To be able to grow stone fruit species, the peach and the nectarine varieties, yield stability is very relevant. However, the climate is suitable in Hungary for growing stone fruits. We have to calculate with damage. Important winter damage and spring frost damage occur in every second year on the Great Pplains. To reveal the frost tolerance of... cultivars and to clarify the differences among growing areas is the most important point of peach and nectarine production.
We, made our experiments in the winter of 2005 (January-February), at Pallag, Zsombó, Siófok, Sóskút and Szatymaz. These former places are determinant in peach and nectarine growing in Hungarian respects.
In our experiments we analyzed 10-10 fruit shoot from 82 varieties, and we measured the frost damage and the flower bud density.
The minimum and the maximum frost damage values (%) at the different growing places were 7.6-38.7 at Siófok, 6.5-31.3 at Sóskút, 34.3-100 at Szatymaz, 83.7-99.6 at Pallag and 51.9-99.6 at Zsombó. There were expressive differences between the same cultivars depending on the growing area.
The frost damage of „Suncrest” variety was 7.6% at Siófok, 8.2% at Sóskút but it was 69.8% at Szatymaz. The „Maystar” variety had 17.6% at Siófok, 12.4% at Sóskút and 87.2% frost damage at Szatymaz. In case of „Redhaven” variety the frost damage values were 16.8% at Sóskút, 54.6% at Szatymaz. We collected fruit shoots from three different heights in case of „Cresthaven” variety. In case of 1 meter height the frost damage was 74.6%, at 2 meter height 44.7%, and 25.2% at 3 meter.
We experienced also big differences in flower bud density (flower bud/10 cm) of varieties. The following cultivars had the highest flower bud density (6-7 bud/10 cm): „Suncrest”, „Meystar, „Maria Luisa” and the „Maria Bianca”, „Redhaven”, „Michellini” had the lowest flower bud density (2-3 bud/10 cm).
After our experiments we established that there were very expressive differences among the frost damage of peach and nectarine varieties from different climatic conditions and there are also big variance between the frost damage values of those fruit shoots, what were collected from different heights, but from the same variety. It conspicuous very good among our items, that difference of the flower bud density is very big among the varieties.To be able to grow peach and nectarine successfully, the suitable variety (low frost damage value, high flower bud density) and the suitable growing are is determinant.
One of the main economical problems of sheep breeding is that continual production is not possible due to the seasonality of animals. Today, genes, mutations that may develop aseasonality in sheep are extensively researched in order to make the establishment of populations capable of aseasonal estrus possible.
According to the current knowle
After the EU-accession we should have a definite idea about what kind of production structure and land use should Hungary obtain to meet the conditions undertaken in the different governmental decisions. In the course of Hungarian land use, significant changes have taken place in the last eighty years. Further changes are influenced by the fact... that according to various decisions, legislative provisions and ideas in a short time the energy orchards’ domiciliation could start in large. For this, financial support can be required from EU-sources. As for the woody energy plants, subsidies can be required for the domiciliation and as for herbaceous plants grants can be required for growing. As far as the latter is concerned, the subsidy will be around 26-27 thousand Ft/hectares according to the plans. However, the cultivation method does not have to be changed to
switch from plow-land to energy plants. The question is if the produced commodity will be received by power plants and if it ensures appropriate income for the farmer. In my research I wanted to find from the given woody energy plants which are those that are the most profitable.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper studies two nucleus pig farms in the Great Plain region of Hungary which have same management, same feeding system but different breeding technology (Farm A had solid floor with straw and Farm B had slatted floor without straw). The genetics of sows were crossbred Dutch Large White and Dutch Landrace. The comparative examination was based on the causes of culling according to the different floor type. To the analysis of culling reasons was applied the methods of survival analysis.
We evaluated the relationships among soil cultivation and other agrotechnical factors (fertilization, number of plants and hybrid) within the framework of a multifactorial long-term experiment set at the Látókép Experimental Site of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen in mid-heavy chalcareous chernozem soil bas...ed on a long-term experiment conducted for a 5-year period (2002–2006).
Based on the evaluation of soil cultivation by the average of treatments, it may be assessed that spring ploughing (8.204 t ha-1) provides more favourable conditions to the stand compared to spring shallow cultivation; however, this did not result in a significant difference. Spring ploughing considerably increased the yield of hybrid FAO 300 in dry years, whereas it considerably increased the yield of hybrid FAO 400 in favourable crop years. A stand of 70 thousand stems/ha provided the higher yield result in both soil cultivation types. It was sufficient to use a fertilizer dose of 120 kg N ha-1 for economical production.
Carrot is a wellknown and favoured, really important vegetable. Carrot’s cultivation is important, although its growing field has been reduced in last few years. The suitable cultivar and landstructure are essential to produce good quality carrot. The ridge cultivation is widely spread on plasted soils. At this type of cultivation relationshi...p between line orientations and carrot quality is less studied. That is the reason we tried to examine in our experiment the relationship between ridge highness and line orientation (N-S and E-W) and carrot’s morphological features at different genotipes. The experimental was settled in the Experimental Garden of the University of Debrecen on limy chernozem soil by plain, raised bed and ridge cultivation in 2013. In the experiment we examined four longgrowing cultivars (Danvers 126, Fertődi vörös, Rekord, Chantenay). The sowing was at 24th April. The harvest was at 15th October, 2013. In the multi factorial (type of cultivation, line orientation, cultivar) experimental we explained the effect of treatments on carrot root shoulder diameter and root weight.
In our experiment we stated that line orientation had no significant effect on shoulder diameter at different cultivations. The only exception is Fertődi vörös which has reached the biggest shoulder diameter (5 cm <) at N-S direction on raised bed. By examining the carrot rootweight we stated that they were higher in raised bed and ridge cultivation than in plain cultivation with the exception of one cultivar (Chantenay). This carrot had found ideal environment for growing between each cultivation conditions. That is why we can state that if you grow carrot on plasted soil and there is no possibility to make a ridge, use short, tapered and rounded ending root type for successful growing.
The separate collection of poultry slaughterhouse trimmings and blood is partially solved in Hungary. Only properly prepared animal by-products, protein meals can be utilized as animal feed additive. Howev...er, different protein meals are appropriate for feeding different animal species. That is the reason why it is important to avoid accidental cross contamination of the products. Meat and blood meal produced on the same technological line, therefore mixing of the products can happen in various proportions during the shift of production.
Thus the aim of this study is to develop a spectral method which will allow to estimate the ratio of meat and blood protein meal in the final product. During the test the products were mixed in different proportions and were examined by the spectral method. Measurements were conducted with AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer in visible (VIS) and in near infrared (NIR) wavelength range (400–1000 nm) to define the spectral differentiation of the different meal products. Significant difference can be detected in spectral reflectance between the meat and blood product in the VIS-NIR range. The blood product has a characteristic spectral property: in the range of 600 and 735 nm reflectance values are increasing following a sigmoid curve. This property is not observed in the case of meat meal: close to linear rising is detected. Effective protein rate and purity detection could be made by Blood Product Sensitive Mixing Index (BPSMI – R930/R600), and by the calculation of inflection point in 600–735 nm.
Age at first breeding and lifetime reproductive performance was analyzed on 17,558 F1 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts from 9 piglet producing herds of Midwest, United States entered in herds between 1st Jan 2014 and 31st July 2016. At the time of data collection Dec 2018, 15% of the sows were still active in the herds hence exc...luded from the analysis. Individual gilt data included date of birth, age in days at first mating, piglet total born by parity, lifetime piglet total born and reason for culling. Quality data checks were done before analysis to eliminate all outlier values together with sows that had no entry information for any listed category. The total database of the sows was classified into 6 classes according to age at the first mating in days 170-190(n=754), 191-211(n=4683), 212-232(n=7123), 233-253(n=3385), 254-274(n=1002) and 275-369 (n=611). Piglet total born obtained from each sow during the lifetime production was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for gilts bred between 233-253 days of age at first mating. Gilts that were bred at <233 days appeared to have a higher risk of removal by farrowing productivity as compared to the other groups. However, the results show that the risk of being culled due to health problems and conformation issues increases as the age at first mating is delayed. Overall reproductive failure appears to be the most economical culling reason across all age groups. There is a need to evaluate the best management decisions for gilt initiation in a herd to maximize her lifetime performance. The results indicate that gilts mated for the first time at the right age, 233–253 days, are more productive, both in lifetime total born and have a minimal risk of culling due to farrowing productivity.
The utilisation of the horse has changed from time to time in response to human needs. For a few decades, it has been serving in several equestrian sports more intensively. It has also been proved that the standards for this kind of performance cannot be established in the way certain characteristics, such as the weight gain or milk production...of other animal breeds can. Breeding horses for sporting comprises highly complex selection criteria.
Some of these (e.g. external features, temperament, manageability and intelligence) do not put the breeder in a difficult position, but finding the traits that establishes the safety of sporting achievements poses a genetic problem.
The performance of a horse for sports is a highly complex feature, which cannot easily be assessed or put down in figures. In addition, man plays a decisive role in shaping all kinds of performance of a horse at any given time by not only creating conditions for a better performance, but also by playing an active role in increasing it.
The performance of the horse is mostly defined by its general aptitude to movement, ie., the regularity, clear rhythm and springiness of basic types of strides, as well as the ability to move in a naturally balanced way. Training and riding principles are based on these traits. These two together will determine about 70% of the value of the horse and its adequacy for high performance equestrian sports. In order to avoid subjectivity in determining the above variables and to increase the degree of objectivity, competent expert teams (trainers, judges, other riders) are employed to form an opinion on an individual animal.
Assessing horse performance outside races does not seem to be efficient, as owing to the dominant effects of the environment, the indicator of inheritability is hardly above 0.1.
Free jumping is an especially appropriate means for assessing a horse’s readiness and ability to move in an environment free of disturbing factors. In free jumping, it is especially important to judge the style of the jump. The first phase of jumping – as a sequence of movements – lasts from the moment the fore-feet touch the ground until the moment the hind-feet push off, while the second phase lasts from this moment until touching the ground. The most important task in the first phase is to make the angle of the dip of the body by the supporting fore-feet that is necessary for the jump. The quality of the jump is determined by the jumping and adequately expanded hind-legs. The intensity of pushing off and jumping done by the hind-legs can be inferred, and differences between individuals can be discerned from the shaping of the curve by the hocks and the paths of the pasterns in relation to the withers.
Honey has been a valuable food for mankind since ancient times. It was the only sweetener until the start of industrial sugar mass production. Honey plays an important role in our nutrition and its positive effects on health are well-known. The quality of Hungarian honey is perfect, so it is very important to safeguard and monitor its quality c...ontinuously and to build up a good traceability and quality assurance system. For such a system, it is necessary to study the nutritional properties and the origin of different honey samples. In our study, we study Hungarian and Greek honey.
One of the most important part of the genetic evaluation using a random regression model is the estimation of variance components. This is the topic of many papers because the large computational costs. We can use restricted maximum likelihood (REML), Gibbs sampling and ℜ method for the estimation of genetic parameters. The variance component...s are necessary to calculate the heritabilities and repeatabilities.
The aim of our paper is to estimate the variance components using a random regression repeatability model from test day data set of Hungarian Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and to analyse the change of additive genetic and permanent environmental variance, heritability and repeatability over lactation.
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a critical nutritional problem for plants and peoples all over the world. Almost half of the world’s cereal crops are deficient in Zn, leading to poor crop yield. In this study, the effect of different Fe/Zn ratio on some physiological parameters of maize seedlings were investigated on the dry matter of shoots and root...s and their ratio, SPAD index and the total length of shoots. The relative chlorophyll contents significantly decreased under increasing Fe given to the Zn deficient. The results showed that the different Fe/Zn supplies decreased the total length of shoots - ranging from 9% to 65% - by latent Zn deficiency. Corresponding to several scientific findings, it was observed that the non-optimal Fe/Zn ratio of tissues take part in the evolution of latent Zn deficiency in the case of high Fe concentration.
An intensive integrated research and development work has been carried out on the improvement of Leuce poplars including primarily the native white poplar (Populus alba L.) and its natural hybrid grey poplar (Populus × canescens). More than 70 percent of the Leuce poplar stands can be found on calcareous sandy sites in the Danube–Tisza regio...n, so they play a significant role in the poplar management of this part of the country. The most important task ahead of Hungarian poplar growers is to improve the quality of poplar stands and plantations based on selecting new clones and cultivars. The growth and yield of four promising Leuce poplar clones was evaluated on a marginal site in central Hungary. The clones ‘H 425-4’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L.), and ‘H 758’ (Populus alba L. Mosonmagyaróvár 124) seem to be suitable for wood production, while the ‘H 427-3’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L. cv. Bolleana) and ‘H 422-9’ (Populus alba L. × Populus grandidentata (Michx)) clones (with decorative stem form) could be better used for tree lines and ornamental plantations.
Researches are being performed around the world to increase swine prolificacy by using marker-assisted selection (MAS). The present study processes researches of polymorphism examinations on 7 genes. The result of the experiments showed that the leptin gene (LEP) prolactin receptor gene (PRLP), estrogen receptor gene (ESR), properdin B (BF) epi...dermal growth factor (EGF), follicle-stimulating beta gene (FSH-ß) and Z member of the H2A histon family gene (H2A.Z) and their alleles have a positive effect on reproductive characteristics of different swine breeds. In addition to this, leptin gene (LEP) influences the build, meat production and growth of body fat. Further studies are concerned with the polymorphism of an increasing number of genes, which enables a faster genetic development of swine breeding.
In the atmosphere, the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are rising in gradually increasing pace since the Industrial Revolution. The rising concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes to global warming, and the changes affect to both the precipitation and the evaporation quantity. Moreover, the concentration... of carbon dioxide directly affects the productivity and physiology of plants. The effect of temperature changes on plants is still controversial, although studies have been widely conducted. The C4-type plants react better in this respect than the C3-type plants. However, the C3-type plants respond more richer for the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and climate change.
The author examined the possibilities of increasing the labour efficiency at 6 large-scale farms and at 109 small-scale farms in Hajdú-Bihar county. He stated that the level of labour efficiency was higher for large scale farms than for small-scale farms. However, there is potential for work organisation of milking, feeding and other jobs on t...he large-scale farms, too. The reason for the low labour efficiency on small-scale dairy farms is the small number of livestock, obsolete machinery, and lack of expertise. The author points out that the quality of raw milk is also an important issue. Using examination methods of work organisation, he determined the critical points of raw milk production.
The cost of products changes not only seasonally in relation to time, but also follows a hectic motion. It is necessary for the farmers to calculate in advance the size of the future income, which is one of the basic conditions of the economical production. Many authors have examined the change of the prices but since the tendency of the change... of the prices can be only rarely observed purely by itself, therefore it is difficult to separate it. During my research I examined how the monthly prices of corn and the monthly buying prices of pigs for slaughter have changed since 1991 and how much their future value will be. I examined how much is the α factor wich gives the minimal residual variation in case of the Brownian dual exponential smoothing and the corrected dual exponential smoothing and how will the future (2002) prices, which were in this way calculated, change compared to their real market prices.
Several factors influence the quantity and stability of maize yield, the most important being the nutrient supply, the hybrid and precipitation. In 2004, during the maize growing season the precipitation was more than the 30 year’s average, with 68.3 mm, but the distribution was unfavorable. The experiment was carried out in Debrecen at the E...xperimental Station of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production and Applied Ecology. We tested 10 various hybrids with their own genetic characteristics for five different fertilizer doses, in addition to the parcels without fertilization.
The favorable results reached were due to the rainy season. The average yield varied between 7.78-9.67 tha-1. The DK 440, PR37M34, PR38A24, PR39D81 and PR36R10 of the hybrids reacted to higher fertilizer doses with significant growth yields, the yield (more than 11 tha-1) was the highest for N200, P125, K150 fertilizing. The other hybrids, DKC 5211, Mv Vilma and MV Maraton, gave similar results at the N120+PK fertilizer dose and the ensuing doses depressed the yield. Fertilization was more effective thanks to the precipitation. The fourth and fifth dose increased or decreased maize yield depending on the nutrient reaction of the hybrid. The agro-ecological optimum of NPK fertilization was N120, P75, K90 kgha-1.
During the experiment we tested the moisture loss of five hybrids. The rainy crop year’s effect on the seed moisture content at harvest was higher than in previous years. The seed moisture content hybrids at harvest which have shorter crop years (FAO 300) was 18-19%, and hybrids with longer vegetation periods had more than 20% seed moisture content. DK 440 hybrid had the intensive moisture loss of the five hybrids, at the start of the measurement, the seed moisture content was higher than 40%, and it decreased to 18.6% by harvesting.
The use of fossil energy sources greatly damages the environment. Moreover, the quantity of these energy sources is limited. Therefore, it is important to increase the share of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, water and biomass) in energy generation.
Huge amounts of energy (1100-1300 kWh/m2 per year) arrive at the earth from the sun, a
The effect of the shading on the performance of the PV – panels and the solar energy power plant is examined. The analysis and the graphic representation of the experiment results are carried out with SPSS per grief. We produced per grief.
Determining the scope of management is difficult owing to the terminological uncertainty, which can be experienced often. The terms of management theory are interpreted differently not only by the general public but also by the highly recognised specialists, researchers, and instructors of this special area. The reasons for this can be found in... historical preliminaries, the different social environment, attitude and approach. The definitions and the content of the terms have been modified and developed in parallel with the social and economic changes (Berde, 2001). The consequences of the economic changes of the past decade have significantly affected the conditions for the operation of management, the management structures, the ranking and importance of management tasks. The differentiating of corporate sizes, the increase in the number of small and medium-sized enterprises, the simplification of the production structure, the decrease in management levels, the strengthening of proprietary positions, and the continuous changing of the market economic environment are all influences that also affect, determine and continuously modify the management tasks.
Everyone knows what a manager does. Still, it is not easy to determine what it does all day as his or her work is such a complex activity where the management tasks are present in a complex way, weaved into each other. Nevertheless, the separate management tasks appearing in the management activity can be defined well, can be separated from each other clearly, enabling us to study and analyse each management task separately.
Based upon the findings of a face-to-face questionnaire survey, this essay aims to present that, according to the managers, to what extent the judgement of management tasks has changed and to what extent the applied management tasks specialise based upon the extent of relation to the company.
There was a heavy change in the characteristics of the agriculture in the last 20 years. It become a multifunctional, sustainable, organic system, which needs strategic approach. On the problem map of the hungarian agriculture the most importatnt questions are the following: dual charachter of the land structure, to occidentalize the farm struc...ture. To develop the rural areas we need to real markets needs adapted, competitive, local agricultural production. From the ’90s into Europe’s economic development policies integrated the clusters, this research tries to certify, that this system is viable in classic agriculture and able to dissolve the defecinces, to support the aims of rural development.
The experiments were conducted as part of the long-term trial adjusted, in triculture (pea-wheat-corn) and biculture (wheat-corn), at three nutrition levels, with the use of one crop protection technologie (conventional) at the Látókép Research Site of the Centre of Agricultural Scienses, University of Debrecen, on a chernozem soil. The whea...t variety used in the long-term trial was GK Csillag, which was sown at 5,8 million germs/ha.
The effect of pre-crops and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, HI, LAD), just as SPAD-values and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, so we determined the relationships between different nutrient-supply levels, yield amounts, LAI- SPAD- and LAD-values – measured in the crop-year of 2010–2011 in different crop rotation systems – by using correlation analysis. It has been stated both in case of bi- and tri-culture crop-rotation systems that different fertilizer dosages had significantly affected the leaf area index dynamics and its maximal value, and that increasing N+PK fertilization has
significantly increased the duration of leaves, as well. The highest SPAD-values were measured during the flowering and grain filling stages. However, we haven’t revealed significant differences between all fertilizer treatments. In case of the bi-culture crop-rotation system harvest index values showed an increasing tendency parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels, while in case of the tri-culture system this tendency was rather decreasing. However, these differences were
not significant. Parallel to the increasing fertilizer dosages yield results were increased in a significant extent. At the same nutrient supply-levels 2088–4615 kg ha-1 higher yields were measured in the tri-culture than in the bi-culture system. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters (yield amount, LAI, SPAD, LAD) had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the nutrient-supply level and the yield amount in both crop-rotation systems. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPAD-values and the fertilization have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Climate change, the increasing dependency on crude oil and other fossile fuels, the expanding import and the increasing energy costs make the world’s societies and its economies vulnerable.
Sow longevity plays an important role in economically efficient piglet production. Improving sow longevity results increase in the productivity and profitability of a sow herd. Longevity is a complex trait with many factors that can contribute to a sow having a long and productive life. Not only the sow’s genetics, but also nutrition, environ...ment and the management policies are important. In addition, the removal of non-productive sows along with the introduction of replacement gilts is an essential part of maintaining herd productivity at a constantly high level. The objective of this paper was to summarize the current knowledge about the sow longevity and lifetime performance values, as well as, discusses the survival analysis methods for sow longevity traits. This method can estimate the hazard rate indicating proportional risk of sows being culled at any given time, in addition, it is able to investigate the effects of different factors on longevity. Identifying factors that influence the longevity could assist many commercial pig producers in becoming more efficient.
In Hungary, there are 57 LTFEs included 13360 plots of them 51 trials elder than 20 years, more than 50 years are 32 trials and 6 less than 20 years old. Compared to the 2003 statistical data, some 26 LTFEs ceased to operate in the course of the last 15 years. All research workers and scientist have to do the best to preserve the recently still... existing LTFE’s. This paper presents the list of the currently active LTFEs with some comments including the locations, year of setting and the number of plots.