and heavily shingly beds can also be found.
By its fish fauna and physico-chemical characteristics, the Bódva is such aliving water that-after Borne and others (Nowicki, Thienemann) river zone system- can be regarded as an almost uniform typical Barbel zone.
According to our research program (2001-2005) and literature resources we estimated the fish fauna of the Bódva on both the Slovakian and Hungarian course. From some four decades to the wide ecofaunistic examinations of the near past we surveyed the quondam and present fish species of the Bódva River. According to our survey some 40 species compose the recent fish fauna of this river.
In the fish fauna of the Bódva those fish species that presently own a tight ecospectrum, sensitive to the changes of the environment thus so called indicator species, can also be found just like the less sensitive, invasive, aggressively reproducing species. By examining the changes in the fishfauna, the complex of those biogen and abiogen processes that affect the river can be indicated well. It can be stated that the fishfauna of the Bódva is rather rich with a countrywide measure also, and maintain a lot of rare, regressive protected and worth while protection species.
In the last period of the construction, the racial and quantitive composition of the fishfauna of the upper course of the Bódva has changed significantly. Certain species (in the Hungarian course) has vanished almost totally or at least their number declined not ably. Among the vanishing species there are not only a few substantial, protected species of the fauna (e.g. Barbus pelononnesius petényi, Leucaspius delineatus, Zingel sterber, Barbatula barbatula), but the number of the once mass species also decreased appreciably (e.g. Rhodeus sericeus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Cobitis elongatoides). With the above mentioned changes the number of other animals also decreased in the course that we examined (e.g. mussels, crabs). We examine the cause of these changes in the pollution of the river and according to that in the decrease of the food source and the negative changes of the physico-chemical parameters of the water.

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Caliometric characterisation of crop production byproducts
Published February 25, 2014
55-58

By the decreasing tendency of the fossil energy resources more emphasis put on the usage of renewable energy resources. The consideration of environmental protection and the efforts of the European Union make current the widespread usage of renewable energy within biomass energy. One of the determinative trends of biomass energy is the direct c...ombustion of biomass. Characteristically woody stocks are produced for this aim, but there is a considerable potential in several byproducts of growing herbaceous plants or of other processes.

In our study three byproducts of plant production have been investigated which appeared at the harvest. The Higher Heating Values of wheat, maize and sunflower byproducts have been determined by an IKA C2000 Basic adiabatic calorimeter. According to the statistical analysis of the measured data the HHV of the byproducts are different, and these values are in a negative correlation with the amount of ash in % (R2=0.873) appeared by the combustion.

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Previous data on the relationship between the intensity of pruning and the degree of damage in integrated and organic applegrowing systems
Published May 27, 2001
47-52

In Hungary, fruit growers are increasingly interested in environmentally friendly growing methods, such as organic and integrated systems. Vital is the establishment of a strengthened system of cultivar-pruning-plant protection in production technology. Consequently, our aim was to examine the susceptibility of apple cultivars to diseases and p...ests and the effect of pruning technique on diseases and pests in organic and integrated growing systems.
Two pathogens (Venturia inaequalis, Podosphaera leucotricha) and two pests (Leucoptera malifoliella, Pannonychus ulmi) were observed in organic and integrated systems under „strong” and „weak” pruning techniques. Our results on six cultivars showed that the pathogens and pests infested the trees more in the organic system, as compared to that of integrated production. The pruning technique affected mainly the susceptible
cultivars to diseases and pests. The „weak” pruning technique caused a higher level of diseases and pests infestations than the „strong” pruning technique, especially in the organic growing system. The likely reason is that the shoots grow fast and powerfully under “strong” pruning technique. This supports better preservation of the trees supported by susceptibility of plant tissues to diseases and pests.

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Environmental Indicators – Agri-Environmental Indicators
Published May 4, 2004
248-255

close relation. This means that policies related to the economy and the environment cannot be handled without each other. The United Nations Conference (Stockholm, 1972) was the first global conference to signal that environment concerns have increasingly become subject of mainstream socio-economic policies. The process started in the Seventies..., laying emphasis on environment protection, plays an important role in the policy of international agencies. The use of environmental indicators is essential for monitoring the effects of environmental measures. The best way of evaluating sustainability if the results can be compared on a global level. International efforts are being made by the United Nations (UN), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Statistical Office of the European Commission (Eurostat) and other international agencies to develop a framework for environment statistics. This study deals with these frameworks, paying attention to agri-environment indicators. Hungary became a member of the UN in 1955, of the OECD in 1996, and will become a member of the European Union in 2004. The first summary in connection with environmental indicators of Hungary, taking the OECD Pressure – State – Response framework as a basis, was published in 1994. As a result, comparability of environmental indicators for Hungary with those used international are given.

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Agronomical and Economic Evaluation of Different Soil Cultivation Systems
Published March 4, 2006
17-22

In the interest of profitable plant production and environmental protection we have to make an effort to protect and improve the productivity of our soils while moderating production limiting factors. Due to different soil cultivation methods, the quantity of yield and required expenses also differ.
We examined the production costs in four d...ifferent production technology systems. Overall, it can be said that farming standards are good, since cost prices were low (2001: 14-15 HUF/kg, 2002: 15-21 HUF/kg, 2003: 39-49 HUF/kg) in the case of all main products per 1 kg. Cost prices were lowest in the case of direct sowing, probably due to low machinery costs.
All economic indicators have to be compared when choosing the most suitable production technology in a specific farming environment.

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Evaluation of sweet sorghum and sudangrass varieties by the viewpoint of bioethanol production
Published April 23, 2014
57-61

Bioenergy and biofuels are very important in today’s energy policy. These kinds of energy resources have several advantages against fossil fuels. Environmental protection is a cardinal point of widespreading these technologies but the economic considerations are important as well. In order to improve the rate of the renewable energy in the en...ergy consumption, the European Union settled down a program which determines a minimum ratio of renewable energy in the energy consumption for each member country of the EU. To fulfil the requirements bioenergy and biofuels should be produced. This production procedure needs adequate stocks which are commonly agricultural products.
One of the promising stocks is sorghum. This plant fits for bioethanol production due to its juice content being rich in sugar. In this study six sweet sorghum hybrids, two sudangrass hybrids and a sudangrass variety have been evaluated to determine their theorical ethanol production capacity.
On the score of the results of the year 2009 it can be set that sudangrasses have a lower theorical ethanol capacity than sweet sorghums have. In the case of sweet sorghums 1860.29–2615.47 l ha-1 ethanol yields had been calculated, while the sudangrasses had only 622.96–801.03 l ha-1. After that throughout three years (2011–2013) the sweet sorghum hybrids have been evaluated in order to determine the fluctuations of the ethanol production capacity caused by the impact of the years. As a result 2425.44–4043.6 l ha-1 theorical ethanol capacities have been calculated, which means that sweet sorghums can be an adequate stock to produce bioethanol.

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Characteristics of Land Use and Plant Production in Transcarpathia
Published December 6, 2005
290-294

The character of plant cultivation and animal husbandry in different parts of Transcarpathia, are mostly determined by the location of a given region. Usually, four zones are delineated: 1. lowlands; 2. foothills and volcanic remains zone; 3. inter-mountainous subsidence and deep valley; 4. mountain zone.
In county this zone divides quite vi...sibly. By studying the soil, climatic conditions and plants, it is not difficult to see that the vertical zones play a major role in their characteristics and formations. If we go from lower to higher elevations, we can observe the qualitative difference in the environment and, of course, in the character of agriculture.
Environmental pollution is a global problem of our age. In agriculture, the most important thing is to preserve the ideas of sustainable development, because only these can ensure the protection of production resources, which will ensure the continuous production of agricultural products. Present environmental conditions pose a more problematic challenge to agriculture.

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Violation prooxidative-antioxidant stability at maize shoots at different level of accumulation of cadmium and nickel
Published November 3, 2010
89-94

Joint influence of cadmium and nickel was investigated on the feature of their accumulation by the vegetative organs of 10-days' old maize shoots. It was established that most intensively noted metals are taken in by the roots of shoots in the first 7 hours stressing influencing, while in leaves they appear only after a 7-hour long exposition. ...It was stated that the absorption process of the noted metals by a root system is carried by two-phase character. The indexes of inner-tissue contamination are calculated. Activating by the cadmium and nickel ions of lipid peroxidation as marker of the stressing influencing, and also was shown the proper increase of intensity of functioning of ascorbate peroxidase as the antioxidant enzyme protection of cell.

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