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Effects of some herbicides on the microbiological characteristics of soil nitrogen cycle under maize plantation
Published December 21, 2008
93-100

Nitrogen is a key element for the living organisms and influence not only for the quantity but for the quality of the yield, considerable. Availability of nitrogen from the soil is influenced by several microbiological processes of the Nitrogen-cycle. Among the intensive agricultural production the herbicide application cannot be omitted more i...nformation needs therefore about the inhibitor effect of herbicides on the different microorganisms.
An experiment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil under maize culture. Effect of four different herbicides (Acenit, Frontier, Merlin, and Wing) was investigated. The effect of herbicides was measured to four microbiological parameters of the Nitrogencycle (abundance of nitrifying bacteria, nitrate solubilisation, biomass nitrogen and urease enzyme activity). There were singledouble-  and five times of recommended doses of herbicides applied for two onsecutive vegetation periods.
From the results of the different doses of herbicides, the following can be stated:
– The Acenit has a stimulating effect on nitrifying bacteria in general. The Frontier and Merlin also influenced the quantity of nitrifyers, however in certain cases decreased in another cases increased the number of bacteria.
– The double doses and five times doses of herbicides was found to be increasing the nitrate content of soil, -especially in 2006.
– The quantity of microbial biomass nitrogen increased in the 60% of treatments and decreased in the 40% of the treatments.
– Except of the result of Wing in 2006 and Merlin in 2005, the effect of simple dose herbicides was the smallest on the urease enzyme activity. According to the results the effect of Merlin was positive; the effect of Wing was negative on the soil enzyme’s activity.
Regarding the application of four different herbicides in three  different doses on the microbiological parameters of soil (at two consecutive years-) in 39% of the treatments has resulted a significant inhibitory effect, 28% of the treatments, however have significant stimulating effect on the parameters measured. More than 50% of the inhibitory effect was measured in case of the Wing, at more than 50% of the Frontier the microbiological parameters have not changed.

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Spatially Continuous GIS Analysis of Sampling Points Based on Yield and Quality Analysis of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published March 4, 2005
56-61

The homogeneity of a study area of 20x20 m used for beetroot production in North-West Hungary was analysed with geo-statistical methods on the basis of measured plant and soil parameters. Based on variogram calculations (Equation 1 and 2), the yield surface showed homogeneity in North-South direction. Considering the results, decrease of sampli...ng distance to 17 m can be suggested. The direction of the variability of yield (Figure 1) could be modelled with a direction variogram based on analysis of the variogram surface. In the study, developed methodological processes are presented for the analysis of spatial relationship between measured production and soil parameters. 5 spatial evaluation methods for yield surface were compared (Table 1). On the basis of the analysed methods, it can be stated that different methods (LP, RBF) should be used when the reasons for locally extreme yields are in focus than in case when the yield surface of the whole area is estimated (IDW, GP). Using adequate parameters the kriging method is applicable for both functions. Similarly to the results of an ordinary Pearson correlation analysis, spatial correlation analysis was shown using soil pH and Cu concentration data. The results of cross variogram analysis (Equation 2) and the North-South direction of the variogram surface showed negative correlation (Figure 3). Based on simulation calculations, decrease of 30% in sampling points resulted in increase of 12% in error for the total sample number considering Cu concentration. The method provides a tool to decrease the cost of sampling and sample analyses of spatially correlating features, and to increase the reliability of spatial estimation using a better sampling strategy with the same sample number.

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Heat treatment and microbial digestion of poulty feather for biogas production
Published November 15, 2007
215-219

The aim of this research was the elaboration of the technological parameters of heat pre-treatment and microbial digestion of poultry feathers for biogas production. Feathers were treated at 70, 100, 140 °C, and subsequently digested by Bacillus licheniformis, or keratin disintegrator bacteria. Investigations focused on the optimalization of p...arameters influencing poultry feather biodegradation. The optimal range of pH, temperature,
feather size and bacillus:feather ratio were determined in the experiments, as well as the analysis of relationship between the examined parameters. In order to be able to track the dynamics of the biodegradation, we determined the extinction level of the liquid phase of the biodegraded material in the different experimental treatments. The results showed that the rate of hydrolysis was significantly higher in the treatments with bacteria than in the treatments without it. Regarding the pretreatments at 70, 100 and 140 °C, the digestion of feather was the most intensive at 70 °C. The most extensive digestion was observed in case of 1:3 feather:water ratio. The highest intensity of feather digestion was
detected in the treatment with 1% microbe ratio.  

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The examination of poultry feather digestility for biogas production
Published July 16, 2007
113-118

The aim of this research was the elaboration of the technological parameters of biological digestion and biogas production from poultry feather produced in large quantities by slaughterhouses. Feather protein was digested by Bacillus licheniformis, keratin desintegrator bacteria. Investigations focused on the optimalization of parameters influe...ncing poultry feather biodegradation. The optimal range of pH, temperature, feather size and bacillus:feather ratio were determined in the experiments as well as the analysis of relationship between the examined parameters. In order to be able to track the dinamics of the biodegradation, we determined the extintion level of the liquid phase of the biodegraded material in the different experimental treatments. The results showed that the rate of hydrolisis was significantly higher in the treatments with bacteria than in the treatments without it. The most extensive digestion were observed in case of 1:3 feather:water ratio. The highest intensity of feather digestion were detected in the treatment with 1% microbe ratio.

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Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.) yield in the case of different production technologies
Published May 16, 2017
71-77

Stevia rebaudiana B. offers a natural alternative of sweetening, potential health promotion plant, and our country shows increased interest about cultivation in Hungary in addition to the neighboring European countries. The agricultural production system installation necessary
understanding of the needs of the plant, as well as exploring the... agronomic potential. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 with the aim to highlight some of the technological production parameters and correlations between them. We have reviewed the most important agronomic factors, the spacing (50×50 cm and 33×33 cm), ground covering (agro-cloth covered and uncovered/ control), their vegetative growth (first-,second-order branch), herb yield and quality in effect.
Based on empirical evidence, that the Hungarian climates also have the opportunity of 3 cuttings during a growing season, besides of early planting, optimal climatic conditions (in October didn’t reduce the daily minimum temperature below 0 °C, after cuttings the maximum interval values remain below 40 °C), and adequate water supply and crop protection facility. The 33×33 cm spacing evaporates more than 50×50 cm spacing, because of the dense population, the continuous canopy less able to breathe, so there are serious chances to the pathogen colonization.
Based on the results of our research to the wider 50×50 cm spacing favorable appreciate the stevia optimal progress in terms of qualitative and quantitative parameters of the yield. The stevia yields produced in the Northern Great Plains field cultivation can produce similar results as stevia crop yields in warmer climates, where the primary crops. Our research experience suggest that there is a viable domestic stevia cultivation, developing the necessary technology is still growing further investigation justifies.

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149
Does the feeding frequency influence the growth performance of European perch juveniles (Perca fluviatilis) during intensive rearing?
Published May 26, 2022
123-128

The European perch (Perca fluviatilis) is a predatory fish species. Its aquaculture production is increasing worldwide. Feeding and the frequency of feeding are important elements of intensive fish rearing. The aim of our experiment was to examine the optimal distribution of the amount of feed, at the same feed rations. Th...e experiment lasted 42 days. Three treatments were applied in 4–4 replications. The first treatment was feeding twice per day (T2), the second treatment was feeding three times a day (T3), and the third group was fed four times a day (T4). 10 European perch juveniles were stocked per tank, with an individual mean body weight of 3.93 ± 0.06 g at the start of the experiment. The survival rate (S%) was above 90% for all treatments. The T2 treatments produced the most favourable harvest weight (13.96 ± 0.14 g) and specific growth rate (SGR = 3.08 ± 0.01% day-1), but no significant differences were observed between groups. In terms of feed conversion ratio, the best result was obtained by (T3) (FCR =1.06 ± 0.18 g g-1), but no significant difference was found for this indicator neither. The results of the trial indicate that the feeding frequency does not influence the production parameters.

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Comparison of Voluntary Feed Intake and Venom Production of Wild and Laboratory Bred Sand Vipers
Published December 4, 2001
27-29

The study was performed on vipers of the Vipera ammodytes ammodytes species and aimed to establish the differences in voluntary feed intake and venom production between a group of wild, recently captured vipers and a group of born and bred captive vipers. In addition, the influence of sex on both parameters was established. The research brought... evidence of important differences concerning voluntary food ingestion and venom production between the two groups of animals. However, sex appeared not to significantly influence these parameters, both in wild, recently captured vipers and in born and bred captive vipers. Wild animals rapidly accommodated to the microclimate conditions in captivity and readily accepted food.

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Climatic water balance in Hamelmalo, Eritrea
Published June 1, 2021
69-76

Agricultural production is an important sector for peoples to live, but it is highly affected by climate change. To have a good production we need to understand the climatic parameters which adversely affect production. Hamelmalo, which is located in the semi-arid area of Eritrea, is vulnerable to climate change and this is realised in the ...total production loss. Nevertheless, there is no concrete reference about the climate of the region due to lack of data for a long time. Changes in precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET) and, implicitly, in the climatic water balance (CWB), are imminent effects of climate change. However, changes in the CWB, as a response to changes in P and ET, have not yet been analysed thoroughly enough in many parts of the world, including Eritrea. This study also explores the changes of the CWB in the Hamelmalo region, based on a wide range of climatic data (P, relative air humidity and evaporation pan necessary for computing potential evapotranspiration (PET) with the pan evaporation method) recorded at Hamelmalo from 2015-2019. This analysis shows that the annual cumulative CWB for Hamelmalo is negative in 67% of the years. The dry season without precipitation leads to negative CWB and the change in CWB only starts from the raining or crop season. Based on this recent study, 2015 had the highest PET and lowest P, and this resulted in the lowest CWB in the investigated period. Opposite to this, 2019 had lower PET and highest P, which led to the highest CWB. However, the monthly values of CWB did not correlate with the annual P or ET. On the base of our study, it can be concluded that PET and P were very variable in the investigated years and P was the most influential elements of CWB.

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The milk production and prolification of Saanen goats of various body condition and ages
Published November 24, 2008
49-52

In our experiments we tried to find correlation between the age and the body condition of milking goats. We found that these factors significantly incluence the economic parameters of the goats; they have effect on their milk production and reproduction as well. Body condition is the lowest in case of the 3-5-year-old goats, whereas it is the h...ighest in case of the 1-2-year-old. The highest number of kids (2.5) are produced by the 3-5-year-old, while the 1-2-year-old have the fewest kids. Lactation milk production is the highest in case of the 4-5-year-old animals, the lowest in the 1-2-year-old. The lactation period is the longest in case of the 3-4-year old animals in contrast to the younger. The difference is significant in each experiment.

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The application of bentonite and zeolite for soil amelioration in acidic sandy soil
Published November 2, 2009
131-137

In a pot experiment, we have studied the effect of bentonite and zeolite in different dosages [control; 5; 10; 15; 20 g kg-1] on acidic (pHH2O=5.65) humus sandy soil. The experiment was set up in 2007 and 2008 in the greenhouse of the UD CASE Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science. As a test plant, perennial ryegrass... (Lolium perenne L.) was used. 
In laboratory examinations, pH(H2O), pH(KCl), hidrolytic acidity, nitrate-N content, readily available phosphorus and potassium content were determined. Among soil microbial parameters, the total number of bacteria, the cellulose-decomposing bacteria, the carbon-dioxide production, the microbial biomass-C content of soil, and the saccharase enzyme activity were measured. In the experiment the biomass of the test plant was determined.
The effect of bentonite and zeolite in different dosages can be summarized as follows:
− The pH increased under the effect of low dosages. With the increasing of the pH the hydrolytic acidity - at the bentonite treatments significantly – decreased. 
− Regarding the readily available nutrient content of the soil, low and medium dosages proved to be effective. High dosages of bentonite treatments reduced the nitrate-N content, the readily available phosphorus, and potassium content of soil, by zeolite treatments the high dosages reduced the nitrate-N content of soil. 
− Regarding the measured soil microbial parameters in both treatments low and medium dosages proved to be also effective, but the high dosages didn’t cause decreasing at the total number of bacteria, and by zeolite treatments the biomass-C content of soil.
− Also the bentonite and zeolite treatments enlarged the biomass of the test plant. We experienced significant increasing by bentonite treatments by the effect of medium and high dosages, while in zeolite treatments only the high dosage caused significantly increasing in plant biomass. The largest dosages decrease the plant biomass. 
− Under the statistical analysis we found many medium and tight correlation between the studied parameters. 

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Seasonal changes of photosynthetical parameters as a results of forest gap model
Published February 17, 2015
133-136

Photosynthetic parameters of English oak (Quercus robur L.) as a member of Querco robori-Carpinetum were investigated in two different habitat in terms of gap forest management: in the gap and in the host forest. The artifical opening process of the forest resulted in more light for growing saplings and need for acclimatization. Photosynthesis ...is one of the most important way for plant life and plant production. In the centre of photosynthetic efficiency the quality and quantity traits of photosynthetic pigments are standing. During our work some photosynthetic parameters of plants (in the gap and in the forest as well) were measured: relative chlorophyll content as SPAD index, chlorophyll a and b content, total chlorophyll content and ratio of chlorophyll a and b. Based on our results no significant differences among our data in early spring. Although, during the summer significant differences occurred between the measured values in the gap and in the forest area. Lower total chlorophyll content was experienced in the gap, than in the forest area due to the lower chlorophyll-b content. Because of the high light intensity higher chla/chlb ratio was measured in the gap. The lower chlorophyll contents of gap habitat may have a part of the acclimatization process of photosynthetic apparatus against high light stress, which can determinate the survival chance of individual.

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Comparative analysis on the fertiliser responses of Martonvásár maize hybrids in long-term experiments
Published December 21, 2008
111-117

The results of experiments carried out in the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences clearly show that in the case of hybrids grown in a monoculture greater fertiliser responses can be achieved with increasing rates of N fertiliser than in crop rotations. In the monoculture experiment the parameters investigated re...ached their maximum values at a rate of 240 kg/ha N fertiliser, with the exception of 1000-kernel mass and starch content. In both cases the starch content was highest in the untreated control, gradually declining as the N rates increased. Among the parameters recorded in the crop rotation, the values of the dry grain yield, the 1000-kernel mass, the protein yield and the starch yield were greatest at the 160 kg/ha N fertiliser rate, exhibiting a decrease at 240 kg/ha. Maximum values for the protein content and SPAD index were recorded at the highest N rate. It is important to note, however, that although the N treatments caused significant differences compared to the untreated control, the differences between the N treatments were not significant.
In the given experimental year the values achieved for the untreated control in the crop rotation could only be achieved in the monoculture experiment at a fertiliser rate of 160 kg/ha N, indicating that N fertiliser rates could be reduced using a satisfactory crop sequence, which could be beneficial from the point of view of environmental pollution, crop protection and cost reduction.
The weather in 2006 was favourable for maize production, allowing comparative analysis to be made of the genetically determined traits of the hybrids. Among the three hybrids grown in the monoculture experiment, Maraton produced the best yield, giving maximum values of the parameters tested at a fertiliser rate of 240 kg/ha N. The poorest results were recorded for Mv 277, which could be attributed to the fact that the hybrid belongs to the FAO 200 maturity group, while the other hybrids had higher FAO numbers. Maraton also gave the highest yields in the crop rotation experiment at the 160 kg/ha N level. All three hybrids were found to make excellent use of the natural nutrient content of the soil.
It was proved that the protein content of maize hybrids can only be slightly improved by N fertilisation, as this trait is genetically coded, while the starch content depends to the greatest extent on the ecological factors experienced during the growing season.

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Changes in the Quality of Winter Wheat Varieties in a Comparative Experiment
Published May 11, 2003
179-183

The hungarian seed grain supply offers more and more varieties from the field crops for public cultivation in every year. The number of the admitted varieties by state doubled from 1996 to 2001. The question is what changes can the varieties newly inproved show in the quality parameters.
32 varieties admitted in different years was examined ...on quality parameters as wet gluten content, valorigraphic value and falling number from period 1996-2001. We established that the newer varieties surpassed the traditional varieties of the variety-comparativing experiment in accordion to they wet gluten content. In connection with formation of valorigraphical value we saw that the new varieties got place in the varieties admitted for public cultivation in quality based examining. The varieties showed different reaction of fertilizer on the formation of these two parameters. In connection with the formation of the value of falling number the examined varieties suited for the requirements of quality crop production in the experimental years excepted some of them.

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Possibilities of downsizing sweet cherry trees via growing techniques
Published September 14, 2005
71-74

By applying smaller crown sizes and intensive growing techniques, many advantages can be identified compared to the extensive orchards. Also, nursing/pruning and harvest work can be performed more effectively. The outer and inner quality parameters of the fruit and the effectiveness of plant protection techniques are improved. The smaller crown... size enables us to apply technologies for ensuring yield safety (e.g. hail, rain, bird nets), resulting in an increase in productivity. The introduction of smaller trees poses a great challenge to cherry production. Trials with dwarfing rootstocks have not yet been successful, therefore, we must use the cv. Mahaleb rootstock, which is excellently adapted to the Hungarian conditions, and also has a stronger growth. In addition, rootstocks with such strong growth are needed for the necessary regeneration of the productive parts of cherry cultivars, there is a need for. At the research garden of the University of Debrecen in Pallag, we planted 21 cherry cultivars on cv. Mahaleb (CT500) rootstock, in a 4 m x 1 m spacing pattern, in the spring of 2000. In our study, we demonstrated the possibilities of developing and maintaining the string super spindle through repeated summer pruning, in terms of growth, bud and fruit formation,. Based on these parameters, we determined which cultivars are the most suitable for intensive production.

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Changes of some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics in a long-term fertilization experiment in Hungary
Published September 5, 2018
253-265

Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.

Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization d...oses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).

The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.

With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds

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The effect of cobalt-chloride on the production parameters and homogenity of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) larvae
Published February 10, 2013
21-25

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is a predatory fish species native in Southeast Asia and Australia. Based on the geothermal potentiality of Hungary the high market potential warm-water fish barramundi can be produced economically. Living nourishment organisms such as Artemia nauplii play an essential role in the larval rearing of barrramundi. However, zooplanktons in natural aquatic enviroments contain minerals in a higher concentration than the usually fed newly hatched Artemia. Therefore the goal of recent study was to investigate the effect of cobaltchloride on the larval growth and survival of barramundi when fed individually and combined with Zn and Mn supplemented Artemia.

In our experiment a 24 hours period was used for the enrichment of newly hatched Artemia nauplii with cobalt chloride in itself, as well as in combination with zinc sulphate and manganese chloride. A total of 1900 barramundi larvae from 15–30 day post hatching were fed with supplemented Artemia in 9 groups of treatments in duplicate. The growth performance and elemental concentration of 40 larvae from each group was determined. All the groups produced significantly improved growth compared to the control (p<0.05). The lower concentration of individual Co supplementation resulted in a higher growth performance while the opposite dose relation occured when combined the Co with Mn. Cobalt had a significant negative effect on the Mn uptake of the larvae – significantly higher Mn accumulation compared to the control group was only observed when Mn was fed in itself (p<0.05). In case of Co-Zn-1 and Co-Zn-2 treatments significantly higher Zn concentration was measured than in the others (p<0.05).

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Effect of divided nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on the quality of winter wheat
Published February 3, 2016
27-31

The ecological characteristics and agro-ecological conditions in Hungary provide opportunities for quality wheat production. For the successful wheat production besides the favorable conditions; the proper use of expertise and appropriate cultivation techniques are not negligible. Successful cultivation affected by many factors. To some extent ...we can affect, influence and convert the abiotic factors.

Today, a particularly topical issue is the question of nutrition and that the species’ genetic code can be validated using the appropriate quantity and quality fertilizer. Beyond determining the fertilizer requirements of the winter wheat it is important to align the nutrient to the plant’s nutrient uptake dynamics and to ensure its shared dispensing. In any case, it is important to note the use of autumnal base-fertilizer as complex fertilizer. Hereafter sharing the fertilizer during the growing season with the recommended adequate nitrogen dose.The first top dressing of winter wheat in early spring (the time of tillering) can be made, the second top dressing at the time of stem elongation, and the third top dressing at the end of the blooming can be justified. Determining the rate of fertilizer application depends on the habitat conditions and the specific nutrient needs of plants. In autumn the 1/3 of the planned amount of basic fertilizer should be dispensed (in case of N). During setting our experiment we used 3 doses (0 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient; 90 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredients and 150 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient). Application dates beyond the autumn basic fertilization are the following: in one pass in early spring, divided in early spring and the time of run up, early spring and late flowering. In addition to nitrogen the replacement of sulfur gets a prominent role as a result of decreased atmospheric inputs. The proper sulfur supply mainly affects the quality parameters. It influences positively the wheat flour’s measure of value characteristics (gluten properties, volume of bread, dough rheology.

In terms of nitrogen doses; the larger amounts (150 kg ha-1 N-1 drug), is the proposed distributed application, while in the case of lower nitrogen (90 kg ha-1 N-1 drug) in a single pass in the early spring can achieve better results. After using sulfur the quality values among the nutritional parameters that can be associated with gluten properties took up higher values than the samples not treated with sulfur.

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Change of cultivation parameters of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) on different nutrient systems
Published September 18, 2014
67-71

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The experiments were conducted at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, Research Institutes and Study Farm, Centre for Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen. We have studied the shoot number, plant height and fold thickness os asparagus for 3 years. We have set a fertilization experiment on 1500 m2 of plantations in 2013. We applied fertilizer, manure and sheet manure compost. The set yield we achieved by using fertilizer treatment. The Vitalim produced the largest crop, then the Cumulus and the lowest yield Grolim. We was produced by highest green mass was observed in Vitalim and Cumulus hybrids in each year. The Grolim hybrid produced the smallest shoot and plant height but the fold thickness was longer in the other two hybrids. Overall, the Vitalim hybrid has the best production parameters and each season.

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The use of essential trace elements in the juvenile rearing of barramundi (Lates calcarifer
Published March 20, 2014
33-38

Barramundi (Lates calcarifer L.) is a predatory fish species native in Southeast Asia and Australia. Based on the geothermal potentiality of Hungary the warm-water fish can be reared successfully. Zooplankton in the wild contains minerals in a higher concentration than the usually fed newly hatched Artemia nauplii, therefore essential trace ele...ments, such as cobalt, zinc and manganese play an important role in the larviculture of barramundi. Cobalt is vital in trace amount for many living functions of vertebrates, however, lower number of papers are available considering the nutritional aspects. Nevertheless. improved growth performance was observed in cases of some fish species when diet was supplemented with CoCl2. Zinc and manganese are also vital for optimal growth and accordingly are investigated and applied diet supplements in aquaculture.

The main aim of the recent study is to investigate the effects of cobalt, manganese and zinc on the growth performance and homogeneity of fish when a commercially available dry diet is supplemented with trace elements individually and in combined treatments. A total of 6 treatments were set in a randomized blocked design where the concentrations of the applied elements were 50 mg kg-1 for CoCl2, for ZnSO4 and for MnCl2 individually, as well as for CoCl2 along with ZnSO4 and for CoCl2 along with MnCl2 in combination. Although the production parameters of larval barramundi were positively affected by the addition of trace elements when the retention of minerals occurred through nourishment living organisms, statistically no differences were found between the treatments considering the growth performance of barramundi juveniles either when dry feed was supplemented with cobalt, manganese or zinc (p>0.05). While the use of cobalt and manganese in combined treatments produced a less uniform larvae in size and as a consequence of increased heterogeneity, survival was significantly reduced by the cannibalism, the sizes distribution of barramundi juveniles wasn’t affected by the dry diet supplementation of these elements.

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Effects of plant density on photosynthetic characteristics and yield of maize under irrigation condition
Published May 23, 2019
115-118

Maize plant response to plant density is an essential agrotechnical factor used for determining grain yield. Three plant densities (60,000 ha-1, 72,500 ha-1, and 85,000 ha-1) were used in this study to ascertain the effect of photosynthetic parameters and grain yield. Results show a significant difference in the... photosynthetic parameters (SPAD, NDVI, LAI) and plant height for plant density of 85,000 ha-1. Grain yield and stem diameter were not significantly affected between the different plant densities.

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Az évszak és az azonos évszakban történt ismételt mintavételek hatása holstein tenyészbikák ejakulátumának minőségi- és mennyiségi jellemzőire
Published March 27, 2002
33-37

This study was carried out at the Hungarian National Artificial Insemination Centre in order to evaluate the seasonal effects on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of sperm production using sperm analyser equipment. The volume of ejaculate (VE), percentage of living sperm (PLS), spermatozoa concentration (SC), motility score (MC), perc...entage of motile spermatozoa (PMS), speed of movement of sperm cells (SMS) and the percentage of sperm cells moving straightforward (PSMS) were collected and observed in three seasons (summer, autumn, winter) in Holstein-Friesian breeding bulls (n = 15). The sperm collection was done for three successive weeks in every season on the same day (summer: n = 41, autumn: n=39, winter: n = 42, altogether: n = 122). The same sperm samples were measured by sperm analyser equipment (HTM version 7.0, Danvers) for PMS, SMS and PSMS. The seasonal and the number of sperm collection effects were confirmed on semen characteristics by multiple analysis of variance (two ways MANOVA, Type III) using the program package of STATISTICA 4.5. The average values of VE were similar in the three seasons (summer: from 4.42 to 6.28 cm3, autumn: from 4.08 to 6.86 cm3, winter: from 5.43 to 5.71 cm3). The average values of the MC were similar in each of the three seasons (summer: from 3.66-4.00 M; autumn: from 3.66-3.77 M; winter: from 3.86-4.07 M). The summary of all effects for season (P<0.001), repeated sperm collections in the same season (P<0.05) and interaction of two traits (P<0.01) were established on the measured characteristics. The special effects (P<0.05) of a given season were calculated, excepting the VE and MC, on all of the measured characteristics. The special effect (P<0.01) of the repeated sperm collections in the same season was verified in only one case (SMS). It is not surprised at the interaction was established on the VE (P<0.001), PMS (P<0.05), and SMS (P<10.0). The results of present study suggest that seasonal effect on sperm quality of breeding bulls cannot be eliminated even at standard feeding and keeping conditions. Considering our results, we can recommend that the average values of three successive weeks in every season be used, to take advantage of seasonal effect on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of sperm production.

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Study the correlation of morphological and production traits of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (Review
Published March 20, 2014
61-65

There are several morphological differences among the honey bee subspecies, which proofs that they adapted different way to the environmental factors of the given area. Morphological observations are not the only way to separate subspecies, it is possible on their genetic speciality as well. The authors’s aim in this present study was to exam...ine morphological characteristics of subspecies, furthermore looking for correlation between morphological parameters and honey yield. According to their results, among the most important parameters considered by Hungarian breeders, in the case of the native Apismelliferacarnica subspecies, the proboscis length could be the indirect tool for honey-productivity focused selection.

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Association analysis of TNNI1/XbaI polimorphism on carcass quality in hybrid pigs
Published March 24, 2015
59-62

The contractile protein, which is encoded by troponin I 1 (TNNI1) gene, is located on the thin filaments of slow fibres in striated muscle. TNNI1 protein is a part of the troponin complex which plays an important role in regulation of muscle contraction by preventing actin-myosin interaction in absence of calcium. According to biological role, ...this gene can be potential marker for meat production related traits. The aim of this study is to define whether the previously reported gene polymorphism (EU743939:g.5174T>C) is connected with the slaughter traits measured in a standard slaughterhouse of the examined four-line European hybrid. The study included data from 404 gilts and barrows from 2 different samples. The polymorphism was detected using PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) method with XbaI restriction enzyme. In this study the allele frequencies were found as follows: C: 0.84 and 0.808; T: 0.16 and 0.192. Based on result of the present study no significant impact of polymorphisms on production parameters was found.

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Results of Brown Bullhead Fingerling Rearing in Recirculating Fish Production Systems
Published December 6, 2005
46-50

Predator fish species are in great demand, both in fish production and consumption. Because of their rarity and perfect meat quality, these species have considerable economical significance and increasing domestic and foreign demand.
The brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) has been in Hungary for more than 100 years, but not popular because... of its early maturation rate, aggressive reproduction and slow growth. Despite of these properties, larger specimens (about 150-200 g) are marketable overseas.
Our objective is to ensure the adequacy of the brown bullhead in intensive fish farming and its biological, technological and economic references. The pre-experiments were performed at the Bocskai Fishing Co-operative in Hajdúszoboszló, where we reared the juvenile age class. In our university’s recirculating system we examinated the brown bullhead from the fingerling age class.
The black bullhead prefers artificial feed, and produces excellent growth parameters and a specific feed-live weight conversation ratio.

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Physical and chemical treatment of poultry feather from the slaughter-house
Published December 22, 2010
51-56

The 15-20% of the by-products of meat – and poultry industry – that unsuitable for human consumption – contains keratin. The slaughter technology of poultry produces large amount of poultry feather with 50-70% moisture content. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998). The keratin cont...ent of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pretreatment is needed in practice, which has to be set according to the utilization method.
Our applied treatments were based on biogas production, which is a possible utilization method. In the IFA (TULLN) Environmental Biotechnology Institute the feather was homogenized, and – according to the previous examinations – the most effective 1:2 feather-distilled water ratio or 1% NaOH-solution was used, and then treated with microwave (70, 130, 160 °C) during 1 hour time period. DM% and oDM% content was analyzed in the original samples, and the pH, Carbon-, Nitrogen-content in the output, too. Based on the received correlation coefficients (R) and related significance values (Sig.) I concluded, that the C-, N-content and the pH values weren’t influenced by any of the additives. The temperature
affected all three tested factors. The temperature showed a strong coherency with the N-content and the pH value when distilled water was used and weak-medium coherency with the Carboncontent. With NaOH-solution treatment the temperature gave strong coherency with the C- and N-content, as well as medium coherency with the pH. Our objective was to determine the method with effectively the pre-treating of poultry feather for biogas production or composting and to prepare of the treated samples for N and C analyzing. Our next aims will be the elaboration of the technological parameters of heat pre-treatment and microbial digestion of poultry feather for biogas production. 

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