Fennel appers to be cupable of enlarging our vegetable sortiments in Hungary. Ecological conditions favour production. For cultivation, 12,5 plants/m2 are recommended. Fennel requires 250-300 mm water over a 110 day growing period. No considerable pests have been found yet. 1-3 kg/m2 tubers can be harvested. Marketable tubers weigh 200-300 g. S...maller tubers can be dried, pickled or deep frozen.
The use of remote sensing in forest management and agriculture is becoming more prominent. The rapid development of technology allowed the emergence of database suitable for precision application in addition to the previously used low-resolution and low data content images. The high resolution, hyperspectral images are not only suitable for sep...arating the different land use categories and vegetation types but also for examining the soil characteristics and biophysical features of plants (Blackburn and Steel, 1999; Condit, 1970). We processed a multispectral satellite image (Landsat 7 ETM+) and a hypespectral areal image (DAIS 7915) about a farm on the plains and evaluated the different image classification methods. During our examinations, we examined the geometrical and radiometrical characteristics of images first, then assigning the training areas, we determined the spectral characteristics of land use categories. We performed a multispectral analysis for checking land use, where we compared controlled and uncontrolled classification systems to check their reliability. We used areal and spectral reductions to make the classifications more accurate and to reduce the length of calculations.
The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. In Hungary, a relatively small size of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The tension between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to... be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially young adults, as they have no opportunities to find a job in their hometowns. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties.
Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presuppose the availability of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, a solution that provides the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments: a locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.
The primary purpose of our experiment was the solution of municipal excess sludge treatment by a renewable energy resource used willow (Salix viminalis L.) plantation. Tests were carried out to state whether the applied sewage sludge has caused any accumulation of the toxic elements in the studied soil layers, and - based on the results –to s...ee whether the plantation is suitable for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge.
The excess sludge (sludge before dewatering) is beneficial for the willow, because it contains a 3–5% dry matter and therefore, a lot of water, too. This high water content ensures the high water amount needed for the intensive growth of the willow. On the other hand, the wastewater treatment plant can save the dewatering cost which corresponds to about 30% of the water treatment process costs. The amounts of the sprinkled sewage sludge were calculated on the basis of its total nitrogen content. Treatments were the followings: control, 170 N kg ha-1 year-1 and 250 N kg ha-1 year-1. The mean values of the toxic element concentrations in the sewage sludge did not cross the permitted limits of the land accommodating.
The measured toxic element values of the soil were compared to the limits of the 50/2001. (IV.3.) Government Regulation.The sprinkled sewage sludge on the bases of the total N content did not cause accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and the treated plants were also healthy without any signs of toxicity.
Globally-fluctuating climate imposed serious abiotic stresses on the agricultural sector, leading to noticeable, and sometimes disastrous, losses in yields and/or quality of crops; however, in certain cases, plants could survive stress with relatively low reductions, and sometimes even with some enhancements as a reaction to changed environment..., especially in the case of mild stress. An experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Debrecen, Hungary to evaluate the mild drought stress influence on the yield and quality of three soybean cultivars. The results showed that both ES Pallador and Pedro cultivars could achieve more yield when subjected to mild drought conditions; however, protein concentration was enhanced in ES Pallador whereas slightly degraded in Pedro under drought. The cultivar Pannonia Kincse followed different trend; both yield and protein concentration were reduced under drought. Oil concentration of the three cultivars did not show significant changes; however, it always followed opposite trend to that of protein concentration. It could be concluded that both ES Pallador and Pedro are recommended to be grown under rain fed conditions in Debrecen, whereas Pannonia Kincse is recommended under irrigation conditions.
In the last few decades a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Beside this reproduction biology of the population was affected adversely by the keeping-, and feeding technology. Serviceable lifetime has shortened and service period has lenghtened. Whereas profitable milk production needs...cows with longer productive life, larger life-time production. In our work we analysed the productivity-, and reputation parameters of the 200 highest lifetime-productivity cows of Hungary. We found that inheritance has not got important role in the serviceable lifetime. Adaptability and good constitution of Holstein-friesian is proved by the fact that cows with large life-time production are reared in large plants, some of them in large stocks, industrial environment. We found during the analysis of reputation parameters that these prominent cows mostly have deeper body, higher dairy form, higher rear udder, smaller foot angle. We found some weak connection between the milk production and the reputation. Loose correlations between useful material content and some linear traits were found.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In Hungary the renewable energy utilization is planned to achieve 13% by 2020. Biogas production is one of the fields with the largest energy potential. Achieving high efficiency during continuous production despite the mixed and variable composition of input materials is the most common problem which the newly built biogas plants using agricultural raw materials have to deal with. The first experimental reactors at the Department of Water and Environmental Management were built 12 years ago. Control and automation of the four separated bioreactors were executed with ADVANTECH GENIE 3.0 software which granted pre-programmed measurement and points of intervention for pH, temperature, CH4, CO2, H2S, and NH3. The system became out-of-data, therefore in 2010 it has been redesigned and tested. The system is controlled by Compair Proview SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) software running on Linux platforms. The Fusarium infection caused serious yield-losses in cereal production in 2010. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material. The raw material was based on the Fusarium infected maize. In the recent publication infotechnological and technological experiences of the pilot test period are evaluated as well as direction of future development is defined.
Wooly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) is an East-Asian originated weed species and it has been spreaded worldwide by now. The first occurrence of this species in Hungary was observed and published in 2008 nearby Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, North-East Hungary) than in the summer of 2011 a significant population was discovered n...ext to Debrecen city (Hajdú-Bihar county, East Hungary).
In 2013 this weed was also reported from Szentborbás village, Somogy county (South-West Hungary). These observations of spreading and its biological features (production of stolons and large number of seeds, moreover herbicide tolerance) indicate that wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) has a great potential of invasiveness, so it may become a hazardous weed not only in Hungary but in all over the world.
The objective of this study was to identify the fungus which was isolated from wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) root residue samples which were collected after maize harvesting on arable land in late autumn, near Debrecen. The identification of the fungus based on morphological characters of colonies and the features of conidia developed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. After the examination of axenic culture we revealed that the fungus from rhizosphere of wooly cupgrass was Fusarium culmorum. Pathogenicity and/or endophytic relationship between the fungus and wooly cupgrass is still uncertain so pathogenicity tests and reisolations from plants are in progress.
The effectiveness the use of new nutrient complexes is studied. It is set that a combination of nutrient complexes with organic and organicmineral nutrition background promotes to good growth and development of plants during the growing season, provides the best parameters of crop yield structure and the crop yield and economic efficiency of sp...ring barley cultivation in the condition of the Eastern Steppe of Ukraine.
The simplification of the plant cultures range and the yields in the last 10-15 years brings into the actuality the role of crop rotation and
of fertilization on the yield level and stability for wheat and maize even on the soils with a high natural fertility. The results of the researches
performed between the years 2006 – 2009 on a ca
monoculture gives productions with 59-81% lower than that cultivated in crop rotation with other plants during 2-4 years. In maize, the yield
obtained in monoculture is situated behind that obtained in crop rotation with 11-21%. The most favorable crop rotations for wheat were
rape-wheat in a 4 years rotation and soybean-wheat in simple rotation of 2 years. In maize, the most favorable was the 2 years rotation
(wheat-maize). The mineral fertilization was very efficient both in wheat (11-36%) and maize (9-31%). The organic fertilization with manure
was very efficient for maize, the yields being superior with a mean value by 34% for a 60 t/ha dose and with 16% for 30t/ha. The fertilization
compensates the negative effect expressed by the monocultivation only in a small measure
In the experiment adsorption characteristics of different soil types (humic sand, meadow soil, leached chernozem and meadow solonec) was examined on the basis of adsorption isotherms for Cr(III)-picolinate. The Langmuir equation was used to describe the isotherms by which the amounts of metal ions actually and maximally adsorbed by the soils we...re determined concerning the given complex. A comparison was made among the organically bound Cr(III)-picolinate, an inorganic Cr(III) compound and a Cr(VI) form examined in a previous study. Based on the adsorption isotherms, adsorption capacity of the Cr(III)-picolinate was found 20 times smaller on sandy soil and 50 times smaller on the chernozem comparing to that of the inorganic Cr(III)-chloride, thus, the bio-availability of the chromium for the plants is 20 and 50 times higher in case of the given soil types. For the well-known toxic Cr(VI)-form, the adsorption was 2 times higher in case of sandy soil and 5 times higher for chernozem than in case of the organic Cr(III)-complex compound.
The effectiveness of selection for improved drought tolerance and consumption quality in the progeny of crosses between pea cultivars with semi-leafless (afila) and normal leaves and different origins, respectively, were investigated. After single crosses, parent cultivars and F1, F2 and F3 generations were grown under non-irrigated conditions...in the same trials. We created a colour scale from 1 to 9 to measure statistically the shade of seed colour. The tolerance of genotypes against high temperature was measured by the number of pods per plant. The 3:1 segregation
observed in the F2 generation of crosses between semi-leafless and conventional cultivars indicated that the semi-leafless character is determined by a recessive gene. In contrast, the ratios of conventional (Af) and semi-leafless (af) genotypes were 7:1 and 9:1 ratio in the progenies of crosses of Af × af. The genetic progress was effective for improving the seed quality in F3 generation from crosses Af x af where we found that multiple
dominant alleles controlled the orange colour of cotyledons and its high heritability (h2 A=0,63). Selection is more effective in producing the genotypes with high yield and normal leaves if the crosses were made between the western European cultivars such as semi-leafless Profi and Delta used as maternal cultivars and conventional Auralia cultivars. In this case, there were decreases in the consumption quality, such as seed size and shade of colour. The selection based on the seed weight of single plants for increasing drought tolerance seemed to be more effective in F4
strains with normal leaves originated from Czechoslovakian maternal cultivar Y228; however, the genetic progress in the improvement of seed size and colour quality was slow.
The experiment was conducted in warmer mean daily temperature than the many years average, and almost in the same precipitation conditition as the many years average. The herbicides employed were sprayed in the 3-4 leaf stages developing phase of the millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) population by the dose of officially proposed. On the basic of th...e results, the herbicides didn’t effect deleteriously, in most instances, on the cultur plants in sort and long periodus at all. Tendenciously the values of parameters observed were sligtly better after the Stomp 330EC than the Dual Gold 960EC. ( The values of the parameters are significantly better at the treated variants than the control ones, are in realation with the wheather and development stile of the millet, beside the different weeding status of the plots.)
The effect of nutrient-supply (control, N120+PK) and two different genotypes on the physiologic properties of sweet corn has been investigated in the crop-year of 2011 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region. The experiments were carried out at the Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen in Debrecen-Látókép. The experiment was...sewn in two different sowing times: the 21st April can be considered as an early, while the 19th May as a late sowing time. The two involved hybrids were Jumbo and Enterprise. The applied plant density was 65 000 plants per hectare.
Our aim with this experiment was to study the plant production, just as the main affecting factors of its development and dynamics, like nutrient-supply and genotypes. We aimed to study and analyse the relationships between these factors and plant production. In this study following parameters were measured and calculated: photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll-content (SPAD-value), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD). Regarding the analysis of photosynthetic activity values no obvious relationship between the measured values and the applied hybrids, just as nutrient-supply has been revealed.
Analysing the SPAD-values it can be stated that the chlorophyll-content of the measured leaves showed an increasing tendency due to the nutrient-supply. The highest values have been measured in the intensive cob development phase of the early sowing time plots.
Regarding the LAI-values we have found significant differences between the fertilizer treatments in both sowing time treatments. In case of the leaf area duration values – that is derived from the LAI values – nutrient-supply has positively affected the duration of the assimilation area.
The constat growth of the Earth’s population brings with itself a higher demand for food and protein not only in human nutrition but also for the feeding of livestock. Currently, the feed industry is mainly built onseed-based protein, wherethebaseplant is soybean, which is large lycovered by imports in Hungary, similar toother European countr...ies. However, the long-term economically sustainable lifestock breeding demandschanges which has also worked out strategies. An alternative protein sources could be green leafy plants.
In current work the Jerusalem artichokes as an alternative source of protein was studied, compared to alfalfa as a valuable protein plant. Our results indicate that fiber fraction ofJerusalem artichoke shootswas 34 to 37% after pressing in the autumn period while alfalfa slightly lower values were obtained (30%). On the other hand extracted green leaf protein concentration was higher in alfalfa than in Jerusalem artichoke. Along with this higher protein content could be measured from the leaf protein concentration of alfalfa and almost each amino acids were more, as well comparing to Jerusalem artichoke.
Overall, the alfalfa proved to be advantageous as expected both in leaf protein extraction efficiency, both regarding the content of the protein in the Jerusalem artichoke. However, considering aminoacid composition and green biomass production, Jerusalem artichokecould be a promisingplant species asplant protein sourceinthefuture.
This research has the general goal to meet the customization of agriculture in small scale farming. We are developing a technique using micro doses of soil conditioners and organic material applied in the root zone of vegetable crops. We expected to change the physical and chemical properties of the affected soil, which has been irrigated w...ith salty water. Two different soil conditioners were tested. A lysimeter experiment including 8 simple drainage lysimeters was set up in the Research Institute of Karcag IAREF University of Debrecen in 2017. The main goal was to study the effect of different soil conditioners on the soil endangered by secondary salinization induced by irrigation with saline water. In order to compare the difference between the treatments, we collected soil samples, water samples, and determined the yields. Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) was used as an indicator crop during one specific agricultural season. The technique called micro soil conditioning is rational because several reasons. The roles of the technique are various, for example it can serve as a source of carbon or a container for soil amendments and can minimize evaporation. We found this technique not to interfere with the chemical reaction or the interaction with the plants. However, the micro doses of soil amendments had the role to minimize the risk of soil degradation and do not significantly influence soil respiration. In addition, by improving soil properties, soil conditioning increases the leaching of the excess of salts from the root zone. In fact, this technique can decrease the cost of the inputs and improves the production of vegetables, and at the same time mitigates the effect of secondary salinization.
Sunflower is one of the most important cultivated plants in Hungary. We carried out our research in 2009 with eight imidazolinone resistant hybrids and one conventional variety in order to compare the efficiency and selectivity of Clearfield technology to the conventional system. In the trial the Clearfield hybrids were treated by 3,5 l/ha Wing...-P (pre) and 1,2 l/ha Pulsar 40 SL(post). The plot of the conventional variety was sprayed by 4,0 l/ha Wing-P and 0,5 l/ha Goal Duplo (pre).
Wing-P also had a poor effect because of the lack of rain. Pulsar 40 SL gave an excellent result against the 2-6 leaves of monocotyledonous and the dicotyledonous weeds. Only the well-developed Hibiscus trionum survived the treatment. The combination of Wing-P and the Goal Duplo herbicide provided poor result against the caracteristical weeds of the experimental area because of the lack of rain. Oxifluorfen with contact effect burned the leaves of the sunflower.
Heating with wooden chips would provide a significantly cheaper energy production alternative for the local governments in heating their facilities and in district heating as well. The raw material should be available in the appropriate quality, quantity and at the right time. This type of heating requires the well-organized and joint work of t...he forestry, transporting, processing and receiving plants. This activity might be realized in the form of non-profit clusters. In order not to suffer any losses, the participants of the product path should carry out a very careful planning regarding the factors appearing in heating with wood but missing from gas heating. One such critical element is the transportation distance which might make the basically cost-efficient wooden chip-based heating process significantly more expensive.
One of the main findings of my paper is that the transportation distance should be at most 23 kilometers for the wooden chips to be worth (economical) using against gas. From the viewpoint of practical use, this can be interpreted as the distance between the forestry and heatproducing units. By determining the constant and varying costs of transporting and chopping and from calculating the initial contribution, I concluded that the profit-making capacity of the product path would be sufficient for an energy-related investment. According to my calculations, by remaining within the economical transporting distance of 23 kilometers, such long-term savings might be achieved compared to gas heating which would partly cover the establishment of a biomass-based power plant or heating plant.
The integration of plant breeding and plant transformation is needed because we have to create a homozygous genotype of great agronomic value by conventional breeding before the application of genetic technology with which we modify it by using a gene or genome sequence. The aim of integrated plant breeding is to trigger such advantegous change...s by genetic technology which can not be achieved via conventional breeding or just with considerably weaker efficacy. By transformation, the plant’s agronomic performance, the efficiency and security of its production will improve and it will enable more versatile uses of the plant. Genetic technology is one sequence of a new plant variety’ breeding. To create a transgenic variety, the isolation of a gene or a sequence of a gene from the donor genome for tranformation, a homozygous plant or target genome that is suitable for transformation and is created via conventional breeding methods, an effective transformation technique and the establishment of the new variety from the transformed, fertile plant are needed. The transgenic plant should be made suitable for establishing a variety by conventional breeding so that it could be produced securely, its growing could contribute to the development of modern, sustainable agriculture, its seed could be produced profitably, it could meet the reqiurements of DUS and that the changes indicated by the transgene could provide such economic advantages compared to the original variety, which have real commercial value.
The guiding principle for our research is that decentralized energy supply systems should be located near local consumers. One big, local market for energy from biogas plants in Hajdú-Bihar county is Debrecen. In the course of the investigation of biomass suitable for biogas production in the area of Debrecen, this study determines the quantit...y of biogas producible from animal manure. Municipalities around Debrecen were examined in circles with 40, 20 and 5 km radius. Livestock data of these settlements stem from the Agricultural Census in year 2000, actualized by the county trend of livestock changes. Manure quantity and biogas potential in these places are estimated with coefficients from the literature and our calculations. In the largest circle, about 1.4 million tons of manure is produced, from which round 94 million m3 biogas can be produced. Biomass produced in the settlements and producible biogas shows a remarkable trend of concentration, which supports our recommendation on the system of energy supply.
Some indices of the phosphoric fractions of primery degraded soils, which are formed separate areas of technogenic landscapes, on a spoil-bank of iron-ore mine in the near of Kryvyi Rig, under act of lignosa, which are used for biological recultivation of degraded soils are investigated. Maintenance of mineral phosphates and features of organic... phosphorus accumulation are set in soil under arboreal planting. Nutrient supply of plants is enhanced by mobile phosphates and their dynamics during vegetation period. Activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase enzymes are concerned also. On the basis of the soil enzymes activity information it is stated, that under the 35-years-old plantage of Robinia pseudoacacia L. the biochemical mineralization of organic phosphorus compounds passes considerably more actively than under Pinus pallasiana D.Don.
Botrytis cinerea causes gray mold on a high number of crop plants. Information about the populations of plant pathogen fungi may help to develop new strategies for the effective and economic crop protection with reduced fungicide usage. Hungarian B. cinerea populations were characterized with using different molecular genetic parameters. B. cin...erea group I strains, characterized with high rate of fenhexamid resistance, could be detected only in restricted number. The Hungarian B. cinerea populations were characterized with high genetic diversity, and the regular occurrence of sexual reproduction. These results highlight the importance of rotating different type of fungicide in the plant protection technology against grey mould.
The soil is a natural resource, the fertility preservation is an important part of the sustainable development. We have to monitor the transformation dinamics of the organic nitrogen-containing substances, to get accurate information about the changes of the nitrogen cycle in the soil.
Physical and chemical properties of the soil and th...e microorganism effect on the organic matter in the soil – in addition to the composition of organic matter. Wide variety of extracellular enzymes are present in this decomposition. These enzymes help in the transformation of the macromolecules to transforming low molecular weight compounds so they will be available during the assimilation.
The urease enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to CO2 and NH3. The urease is widely spread in the nature, it is present in the microorganisms, plants and animals.
We found that the soil moisture content, the rotation and the fertilization affect to the amount of urease in spring. Furthermore, we get significant difference between the irrigated and non irrigated samples in the second period of the year. Based on our results we can state that the activity of urease was higher in spring 2014.
The objective of our study was to present how the different agronomic factors affect on the activity of urease in a long term fertilizationexperiment.
The sulphur fertilizing experiment was introduced in the cropping year of 2001/2002, with winter rapeseed. The experiment was performed on a farm in Magyarhomorog, Hajdú-Bihar County. By selecting the location for the experiment, we had to consider the effect of the hard winter that was very unfavourable for rapeseed production, as there was s...erious frost damage on the sown area previously used for the experiment. In the arable land experiment, results of three different doses of treatment were compared in two replicates, on meadow soil. FitoHorm 32 S solution was used as a sulphur fertilizer, in doses of 3, 6 and 10 l/ha. Evaluating the results, we tried to find a correlation between the amount of fertilizer and the amount of seed-crop or the oil content of the seed. The nitrogen and sulphur contents of the samples were determined using classical methods and an Elementar VarioMax analyser. By this way, it was possible to examine not only the role of Sulphur in rapeseed production, but also to compare and evaluate results obtained by Kjeldahl and the modern, environmentally-friendly combustion method.