The relationship between the civilisation illnesses and incorrect nutrition can be considered as demonstrated. The functional foods having one or several nutritional- biological advantage can contribute to the healthy nutrition and to improving the quality of life. Beside the healthy nutrition it is an another important requirement that the foo...d does not contain pathogens or substances of chemical and biological origin namely it has to be safe.
In this publication the foods of animal origin were investigated in the point of view of public health hazards arising during their production and processing.
The contamination and infection of food raw materials, the consequence of chemical substances getting in or developing it the food, the judgement of food deviring from genetically modified or cloned animals are discussed.
The constat growth of the Earth’s population brings with itself a higher demand for food and protein not only in human nutrition but also for the feeding of livestock. Currently, the feed industry is mainly built onseed-based protein, wherethebaseplant is soybean, which is large lycovered by imports in Hungary, similar toother European countr...ies. However, the long-term economically sustainable lifestock breeding demandschanges which has also worked out strategies. An alternative protein sources could be green leafy plants.
In current work the Jerusalem artichokes as an alternative source of protein was studied, compared to alfalfa as a valuable protein plant. Our results indicate that fiber fraction ofJerusalem artichoke shootswas 34 to 37% after pressing in the autumn period while alfalfa slightly lower values were obtained (30%). On the other hand extracted green leaf protein concentration was higher in alfalfa than in Jerusalem artichoke. Along with this higher protein content could be measured from the leaf protein concentration of alfalfa and almost each amino acids were more, as well comparing to Jerusalem artichoke.
Overall, the alfalfa proved to be advantageous as expected both in leaf protein extraction efficiency, both regarding the content of the protein in the Jerusalem artichoke. However, considering aminoacid composition and green biomass production, Jerusalem artichokecould be a promisingplant species asplant protein sourceinthefuture.
The aim of the current experiment was to optimize the creation process of single cell protein on plant-based substrate solution with the intention to improve end-product turn out by means of adding vitamin solution. Based on the results of the fermentation processes of yeast strains, it was concluded that the vitamin-supplementation produced it...s greatest effect on the dry matter production, primarily on the K. marxianus DSM 4908 strain, while it was less beneficent when it comes to the figures of wet cell mass. In addition, it can be assumed that vitamin supplementation increased the maximum specific rate of growth (μmax) and decreased the generation time (tg) significantly. In the case of the K. marxianus yeast strain on corn steep liquor treated with vitamin-supplementation, the highest (μmax) and the lowest (tg) data were observed [(0.226 h-1) and (4.4 h), respectively]. Based on the results it was found that K. marxianus DSM 4908 is expedient to be applied on corn steep liquor medium in order to determine its suitability to produce additive for feeding.
In order to ensure modern Hungarian sunflower production, the development of hybrid-specific techniques are highly important. The continual expansion in hybrid choice makes the examination of genotypes necessary in the relation of genotype and environment interactions and critical factors. The Plant density as a complex determinant factor has a... strong effect on sunflower yield, quality and plant hygiene. As a result of the experiments, we can state that the optimal density was 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar. In 2001-2002, the optimal density was 45.000-55.000 plant/hectar; while in 2000, it was 65.000 plant/hectar.
Variety selection is one of the most important, determinative elements of sustainable winter wheat production. Yield potential, and yield stability are the most important elements in the variety selection of winter wheat, but baking quality parameters play an important role, too.
Several winter wheat varieties were tested for yield and yield
We obtained 5298-6183 kgha-1 yield from early maturity varieties, 5683-6495 kgha-1 from middle, 5694-6031 kgha-1 from late ones in the average of four years. The cropyears had strong influence on the yields, even on chernozem soil, and were characterized by excellent water – and nutrient – husbandry. Averaging of cropyears and genotypes, we obtained 6984 kgha-1 in 2001 (average cropyear), 5452 kgha-1 in 2002 (dry cropyear), 3120 kgha-1 in 2003 (extremely dry cropyear) and 8400 kgha-1 in 2004 (optimum cropyear), respectively. The yield differences between the minimum and maximum yields were 885 kgha-1 in early varieties, 812 kgha-1 in middle and 337 kgha-1 in late maturity varieties, respectively. The varieties characterized by high yield potential and the varieties characterized by good yield stability were different, so in variety selection we have to take both genetic traits into consideration. There were positive, significant correlations among the yields of winter wheat varieties (early, middle, late), the temperature of spring months. (March-April), and the rainfall of spring months (March-April) (R2=0,703**-0,768** and R2=0,681**-0,749**, respectively). We found a high negative correlation between the temperature of early summer months (May-June) and the yields of wheat varieties (R2= -0,856**- -0,918**).
According to the results of our experiment, it is very important to harmonize yield potential and yield stability in the variety selection of winter wheat.
In our study we examine the technical facilities of biogas production in the economic environment of a given region. The region can be considered as typical: it has animal farms, a poultry-processing plant with the characteristic problems of environment load and by-product handling. Biogas can be used for energetic purposes, and, in large scale..., it can be sold as electric energy. The heat coming from the engine and the generator can be collected in heat exchangers and can be used for preparing hot water and for heating. One third of the gained energy is electric, two thirds are heat. The aim of the local owner and the economic management is to increase the rate of cost-effectiveness in general. We examined the tecnnical and economic conditions of establishing a biogas plant (using data of an existing pigfarm). We planned the biogas plant and calculated the expected investment and operational costs and return.
Dystocia causes great financial losses: due to dystocia milk production is decreased and the probability of calf loss is increased. There are many factors that may cause dystocia. One of the factors –often investigated in beef cattle- is pelvic measurements. There have not been inner pelvic measurement comparisons in dairy breeds in Hungary.&...nbsp;
After comparing the imported, primiparous cows, Jersey turned out to have the smallest absolute inner pelvic measures. According to their age and weight, Brown Swiss cows had the largest pelvic dimensions. Ayrshires, Norwegian and Swedish Red, the three dairy breeds which share similar genetic background did not differ in most measures. Holsteins were closest to the seemingly ideal 1:1 horizontal and vertical diameter ratio; however this breed suffers the most from dystocia. Jerseys, despite having the smallest pelvic area are famous of their calving ease, perhaps not by coincidence. Though this dairy breed is the lightest, when pelvic area was compared in ratio of body weight Jerseys were not smaller than the 130 and 114 kg heavier Norwegian and Swedish Red cows.
Nowadays, it is often suggested that, we should eat products made with whole grain cereals, despite of the fact that it raises the risk of consuming wheat products infected by mold and their toxins originated from the plough-lands and the stocks.
Two third of the cultivated fields in Hungary are planted with cereals. The most alarming proble
In this article we tried to summarize the effect of climate change on molds, the factors which have effect on growing and mycotoxin producing of molds and the identification methods of molds.
Arsenic contamination of the fields and groundwater is a global problem. Alföld is the most affected area in Hungary. Irrigation witharsenic contaminated water, and crop production on the contaminated soil can cause a food safety problem, because arsenic is easy taken up by the cell of the plant roots. To prevent this, very important to monito...ring the arsenic content of soils and plants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a fast, easy method to determined the concentration of minerals in the case of plant and soil samples The analytical methods can give reliable, results if the analytical process, including the sample preparation method, is the best. The objective of this study was to compare 3 type of sample preparation method which was dry ashing, wet digestion in open system, and microwave digestion. As a result of our experiement shows the microwave digestion is the appropriate method to determined the arsenic content of soil samples. In the case of plant samples we can use wet digestion in open system or microwave digestion as a samle preparation method.
High-resolution proximal and remote sensing applications can consolidate sustainable, prevention- and precision-oriented crop management strategies to decrease production risks. This paper shows significant perspectives, own developments and technical aspects of high resolution remote sensing in the context of field applications. Moreover, we p...rovide an overview of snapshot hyperspectral imaging and potential field video sensors to identify areas of interest for their future development. One of the main conclusions of our paper is that non-scanning snapshot hyperspectral imaging technology may enable researchers to overcome the gap in the “point to image” transition of field sensing, while providing a flexible solution for regular variable-rate applications.
Significant part of not cultivated area of Hungary is not suitable for agricultural utilization because of industrial
pollution. Technologies of biorefinery make reutilization of contaminated areas possible. Biomass of plants
produced on polluted soils can be raw material of valuable products. Applicability of biorefinery was tested on a<
utilization was aimed to obtain cosmetic ingredients, pharmaceutical agents, and precursors. During our research
work 88 plant species and varieties were produced and tested for potential utilizable components. Levels of
possible contaminants in these plants were monitored, and amounts of carbohydrates, protein, organic acid and
cellulose were determined as well. Different plant extracts were tested as potential sources of biologically effective
components or as raw materials for lactic acid fermentation. Our results show that biorefinery is a real possibility
for utilization of polluted areas. Numerous plants could be cultivated on contaminated areas without increased
levels of contaminants in their tissues, thus they can be sources of valuable compounds.
The impacts of climate change on crop production are increasingly noticeable. Extreme weather conditions – such as devastating droughts, which occur more often – have serious effects on crop conditions, thus damaging their defence ability against pathogens and pests. Therefore, in order to achieve high-quality and high yielding crops, it is... urgent to elaborate new technologies that improve general condition of crops and prevent development of nutrient diseases. Those crops which suffer from the lack of certain nutrients are more sensitive and their tolerance against diseases are decreased. Nitrogen – as the most influencing macronutrient in yield – is also essential in maintaining crop health. Nevertheless, due to the complicated processes in soil (such as leaching, denitrification), the utilization of nitrogen is not nearly complete, therefore nitrogen stabilizers may be needed to maximize this factor. The use of these stabilizers can be promising where plants with high nitrogen content are grown, although further experiments are needed in which impacts of nitrogen stabilizers on crop protection aspects are examined as well, since there is a close correlation between exaggerated nitrogen fertilizing and sensitivity to pests. During my research I am going to examine the combined effect of foliar fertilizer and nitrogen stabilizer on crop health. Furthermore, my goal is to find clear correlation between pathogens and the different technological variants of nutrition.
Plant and ear height are very important characters not only for describing new varieties of maize (Zea mays L.), but for green and dry matter production, and even for grain yield. Significant positive correlations have been reported by various authors between plant height and stover yield, plant height and dry matter yield, and plant height and... grain yield. The height of the main ear is also correlated to plant height. It depends on the variety or the environment, but is likely to be the same height within a population. Many environmental and agronomical factors (e.g. plant density, fertilization, pests and diseases) influence the expression of these characters, which are not quality traits. Their expression is controlled by many genes and by the interactions between these genes. The heritability of these traits is high and they show significant genotypic variability and positive heterosis, as reported in many research publications.
In a two-year-study, yield loss and temporal development of incidence of Monilinia fructigena were quantified in organic apple orchards and the importance of fruit wounding agents was determined. The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in 2001 and 2002. Disease development was continuous until fruit harvest in both ye...ars. Pre-harvest yield loss caused by Monilinia fructigena amounted on average 27.2% in 2001 and 41.6% in 2002 by fruit harvest. The growth rate of disease development was almost double in 2002 compared to 2001. All infected fruits were injured by wounding agents such as aboitic and mechanical injury factors, codling moth (Cydia pomonella), common earwig (Forficula auricularia) and birds. In this study, the most important wounding agents were codling moth and mechanical injury factors in organic apple orchards. In both years, our results showed that 70-80% of the infected fruits were damaged by codling moth in organic apple production. Moreover, 10-15% of the infected fruits were mechanically injured in the two years. Our results indicated that most of the damaged fruits fell on the orchard floor before harvest and they became an important secondary inoculum source of M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Sweet sorghum can be utilized for bioethanol production because it has high sugar content (14-17%). We determined the most important nutritional values of 5 silo type sorghum lines in waxy and full maturation. The examined restorer lines were: RL 4, RL 9, RL 15, RL 18, K 1. The following nutritional parameters were examined: dry material conten...t, refractometric total sugar content, reducing sugar content. In waxy maturation 73.85-87.37% of dry matter in stalk juice makes the total sugar. Dry material content, total and reducing sugar content of stalk
decreases from waxy mature to full maturation.
There are differences between lines in dry matter (SzD5%=0.76), total sugar (SzD5%=0.79), reducing sugar content (SzD5%=0.30). RL 4 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 10.07% to 10.02% during this period, reducing sugar also decreased from 4.01% to 2.47%. RL 9 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 11.76% to 11.08% during this period. Reducing sugar also decreased from 3.17% to 2.01% in the waxy
maturation. RL 15 showed a total sugar content decrease from 15.43 % to 15.36%. The reducing sugar also decreased from 3.23% to 1.71% in waxy maturation. In RL 18 total mean sugar content during waxy maturation was 13.78% which dropped to 13.26% approaching full maturation. Reducing sugar also decreased from 4.11% to 2.23% in waxy mature. K 1 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 9.35% to 6.15% during this period, while reducing sugar also decreased from 1.52% to 0.77%.
These lines upcoming for experiments are perspectives since having excellent stalk juice nutritional parameters they are of great or very great height and their stalks are thick-very thick, stalk medullas are wet.
Both the European and the Hungarian rural areas suffer multi dimensional problems. Beside infrastructural under development the most important difficulty is employment. Unemployment is significant in the rural areas, while other structural characteristics like education, profession, work circumstances and seasonality worsen this unfavourable si...tuation. It can be stated that the challenge with the highest priority in rural and spatial
development is to create jobs and to strengthen local employment. The authors examine the job generating possibilities of energetic biomass of agricultural origin in a structural point of view. The aim is to develop spatial biomass product line models that permanently support the raise of employment by utilizing the possibilities of the European Union support policy and the popularity of this branch.
I consider it important that the fattening of broiler producers in an economic sense to remain alive in the present difficult situation. This does not mean to me, that just does not generate a loss, but they do remain in their activities after income. Because if you do not have sufficient income in a given sector then the technology becomes obs...olete over time and income deficit due to the possible improvements are still lagging behind, resulting in competitive disadvantages occur. The natural efficiency remains a priority, because fundamentally determine our competitiveness in the broiler production. In the present study, scenario analysis can prove the veracity of my claim, in point of the three most important natural efficiency indicators. The natural efficiency indicators of a company compared to the natural effectiveness of our country and the our competitions (Western-European countries).
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nitrogen fertilisation is a critical point of maize production. Five hybrids of different maturity dates were examined in a field experiment, three treatments (different application dates) and three basic fertiliser doses (0, 60, 120 kg ha-1 N) were used. At the 6-leaf-stage of maize, each fertilisation level of the 2nd and 3rd treatment was given 30 kg N ha-1 fertiliser active ingredient in addition to the basic fertiliser doses with the exception of the control plots and further 30 kg N ha-1 fertiliser was applied at the 12-leaf-stage. The final fertiliser doses were 0, 90 and 150 kg N ha-1 in the second treatment and 0, 120 and 180 kg N ha-1 in the 3rd treatment. The whole amount of the basic fertiliser (ammonium nitrate) was applied in the spring, one month before sowing.
Wineyard pruning utilization for energy purpose is not only a theoretical possibility, the machine background has also been developed. Economic- and environmental experimentations has made by specialists and they seek to developed the best practice in logistics suitable for local conditions and they propagate the results for the potential users.... Nevertheless, the utilization does not seem to be typical in Hungary and some other wine-grower countries. For example, in Hungary the additional energy from vineyard pruning eventuates – tillage, nutrient supply; – phy+tosanitary, environmental pollution; – energy management and economic questions.
In Hungary the most important problem is practice of the vineyard pruning utilization were mentioned by the users is the establishment of collection system and the high logistic costs as Marczinkó (2007) experiences confirm this. As I experienced in practice, the winegrowers are uninterested in utilization. Most of them burn it at the end of the vineyard in many cases without considering of the relevant statutory prohibition.
As my own several years expriment shows at Mátra wine region it is not the technical background which causes the failure. We can use effectively balers or chippers for collection. The cost of chipping is 14 535–27 000 Ft per hectars with the introduced technologies on Mátra wine region. The cost of 1 GJ of heat production is 606–1125 Ft. We can substitute the fuel with vineyard pruning and it means approximately 115 000 Ft saving for a family household per year.
Energy balance is the net result of the energy intake (nutrition) and expenditure (basic metabolic rate). The purpose of the daily feed intake is to provide energy and nutrients for maintenance, production and fill and maintain energy storages in form of glycogen and fat. Animals can adjust their feed intake to ensure their energy demand. Food...intake regulation in animals and human is a very complex process, in which the digestive system, the central nervous system, the joining hormonal and non-hormonal factors, and the integrating hypothalamus take part. This review primarily focuses on the action mechanism of some important appetite regulating neuropeptides, and their impacts on the performance traits of the economically significant animal species.
The winter wheat is one of the most determinant crops because its role was always important in human’s life. To increase the average yield there are several possibilities, which are still not clear fields of agricultural plant production. Our main goal was to examine the responses of winter wheat genotypes to different amounts of nitrogen sup...plies. The sowing area of hybrid wheats are increasing, they may have different nutrient nitrogen utilization compared to varieties, and the question arose if it is possible to achieve same yield at lower nitrogen fertilizer application or not.
The present study analyzes the results of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from tillering growing stage. Under controlled conditions three different wheat hybrids were grown (Hywin, Hystar, Hybiza) with two different amounts of nitrogen supplies (optimal and the fourth part). The dry matter accumulation, relative chlorophyll content and nitrogen content were measured in order to draw conclusions from the different supplies of nitrogen for winter wheat genotypes and their physiological plasticity.
The area and volume of processing tomato production is increasing in Hungary. Irrigation is crucial for processing tomato growing. To save water and energy, it is important to know exactly how much water is needed to reach the desirable quality and quantity. AquaCrop is a complex software, developed by FAO, which is able to calculate irrigation... water needs, several stress factors and to predict yields. A field experiment was conducted in Szarvas in processing tomato stands, under different irrigation treatments. These were the following: fully irrigated plot with 100% of evapotranspiration (ET) (calculated by AquaCrop), deficit irrigated plot with 50% of ET (D) and control (K) plot with basic water supply was also examined. Dry yield, crop water stress index and soil moisture were compared to modelled data. The yields in the plots with different access to water were not outstanding in the experiment. The model overestimated the yields in every case, but the actual and modelled yields showed good correlation. AquaCrop detected stomatal closure percentages only in the unirrigated plot. These values were compared to CWSI – computed from leaf surface temperature data, collected by a thermal cam in July – and showed moderately strong correlation. This result suggests that Aquacrop simulates water stress not precisely and it is only applicable in the case of water scarcity. Soil moisture data of the three plots were only compared by means. The measured and modeled data did not differ in the case of K and ET plots, but difference appeared in the D plot. The obtained results suggest that the use of AquaCrop for monitoring soil moisture and water stress has its limits when we apply the examined variables. In the case of dry yield prediction overestimation needs to be considered.
In my current article I deal with the broadening extension of district heating that is highly beneficial from environmental and climate protection aspects. I present the energy efficient and environment friendly district heating upon some outstanding European best practises.
District heating is of utmost importance concerning sustainable and
Although the volume of ingredients in ewe’s milk is substantially higher than in cow’s milk, its hygienic quality is lower. The weak quality of raw ewe’s milk limits the possibilities of processing and results in bad quality products. In our investigation we analysed the state of ewe’s milk processing at a typical medium size dairy firm.... We investigated the collection, the amount and the quality of milk and the level of ingredients in milk throughout the purchasing period (lactation period).
The purchasing of ewe’s milk was limited to 5 months (from April to September). Although meat (lamb) provides the major source of income to sheep breeders the extension of the period of ewe’s milk production can be beneficial to shepherds and dairy firms. The amount of ewe’s milk ingredients found corresponded to published findings. However, the hygienic quality of ewe’s milk was varied greatly in the different milk samples and these deviations meant bad quality on average. Physiological factors, the circumstances of sheep breeding and milking, the slow cooling of the milk, the little amount of daily milk and the long storage before transportation to the dairy firm together cause poor hygienic quality. The main problem is the long storage time of milk, but our results raise the question of reconsidering the quality classes. Investigating the effect of the hygienic quality of raw milk on product quality, we can get correct data that can be really authoritative.
The rape is definitely a sulphur-demanding crop, which yield and the quality of its oil is threaten by the emerging shortage of sulphur nowadays. We made sulphur fertilising trials on two places in the northeastern rape growing area (in Felsőzsolca and Mezőkövesd), in the season 2001/2002. We compared the result the 5 five treating set in 2...repeats on brown forest soil with the results of the control plots. We used FitoHorm 32 S sulphur solution as sulphur fertiliser, with the dose of 3, 6 and 10 litres per hectare, as well as the joint effects of sulphur and boron; and the effect of boron alone. On the assessment of our results we looked for relation between the sulphur fertilising, the seed production, the oil content and the protein content.