Maize is one of Hungary’s major cereals. In the 1970s and 1980s, we were in the frontline regarding yields and genetic advancement. However, yield fluctuation in maize has increased to 50-60% from 10-20% since the 1980s, which was partly caused by the increase in weather extremes due to climate change and by agrotechnical shortcomings.
The agroecological optimum fertilizer dosage was N 40-120, P2O5 25-75, K2O 30-90 kg ha-1 active ingredient at a plant density of 60-90 thousand plants ha-1 depending on the hybrid and the year.
Some physiological effects of bacteria containing fertilizer and some wood ash were examined in the experiments. The minimization of the use of chemicals in agriculture has been an ongoing challenge. One option lies in the intenzification of soil life. The release of organic matters by the roots and bacteria play a significant role in the uptak...e of minerals. The main problem to usilize wood ash in agriculture is its heavy metal contents. The
solubility of heavy metals is very low, therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture according to our experiments. The wood ash and biofertilizer contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants.
Bio-fertilizers promote the nutrition uptake, firstly enhance the baring and mobility of nutrients, on the other hand biofertilizers elevate nutrient uptake in direct way. Although there are a lot of questions about their application in polluted soils. The cadmium ion is easily collectable and also transportable inside plants. Thus the Cd... can get into the food-chain causing public health problems. The cadmium treatment decreases the dry matter accumulation, and the intensity of photosynthesis at the experimental plants, while the treatments with bio-fertilizer increased these parameters. The cadmium accumulated in the roots, the transport to the shoots was low. We came to the conclusion, that –because of the different nutrient-uptake systemthe sunflower took up more cadmium. Using bacterium containing bio-fertilizer the toxic effect of cadmium was moderated. By our experimental results the use of Phylazonit is offered under contaminated conditions.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In an agricultural field or horticultural plantation, weeds compete with cultivated plants for water and nutrients. The transpirated water by the weeds is needed to be replaced, which saddles surplus costs on the farmer, which could reduce the profitability of crop production. The aim of the precision plant protection system is to protect cultivated plants by applying site-specific technologies and optimized herbicides combination and methods, without environmental damage. The first step of precision weed control is the scouting for weeds. Traditional and modern (passive and active remote sensing) weed surveying technologies are available to detect weeds. The examination was carried out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net of the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. The spectral-based weed detection was worked out by the Tetracam ADC broadband multispectral camera and the GreenSeeker 505 vegetation indexmeter. A strong correlation observed between vegetation indices and weed coverage. Based on the collected data, weed maps are created in appropriate software environment, thus the spatial distributions of the weeds are determined. The species level discrimination and the recognition of weed structural parameters were executed based on the 3D point cloud data by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner.
The effect of NPK-fertilization on the dynamics of nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Clarica) was examined on chernozem soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in a field experiment.
The following results were made:
• the element concentrations in the plant decreased over time,
• there is no difference between th
• the N doses not only significantly increase the nitrogen content in maize, but also have a noticable effect on Ca and Mg concentrations,
• because of the acidifying effect of N-fertilizers, increasing the amount of N-fertilizer increased the Mn, Zn, Cu content of the plants,
• the P doses have a significant effect on the maize P and N content and the Zn concentration of the plant via P-Zn antagonism in the soil,
• as the high K doses treatments alter the ion ratios in the soil, the Ca, Mg content of the plant decreased.
In our experiment the reaction of six sunflower hybrids of different genotypes (NK Oktava, ES Biba, ES Diagora, ES Ballistic, EGH 8925, PR 64 H 42) towards plant density has been investigated by different fungicide treatments in the crop-year of 2011 on a chernozem soil.
In the crop-year of 2011 sunflower populations were infected by a
disease according to our results. According to the results of the Pearson’s correlation analysis it has been revealed that stalk breakage and Diaporthe infection stand in a very close (r=0.782**) and middle close (r=0.523**) correlation resp. with plant density. The relationship between fungucude treatments and stalk breakage, just as Diaporthe infection showed to be middle and close respectively. Our results demonstrate the role of stalk and plate diseases (among them Diaporthe) in causing stalk breakage, for we have found a close positive correlation between stalk breakage and Diaporthe infection (r=0.624**) in our analysis.
From the aspect of yield amount the optimal plant density varied between 45 000 and 55 000 plants per hectare. Fungucude treatments enabled not only the use of higher plants densities, but they had a yield increasing effect as well. In the crop-year of 2011 the highest yield (4 559 kg ha-1) on a chernozem soil has been measured in case of the hybrid ECH8925.
Halticus apterus, a tiny mirid bug with jumping hind legs has not been taught in agricultural entomology courses in Hungary. However, the most detailed agricultural entomology text book, the “Handbook of Agricultural Entomology” briefly presents the pest. Although, it is common in Hungary, its damage is insignificant because of the low dens...ity; it can cause quality loss in feed crops only. Nevertheless, its special symptom – spottedness – is worth taking into consideration. The author has been studying pests and natural enemies of alfalfa for a long time (at least ten years), so he focused attention on this species. Occurrence of H. apterus was only sporadic in the alfalfa field, but it showed characteristic and frequent symptoms at a density of averagely three individuals per alfalfa plants in mixed plant associations at the studied field edge. By presenting the damage appearance and form, it was possible to make a more accurate description of H. apterus’symptoms, and with evaluating relevant European references, also the detailed entomological characterisation, economic importance and assessment of future risks have been achieved. As a difference to former descriptions, the special leaf spottedness of H. apterus does not consist of homogenous round spots but rather of spherical conglomerations of tiny whitish dots caused by the piercing and sucking mouthparts and the injected saliva
This study presents the results of the variety comparison trials conducted with the French bean variety candidate BU-16 on sandy soil, during two years at the Research Center of the University of Debrecen.
The outstanding characteristics of this variety candidate are the early maturity, the showy pods (yellow, straight, cylindrical cross-sec
The experiments were conducted with a randomized design, with five varieties and four replications. The varieties (of which two are foreign and three are domestic) were as follows: BU-16 fj, Maxidor, Paridor, Hungold and Budai piaci. The individual plots were 2 m wide and 4 m long. The seeds were sown at a density of 30 germs per m2, with a row spacing of 50 cm.
The following parameters were taken: time of flowering, time of green maturity, plant height, height of the lowest pod above ground level, number of pods per plant, distribution of the pods by the state of development (20 plants), usable pod length (1 kg of standard crop-yield), yield per hectare based on the number of plants per plot. The experiments were evaluated statistically with Excel and SPSS softwares.
Results obtained with the variety candidate BU-16:
– The time from the emergence to green maturity is 45 to 46 days, which is short as compared with the other cultivars studied.
– Plant height is 38cm (two years average), which is among the highest ones, together with Paridor.
– The pods are set high above the ground level similarly to Paridor, the height of the lowest pod is 19 cm.
– The average number of pods per plant is 13 (two years average) similarly to Paridor and to Maxidor.
– The distribution of pod size in 2007 is as follows: 68% of the pods of BU-16 is of the standars size, which is a good rate. The value of this trait for the other varieties is 60 to 63%, except for Paridor, the value of which is similar to that of BU-16.
– The usable pod length (10 to 14 cm) is 63% in 2007 and 84% in 2006. Similar pod length rates were obtained for Maxidor, while the rate for Paridor is as high as 91%.
– The total yield and the standard yield of BU-16 is among the highest ones.
According to the results obtained and presented above, the variety candidate BU-16 is the earliest maturing among the varieties tested with high yield potential which, however, is not significantly different from that of the others. Significant differences can only be detected in plant height and the number of pods per plant. Considering the results, BU-16 is to be further tested.
In order to enchance the yield stability of maize, the effect of plant density on yields was studied on a typical meadow soil in Hajdúböszörmény between 2002-2004. In the plant density experiment, we used the method of Béla Győrffy. The plant densities applied therefore 20 to 100 thousand plants/ha by ten thousand scale. The application o...f fertilizer rates for the maize hibrids in every year were N: 110 P: 90 K: 120 kg/ha. We used a manual soiling-gun in the experiment. In every year we used plant protection techniques against monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds. The harvest was done by hand. The facts were read by variancie analysis and linear regression analysis. The moisture and the temperatures were extreme in 2002, 2003, 2004. We have to mention defficiery of moisture in 2003 which is shown that the hot days number increased. After evaluating our findings we can conclude that most hybrids showed a significant correlation between increased plant density and the volume of yields. On the basis of the experiments we divided the hybrids into four groups: the first group included the hybrids suitable for increased plant density with a wide range of optimal density values; the second group included hybrids, which did not require high plant density, were capable of good individual performance and tended to grow several ears; the third group included flexible corn types, which grew longer ears in favourable years, thus yielded more; and the fourth group included the hybrids, which were sensitive to increased plant density and which showed a narrow range of optimal density values. Finally, plant density determines the yield; we have to consider optimal plant density intervals as well as optimal plant density, and we also have to place a high emphasis on the use of hybrid-specific technologies.
Aquaculture species such as fish, crayfish, molluscs and plats are a wide range of products, with continuously growing demand worldwide. The reasons for this is that they are cheap and easy-toraise protein sources, thus having significance in food supply especially in developing countries in tropic regions, moreover, the premium category foodst...uffs in developed high income countries are also belonging to this category. World annual total production of 164 million tons (2009) are made up of two sources: 1) marine and inland fisheries landings that are stagnating for several years and 2) aquaculture which is growing dynamically with annual 6% rate between 2000–2009. The latter is accounting for nearly 45% of the total supply due to the depleting marine stocks caused by overfishing. Aquaculture is growing continuously also because the production is safe and can
be planned well.
Intensive fish production systems are the representatives of precision animal production, several types exist and widespread worldwide. The modern computerized temperate water recirculation plants with several thousand m3 capacity are widespread also in Europe because they make it possible to produce even the most valuable species whole year round. A key issue in the technical/feeding outlay is to meet the demands of the cultured species the best and the operation of the system is to be safe and cost-effective. One condition for this is intensification: enable to produce more product per unit resource input or effort. The facilities need significant amount of energy, thus renewable energy sources are to be favoured for which Hungary has comparative advantages.
We made plant physiology examinations in Arkaso winter oilseed rape hybrid substance: relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. The experiment was set in University of Debrecen Agricultural Sciences Center at Látóképi Experimental Station in four replications, in two different sowing times (I. sowing date on... 08/22/2014 and II. sowing date on 09/09/2014 sowing againhappened because of the incomplete germination in the second subtance 01/10/2014) Three different plant density 200, 350 and 500 thousand ha-1, under the same nutrient supply, 45 cm row spacing. The experiment was green crop of winter wheat. The relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements were made in seven different times. We measured the maximum value of chlorophyll content in the first sowing time at 500, and the second sowing time at 350 thousand ha-1 plant density. The measurement results proved that there was a linear relationship between the number of plants and the LAI. The maximum leaf area index values we measured in both the sowing time at 500 thousand ha-1 reached.
Honey is one of the oldest known and consumed food. Besides the pleasant sweet taste it has been consumed because of the favorable health benefits. In addition to large number of honey plants there are many popular herbals which cannot serve as a nectar source. The herbhoney has been developed that consumers can joy the pleasant properties of h...erbals and honeys positive impact on the same product. In our research we compare the quality parameters of honeys and herbhoneys to each other and with the relevant regulation.
Bioenergies (among them e.g. bioalcohol) can be solutions for the replacement of fossil fuels. For its production, plants with high sugar or starch content can be used. Juice pressed from the stalk of sugar sorghum has high sugar content (14-17%) that makes it suitable for bioethanol production. During our experiment, we examined 53 restorer ma...le lines; among them 22 were silo type sugar sorghum. We studied the following traits: plant height, breeding time, level of foliation, stalk diameter, characteristics of stalk medulla, juice content of stalk, sugar content of stalk juice. According to examined characteristics, we selected six restorer male lines for studies in the forthcoming years: RL 1, RL 2, RL 3, RL 4, RL 5, RL 9, RL 12, RL 15, RL 18. Their stalk medullas were wet, stalk diameters were medium-thick, sugar contents of juices varied between 17 and 24% at the end of milk mature. Harvest was made in September, they can be classified into early maturation group. Male sterile female lines were the following: SL 1, SL 2, SL 3, SL 4, SL 5. The maintainer male lines were: CL 1, CL 2, CL 3, CL 4, CL 5. In Hungary, there are only a few male sterile female
lines, so we will use these lines for hybrid production during the next years.
Under the „Molecular farming” research program (product vaccines and substances for medical use with gene manipulated plant) in 2007 in UD Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering Faculty of Agricultural Science Institute of Horticulture Department of Plant Biotechnology experiments were launched to transform tobacco plant by PAF an...tifungal protein. Our aim was to learn the transformation technics. We chose the
Nicotiana tabacum and PAF as model systems.
Our work was to express several different paf constructions in plants with nuclear and plastid transformation too. After that we confirmed the presence of paf gene in the level of DNA and RNA.
The nature conservation park, which belongs to the Spa and St. Andrew Hospital for Rheumatics of Hévíz, is 60 ha in size. The famous Lake of Hévíz, the two overfalls and the main buildings of the hospital are located in the middle of the park. They are surrounded by protective forests, parks and gravel esplanades. During the past few decade...s, the population of neophyton plants and invasive insects have increased considerably. These mean serious challanges to develop efficient control methods. Special care must be taken of environmental and plant protection regulations. Keeping plant protective regulations are especially strict around natural and spa waters.
Cockleburs are noxious weeds in Hungary, where they are widespread in row crops, especially in maize, sunflower and sugarbeet. A low density population of these weeds may be harmful because of their large competitive ability, fast growth in early phenological stages, allelopathy, and persistant sprouting.
Allelopathy of Xanthium italicum Mor
Most of extracts inhibited the germination of sugar beet. In these experiments the phenological stage of the donor plant determined slightly the effectiveness of the extracts on sugar beet. Generally, significant differences existed between treatments only in cases of concentrated extracts.
Rainfall can modify the inhibitory effect of extracts (especially shoot extracts). Shoot extracts of young plants inhibited stronger germination and growth after rain than before rain. Density of cockleburs influenced the effect of extracts, as well. Generally, differences between the efficacy of extracts was larger after rain.
The results supported the hypothesis that the phenological stage and some environmental factors can modify allelopathy of cockleburs.
Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metals, which may cause serious problems in certain physiological processes of living organisms even in small amounts. In our work we analysed how cadmium affects some physiological parameters of different maize and sunflower hybrids. The chlorophyll contents and the morphological changes of the root w...ere examined. We received different results in terms of the cadmium tolerance of these two plants.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nitrogen fertilisation is a critical point of maize production. Five hybrids of different maturity dates were examined in a field experiment, three treatments (different application dates) and three basic fertiliser doses (0, 60, 120 kg ha-1 N) were used. At the 6-leaf-stage of maize, each fertilisation level of the 2nd and 3rd treatment was given 30 kg N ha-1 fertiliser active ingredient in addition to the basic fertiliser doses with the exception of the control plots and further 30 kg N ha-1 fertiliser was applied at the 12-leaf-stage. The final fertiliser doses were 0, 90 and 150 kg N ha-1 in the second treatment and 0, 120 and 180 kg N ha-1 in the 3rd treatment. The whole amount of the basic fertiliser (ammonium nitrate) was applied in the spring, one month before sowing.
During the industrial production of broiler chicken, a large amount of manure is produced, of which easily contained nitrogen content (without pre-treatment) is released into the atmosphere as an air pollutant. In our experiments, we aimed to prepare compost tea, also known as water extract of compost, from pre-treated poultry manure in order t...o create a product can be utilized as liquid nutrient supply. The poultry manure source was the Baromfi-Coop Ltd. located in Nyírjákó, Hungary, where it was treated by composting. As a result of this pre-treatment of the poultry manure, its nutrient parameters improve and nitrogen is present in a form that is better utilized for plants. Furthermore, this product is suitable for further utilization and also can be the base material for a brand-new product. For this reason the effects of compost/water ratio, incubation time, low oxygen level, and extraction time on the parameters of the resulted product were studied in the frame of developing new soil-life enhancing microbial product, so-called compost tea.
Chemical parameters of the compost used as base material strongly determined the properties of the resulted compost tea, especially the ratio of the various nitrogen forms, their concentration and the salt content. It was found that adding water at a higher rate that means 1/40 and 1/50 mixing ratios results in more cost-effective production. In the experiment the compost tea were held under oxygen-poor conditions, therefore pH of the extractions decreased, which influenced the quality and quantity of their nutrient content.
Salt stress, an abiotic stress, determines modifications of some biochemical indicators, like, antioxidant enzymes, proline (amino acid
accumulate in higher plants under salinity stress) content, and some physiological processes including: plant growth and development. In
this paper we studied the influence of exogenous treatment of wheat
salt stress. The treatment was applied by presoaking the seeds in the treatment solution for 12 hours before germination. The results showed
that exogenous 0.1 mM SA solution, administrated to the wheat cariopses significantly ameliorated the negative effect of salt stress in first
week of germination in laboratory conditions.
Agriculture has played a dominant role among the income sources of population living along the Hortobágy just like in any other rural areas. I represent the situations of settlements along the Hortobágy by studying four of them, such as Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek. Big companies having worked in the examined settlements...had significance in ensuring local working facilities, and restraining people from leaving. Acts dating back to the beginning of the 1990’ies, privatisation, transformation of the state farm and co-operatives have decreased the rate of employment in agriculture. Alternative income sources relating to agriculture, such as bio-farming by alternative plants, herb production and rural tourism will determine the future of agriculture in this area due to the closeness of the Hortobágy National Park, the unique but unfavourable natural conditions for agricultural production, financial aids by the National Agricultural Environmental Programme and the imminent EU-membership. In this way supporting these activities may ensure the livelihood of ex-agricultural workers and alternative income for those working in agriculture.
I am going to deal with two issues in this article:
• with the change of the role of agriculture in the examined settlements,
• with economic analyses of alternative income sources by a model of a family farm.
Based on the results of a previous experiment, we concluded that by choosing a suitable cultivar, it is possible to produce artichoke in a one-year cultivation system in Hungarian weather circumstances. The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the performance of two Californian artichoke cultivars (Green Globe, Imperial Star)...under the local conditions. Experiments were conducted in 2002 and 2003, by using four
different sowing and two different planting dates (03.01. and 03.20. – planting 05.07.; 04.24. and 05.06. – planting 06.12.). For both cultivars, 100% of the plants initiated buds. In most of the cases, Imperial Star produced higher total and marketable yields than Green Globe did, while it formed bigger and more uniform buds. Our opinion is that the main reason for this result was that Imperial Star tolerated the dry and warm Hungarian summer much better. Irrespective of the variety by earlier sowing dates higher total yield was achieved. Based on our results, we found that under Hungarian circumstances, both cultivars could produce acceptable total yields. However, the weather circumstances of the given year influenced bud quality, and thus marketable yield, to a great extent.
Host-specificity is an important characteristic of fungal pathogens. Changing climate could create more appropriate environmental conditions for phytopathogens, thus formerly host-specify fungi could be able to colonize new hosts. Noxious plant pathogen fungi, which can infect several plant species are well-known worldwide. These genera may... expand their range of hosts because of the appearance in new geographic areas due to climate change. This new exposure can result in serious problems in agriculture because of the lack of immunity. The susceptibility of apple tree was studied through testing pathogenicity in vitro with species isolated from walnut twigs and nuts, and identified by ITS sequences. Three of four tested species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diaporthe eres and Diplodia seriata colonized and necrotized the infected apple branches, while Juglanconis juglandina was not able to infect the twigs. Members of Botryosphaeriaceae were the most virulent, causing the largest lesions in the fastest way. This experiment draws attention to the threat of new host-pathogen connections, which can arise because of the favourable weather conditions and can spread between neighbouring cultures.
A small-plot microelement load field trial was set up on brown forest clay soil with eight elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), on 3 levels each (0/30, 90, 270 kg element ha-1). The soil was treated with soluble salts of elements once at initiation (1994). In the seventh year of the experiment (2001) winter barley was the test plant. The...total element content was determined in plant samples (shoot, straw, grain) after microwave digestion using cc.HNO3+cc.H2O2. The element composition of the prepared samples was determined using ICP-MS technique. In the experiment toxic effects of treatments and yield loss could not be observed. Zn and As contents in barely shoots were only moderately increased by increasing microelement loads. Effects of Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Al treatments could not be observed. On the other hand, Cd accumulation was significant in the shoot. Cd content was also increased both in straw and grain. Results of this experiment prove that Cd remains mobile in the soil-plant system for a long time. Its accumulation can be observed both in vegetative and reproductive parts of plants without toxic symptoms and yield loss.
Composting is an alternative way for practicing site-specific and environmental friendly plant nutrient supply. Our aim was to study the effect of different composts on plant and soil system.
Pot experiment with acidic sandy soil blended with three composts in five (0%, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50%) proportion was set up. Our experimental plan
The three composts had different effect on dry weight production and on nutrient-supply of soil. We established that one of the compost had significantly larger effect on the dry weight of ryegrass compared to the others. In this study we proved that favourable compost/soil proportion is different in the case of different composts.