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Meat meal and industrial fat as alternative fuels in agriculture
Published November 15, 2007
220-222

I study new energy sources which can replace fossil fuels. As I deal with the burning processes, I have analyzed several kinds of wastes. I think one solution for replacing fossil fuels would be to burn regenerated energy sources in agriculture. For example, oil, industrial fat and meat meal from processing plants are treated as hazardous waste...s. There exist non-hazardous wastes for energy recovery, as by-products e.g. sawdust, wood shavings, vegetable oils, stems of plants or poultry manure.
We should produce energy from the outsides of vegetables and juices, and should produce bioethanol by fermenting vegetable wastes. We could treat the used vegetable oil to make bio-diesel fuel. Meat meal and fat are good alternative energy forms, if burnt in incineration plants. These materials are new renewable sources of energy.
There are some problems in the use of biomass for energy sources. We have to look for the best loading device and burning processes.

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Examination of drought stress of two genotype maize hybrids with different fertilization
Published May 20, 2020
53-57

In the growing season of 2019, we analysed stress resulting from climatic factors on maize hybrids of different genotypes, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the physiological responses of each hybrid, which might support the elaboration of a cost-effective irrigation plan.

Our experiments were carried out at... the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil in a small-plot long-term field trial with strip plot design. In the scope of the experiment, N-fertilizer doses were applied as basic fertilizer and top-dressing in addition to the non-fertilized (control) treatment. The 60 and 120 kg N/ha doses applied as basic fertilizers in the spring were followed by top-dressing in the V6 phenophase with a +30 kg N/ha dose. Measurements were carried out with the involvement of the Renfor early (FAO 320) and Fornad (FAO 420) late maturity hybrids-

The stomata of the plants became more and more closed with the progression of the phenological phases; their stomatal conductance decreased. However, the hybrids responded differently to environmental stress. In the case of the Renfor hybrid, the highest conductance (669 mmol/m2-s) was recorded in the V12 phenophase with the 150 kg N/ha treatment. The stomata were more open due to the high turgor pressure, allowing plants to evaporate properly. The plant was in its worst physiological condition on 2nd July, at the time of the appearance of the last leaf in the case of the 120 kg N dose (224 mmol/m2-s). The value measured in the V12 phenophase has already shown that the stomata were closing due to the self-regulating system of the plant. It would have been necessary to dispense irrigation water following the measurement. This confirms the finding that water stress can be prevented by measuring stomatal conductance.

In the case of the Fornad hybrid, stomatal conductance was the highest on 12th June (630 mmol/m2-s) in the 90 kg N/ha treatment and it was the lowest (183 mmol/m2-s) in VT (emergence of the last leaf) phenophase in the 60 kg N/ha treatment. In this case, the appropriate time for applying irrigation water would have been early July, when the conditions for the plants were still adequate. Subsequently, the stomata began to close due to a reduction of the water resources available to them.

There was a significant correlation between soil moisture and stomatal conductance, as well as between temperature and stomatal conductance.

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Effect of molybdenum treatment on the element uptake of food crops in a long-term field experiment
Published November 20, 2011
75-79

Molybdenum, as a constituent of several important enzymes, is an essential microelement. It can be found in all kind of food naturally at low
levels. However, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high levels of the metal in plants. Our study is based on long-term field experiments at Nagyhörcsök, wher...e different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Plant samples were collected from the experiment station to study the behavior of elements: uptake by and transport within the plants, accumulation in different organs, phytotoxicity and effects on the quantity and quality of the crop. In this study, we present the effect of molybdenum treatment on the uptake of other elements. Molybdenum is proved to be in an antagonist relationship with copper and sulphur, while molybdenum-phosphorus is a synergist interaction. However, in most of the plants we studied, increasing molybdenum-treatment enhanced cadmium uptake. We found the most significant cadmium accumulation in the case of pea, spinach and red beet. 

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Effect of the plant density on different maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids yields and leaf area index (LAI) values
Published March 5, 2015
51-56

We have investigated the plant number reactions of three maize hybrids of various genotypes in a small-plot field experiment. The plant numbers were 50, 70 and 90 thousand ha-1, while the row distances were 45 and 76 cm. The experiment was set on the Látókép Experimental Farm of Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University o...f Debrecen in four replications on calcareous chernozem soil.

The assimilation area and the leaf area index have important role in development of the crop yield. The studied three different genotype maize hybrids reached its maximum leaf area index at flowering. The maximum leaf area index increased linearly with increasing plant density. The season-hybrids reached less yield and leaf area index. According to our experimental results, we have concluded that with the decrease of the row spacing, the yield increased in the average of the hybrids. The studied hybrids reached the maximum yield at 70 and 90 plants ha-1 plant density. We determined the optimal plant number that is the most favourable for the certain hybrid under the given conditions.The higher plant density was favourable at 45 cm row spacing than 76 cm. The hybrids reached the maximum grain yield at 45 cm row spacing between 76 712–84 938 plants ha-1, while the optimum plant density at 76 cm row spacing changed between 61 875–65 876 plants ha-1.

The leaf area index values between the applied plant density for the flowering period (July 1, 24), we defined a significant differences. In the archived yields were significant differences at the 45 cm row spacing between 50 and 70, 90 thousand ha-1 plant density, while the number for the 76 cm row spacing used did not cause a significant differences in the yield. There were significant differences between the examined hybrids of yields.

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Allelopathic effect of invasive plants (Eriochloa villosa, Asclepias syriaca, Fallopia x bohemica, Solidago gigantea) on seed germination
Published June 30, 2018
179-182

The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive species woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa), common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica), and giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Ait.) on germination crop (Lepidium sativum L.). Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to... determine effect of water extracts in petri dish bioassay. Water extracts from fresh biomass (leaves and stem) of invasive weeds in concentrations of 4 and 8 g/100 ml were investigated. All invasive plants showed allelopathic effect on germination. In giant goldenrod stem water extract experiment, allelopathic effect was less pronounced.

The cress germination was greatly suppressed with the woolly cupgrass, common milkweed and the giant goldenrod. The experiment showed that the seed germination depended on the concentrations and the plant material used (leaves and stem).

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Possibilities of Growing Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) in Hungary
Published December 10, 2002
126-130

The domestication of choice broadening, special vegetable species offers new market possibilities in Hungary. The production of artichokes has good perspectives due to its high protein, vitamin and mineral contents and its wide usability. According to the literature, in Hungary it is worth examining the annual production technology, which has y...et to be researched in our country. The basic aim of our work was to establish the annual production of artichoke in Hungary with scientific research.
In the experiment, 5 Italian sorts (Valetta di Roma, Gobbo di Nizza, Violetto di Romagna, Violetto S. Francesino and Precoce di Romagna), 1 American sort (Green Globe) and 1 Egyptian sort (Balady) were used. For one half of the plants, we tried to bring on bud-production appearing in the first year only with early planting, while we used also a gibberellic acid hormone treatment for the other half.
Only the sort Green Globe had yields in appropriate quantity (21.4 t/ha) and quality. The low yield and inequable quality of buds of the Italian and Egyptian sorts refers to the fact that these sorts are not applicable for annual production in Hungary. Although the gibberellic acid treatment resulted an earlier harvest, increased the equality of buds and increased the proportion of stems producing buds except for the sort Green Globe, overall it did not have a positive effect. The hormone treatment fastened the physiological processes of the plants, thereby it induced early insenescence and lignifying of the buds. The high temperatures during the bud-formation period largely increased the ratio of flabby, over-blowing buds, so the planting must be timed in the future that the harvest period is in early automn or late spring, early summer months.
According to our results, globe artichoke can become a perspective culture by applying cold-resistant sorts with short growing seasons, which can be produced as annual crops without hormone treatment by the appropriate timing of bud-formation.

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The zooecological remediation of technogen faulted soil in industrial region of Ukraine steppe zone
Published November 3, 2010
111-115

In Ukraine’s Steppe zone the extraction of minerals is important. To eliminate the consequences of coal mining the agricultural recultivation of the disturbed soil is used. Thus toxic compounds for human beings and the majority of plants and soil biota representatives, which can be found mining rock, get into plants and invertebrates by troph...y chains. When remediating soil, it is necessary to create tropic conditions in order to provide the life of soil biota. Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are the primary decomposers of the organic material. They are numerous in soil and facilitate the improvement of natural and artificially created soil. This paper studies the possible influence of different variants of substrates, which are used in re-cultivation, the leaf litter from leaves of different wood species, as well as different levels of humidity on the representatives of soil saprophages. Optimal variants of artificial mixed-soil providing the stable existence of animals have been shown, which are recommended for the implementation of rehabilitation measures.

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Effect of Moringa leaf extract and set size on the bulb weight, diameter and yield of onions (Allium cepa L.)
Published December 1, 2020
127-131

 Studying the use of natural extracts or biostimulants in improving vegetable plants is the current needs as an alternative way to the use of chemical products. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) as a natural growth regulator on bulb diameter, weight and y...ield of onions ‘Texas Early White’ cultivar. Therefore, three concentrations (control, 2%, 4% and 6%) of MLE and three different onion set sizes [small (3±1 g/set), medium (6±1 g/set), and large (10±1 g/set)] were prepared in a randomized complete block design with three replications and plant spacing 20×15 cm. MLE was applied as a foliar spray directly onto the plants with the amount of 25 ml/plant every two weeks from sprouting to maturity. The achieved results indicate that the interaction of foliar spray with moringa leaf extract 4% and large set size of 10±1 g/set gave the highest value of the total yield 4802.7 g m-2, while the lowest yield 1531 g m-2 was recorded in the interaction of control and the smallest set size of 3±1 g/set. Also, a significant difference was recorded in bulb diameter separately. Thus, the largest bulb diameter 68.90 mm was obtained from the planting of the largest set size 10±1 g/set with 4% of MLE while the smallest bulb diameter 38.40 mm was recorded from the smallest set size 3 ±1 g/set with control treatment. Similarly, a significant effect was recorded in both set size and MLE separately. The highest bulb diameter 58.71 mm was achieved in the planting of the largest sets 10±1 g/set, while the lowest diameter was 42.12 mm in the planting of the smallest set size 3 ±1 g/set. Similar results were recorded for the bulb weight and total yield. The concentration of 4% MLE produced the highest bulb weight 99.74 g/bulb and yield 3324.5 g m-2, while the lowest bulb weight and yield was obtained in the control treatment 55.61 g/bulb, and 1869.3 g m-2. Consequently, the results indicate the positive effect of Moringa leaf extract which can be applied as a natural substance in the form of foliar spray at critical growth stages to improve the growth and yield of dry onions.

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Untersuchungen zur Phosphataufnahme von Zwischenfrüchten bei unterschiedlicher P-Versorgung des Bodens (Investigation of P Uptake of Catch Crops under Different P Supply)
Published September 15, 2003
7-14

The P uptakes of 11 different catch crops on four soils were estimated and compared with changes of double lactate soluble Phosphorus (P(DL)) in soil within a vessel trial. Additionally a model trial with quartz sand was carried out for investigations of the influence of P supply on root parameters. The differences of P uptake in dependence of ...the proofed variants were significant. Under a sufficient P supply Buckwheat, Maize and Oil radish had the highest P uptake on sandy soils, on loamy soil also Buckwheat and Maize but Serradella too. Under P deficiency the withdrawals of Phosphorus for Buckwheat, Maize and Oil radish were found to be the highest. In contrast to the sandy soils for the loamy soils no significant relation between the P uptake by plants and changes in the P-DL amount in soil could be found. For all variants the P uptake by plants were higher than the reduction of the P-DL amount in soil. The rate of P-DL content on the total P content in soil reduced while the two trial years only in sandy but not in loamy soils. The P uptake, the root length and the root/shoot relationship depends significantly on the cultivated crop and the added P compound. The added water soluble KH2PO4 caused a higher P uptake but a lower root/shoot-relationship than the water insoluble P compounds.

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New color variations highlight Park sage (Salvia nemorosa L.) and characterization
Published May 16, 2012
41-44

The negative effects of climate change on ornamental plants are also becoming more serious harm. In the current planting display appearing ornamental species and vareities needed in addition to the domestic well-changeable climate-tolerant plantspecies is involved. A natural populations of Sage Park is still unknown to us color- and shape varia...tions are hidden. Plants of the natural vegetation collected from these clones formed three major evaluation of the color version with a temporary color variations have appeared. The axial length of inflorescens, color and brevity of the flowers were also significant differences. The botanists have not been tested by the sepal and bract from top to bottom and may vary. In 2011, the shoots are planted in field breading methods to perform an additional option.

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Nutritional disorders of arable crop growth in eastern Croatia
Published September 5, 2018
273-290

Nutritional imbalances accompanied with growth retardation of crops at early growth stage were found since the last 40 years on certain arable lands in eastern Croatia. In this regard, phosphorus (P) deficiencies in maize and wheat were found mainly on acid soils of the western part of the region, potassium (K) deficiencies in maize, soybean on... the hydromorphic neutral to alkaline calcaric drained gleysols of Sava valley lowland, while zinc (Zn) deficiencies were observed mainly in seed-maize and soybean on neutral calcaric eutric cambisols of the eastern part of the region. Cold and moist spring is factor promoting P deficiency symptoms. As oasis of normal crops existed on same arable land, comparison of plant and soil composition was possible from typical sites. P nutrition disorders were in connection with the lower P and the higher aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations in the top of plants and the lower soil pH values. K-deficiency as result of strong K fixation and imbalances with high levels of magnesium (Mg) were the main responsible factors of low maize and soybean yields on some drained gleysols. Chlorosis incidences typical for Zn deficiency in maize and soybean were in close connection with the higher soil pH, the lower quantities of mobile Zn, here and there the higher mobile P in soil, the lower concentrations of Zn and the higher levels of Al and Fe in plants. Overcoming the above mentioned disorders and normalization of yields were achieved using ameliorative fertilization either by K or P fertilizers and in case of Zn by foliar spraying of crops with 0.75% ZnSO4 solution. Also, alleviations are possible by selection of more tolerant genotypes of field crops to specific types of nutritional disorders. From this aspect, some practical solutions were recommended for maize with reference to K nutritional problems.

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Application of GIS, precision agriculture and unplugging cultivation in plant breeding of Karcag
Published December 15, 2019
49-56

In the last two decades, the prevailing ecological conditions and climate change have caused negative effects. Therefore, a paradigm shift is needed in the field growing of plants. The latest inventions, digital technologies, precision cultivation are not enough, the mentality of the farmers is more important. For this reason, not only big fina...ncial sacrifices, but adequate receptivity are needed on behalf of farmers. Adequate skills and continuous self-education are necessary. The yield of plant growing farms is determined by ecological conditions to a 40% extent, genetic background of the seed has a 30% share and the applied agricultural technology has a proportion of 30%. In different agroecological conditions, bred varieties of plants have bigger tolerance to unfavorable factors of the regions and significant yield stability. Farmers, who buy and sow seeds, can only contribute to the genetic potential of the seeds with cultivation technology. Plant breeding provides stable genetic background and good quality seeds. Breeding activity – choosing variety proposants, breeding them, selection work, classical breeding process for 8-10 years – must create new landraces, which can produce balance, high yield and have good quality parameters in extreme ecological conditions, yearly excursion and have higher tolerance to unfavorable factors of the region giving significant production stability for farmers. In Karcag GIS technology, precision cultivation elements and soil-friendly agrotechnical methods have been introduced which largely support the aims of breeding and can also provide optimal cultivation conditions in extreme years. Because of the specificity of breeding the main aim is not only to increase yield but to provide harmonic growing for bred materials, to decrease the number and the cost of cultivation and to be punctual. In this study, applied new methods and technologies are introduced.

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Effect of molybdenum treatment on uptake of plant and soil molybdenum content in a field experiment
Published November 2, 2009
117-122

Molybdenum is not a well-known microelement, but being a constituent of several important cellular enzymes it is an essential microelement. Molybdenum occurs in all foods, but at very low levels. There does not appear to be any particular foods or types of foods, which in the absence of extrinsic factors, naturally have high levels of molybdenu...m. However, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high level of the metal in plants.
Our study is based on the long-term field experiments of Nagyhörcsök, where different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected from the experiment station to study the behaviour of molybdenum: total concentration, available  concentration, leaching, transformation, uptake by and transport within the plants, accumulation in different organs, phytotoxicity and effects on the quantity and quality of the crop. In this work we present the results of maize and peas and the soil samples related to them.
According to our data molybdenum is leaching from the topsoil at a medium rate and it appears in the deeper layers. In the case of plant samples we found that molybdenum level in the straw is many times higher than that is in the grain, so molybdenum accumulates in the vegetative organs of the plant. The data also show differences in the molybdenum-uptake of cereals and Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Change of mineral and organic nitrogen forms in a long term fertilization experiment (literature)
Published March 11, 2014
43-47

The research topic has timeliness, since the rational utilization and protection of the soil, besides the conservation of its diverse functions is part of the sustainable development. Research of the long-term experiments is esentially important, because it can model the term effects in the same place, under the same conditions. If we want to g...et accurate informations about the occured changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and effect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest. Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms, it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only only a low percentage of the total nitrogent content can be used directly by plants in the soil. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it get into the soil by the fertilization. The plants incorporote the mineral nitrogen into our bodies. This is how nitrogen turnover is realized when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.

The purpose of our paper is to make a literature before our research.

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Changes in the herbicide tolerance of maize genotypes in wet and dry years
Published October 30, 2011
124-127

The tolerance of 15 inbred maize lines grown on chernozem soil with forest residues in Martonvásár was tested against herbicides applied post-emergence in two dry, warm years (2003 and 2011) and in two cool, wet years (2004 and 2010). The herbicides mesotrione + terbutylazine, nicosulfuron and dicamba were applied to maize inbred lines in the... 7–8-leaf stage at the maximum dose authorised for practical use and at double this rate. The plants were scored for the intensity of visible phytotoxic symptoms 14 days after treatment.
The level of phytotoxicity observed in dry, warm years was 5.14%, averaged over the lines, herbicides and rates. The intensity of visible symptoms was almost 2.5 times as great in cool, wet years (12.76 %).
Averaged over the four years, the lines and the rates, the least damage was caused by dicamba (5.77 %), followed by mesotrione + terbutylazine (7.23 %). The most severe symptoms were induced by nicosulfuron (16.17 %). This could be attributed to the fact that some of the inbred lines were extremely sensitive to herbicides, especially those of the sulfonylurea type.
A difference of more than 1.5 times was observed between the two doses, but the correlation between the concentration and the severity of the visual symptoms was not strictly linear. Compared to the normal dose (100 %) the double rate resulted in a 162.5% increase in symptom severity. In most cases plants treated with the normal dose were symptom-free or only exhibited a low level of phytotoxicity.

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Change of soil nitrogen content in a long term fertilization experiment
Published March 5, 2015
39-44

The most important aim of sustainable agriculture is to ensure our natural resources – such as soils – protection, which includes fertility preservation and the use of appropriate methods of cultivation.

If we want to get accurate information about the occurred changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and eff...ect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest.

Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms and it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only a low percentage of the total nitrogen content can be used directly by plants in the soil. The mineral nitrogen is incorporate by plants into our bodies. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it gets into the soil by fertilization. This is how nitrogen turnover occurs when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.

The objective of this publication was to introduce – through some element s of nitrogen turnover- how changing the properties of soil in a long term fertilization experiment.

We established that the fertilization is influenced the soil pH. With the increase of fertilization levels increased the acidity of the soil, maybe it is related with the number of nitrification bacteria. The fertilization and the rotation affected to the quantity of nitrate.

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Variability examination of photosynthetic pigment content and specific leaf area in individual maize (Zea mays L.) plants
Published June 30, 2018
153-157

Currently, maize is one of the most important crops (Zea mays L.) both globally and in Hungary. We compared physiological parameters of a maize genotype – p9903 – at two different experimental sites in a field experiment. Furthermore, we examined these parameters’ variability in individual plants on the leaves with different ages. Absolut...e chlorophyll content of the leaves were analysed, separately that of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. We also measured the absolute carotenoid contents of leaves. Furthermore, we calculated these photosynthetic pigments’ content ratio. Specific leaf area (SLA) and dry matter weight were also measured in order to characterise plant production. The results obviously reflect the decreasing in the efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus on the low yield site. Otherwise, we identify significant differences only in certain cases of leaves.

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Using sensors in precision crop production
Published November 13, 2012
267-270

Proper plant nutrition that takes into consideration both the requirements of plants and ecological conditions is one of the most important precondition of successful plant production. An important element of the N-fertilization of wheat is that the optimum zone of nitrogen supply is significantly narrower than that of other plant species, ther...efore it can easily happen that we apply higher or lower nitrogen doses than the optimal one. A possible solution to this problem can be precision agriculture. Applying the methods of precision agriculture we can take into consideration the heterogeneity of fields. By applying precision methods either online or offline we can intervene faster than if we would rely only on regular soil and plant analysis procedures. The determination of the doses of nitrogen and the timing of application are influenced also environmental and
economic aspects. The chlorophyll content of the leaves indicates the nitrogen status of plants, since there is a relationship between the nitrogen content and the amount of chlorophyll in the leaves. According to plant analysis results there was a strong and significant relationship between the values of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)and the total nitrogen content measured in the leaves.

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Analysis of the situation of domestic game damage and forage ground management
Published March 20, 2014
5-8

Game damage is an important problem in home wildlife management, because game managers pay more and more money for game damage year by year. Crop fields can do an appreciable part in reduction of game damages. The aim of the research is to survey the situation of domestic game damage and wildlife forage ground management. (Which are the most us...ed plants on crop fields, how current are the using of seed mixtures, which are the most typical game damages, as well as which are the most applied game control methods?)

It can be stated that the number of plant species sown on crop fields is quite low. Mostly corn and alfalfa are raised, though besides those many other plants are suitable to grow on crop fields. Rising value of game damage and big proportion of the agricultural game damage are well traceable from the questionnaires, too.

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Examination of different fungicides against Macrophomina phaseolina in laboratory conditions
Published December 1, 2020
65-69

In Hungary, sunflower is the third most important arable crop, which has a lot of pathogenic fungi. One of these fungi is the Macrophomina phaseolina, which is a well-known fungus in all over the world, since this pathogen has more than 700 host plants. In Hungary, several host plants can be found as well. The M. phaseolina produces microsc...lerotia, which can survive in the soil and residues for almost 10 years. For now, there is no efficient treatment against this pathogen because of this fungus, since it is extremely resistant and cannot be destroyed easily. The only effective treatment against the fungus is genetic defence. In this study, three different fungicides were tested in vitro against the fungus. The Mirage (prochloraz) seemed to be the most effective fungicide as it completely arrested the hyphal growth. In contrast, the Amistar Xtra (azoxystrobin and ciprochonazol) has only a minor effect on the growth of M. phaseolina. Thirdly, the Retengo (pyrachlostrobin) arrested the hyhpal growth of the fungus with 71% at 100 ppm, in other words, the use of this fungicide seems promising. 

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Name Brands and Symbols Used Organic Products in the European Union and in Hungary
Published May 4, 2004
174-180

In 2002, the area which was monitored according to the requirements of organic farming numbered 103 thousand hectares in Hungary (this is some 1.7% of all cultivated land) and almost 1000 plants producing organic products were inspected. It is a realistic assumption, when considering these data, that within a short period time the area used for... organic farming will reach the optimal 600.000 hectares.
Contrary to overproduction in the EU – cereals, maize and other plants – organic products can be sold in unlimited quantities. Practice also indicates, that 90% of Hungarian certified organic products are sold in EU and Swiss markets.
Thus, it is important to label Hungarian products according to EU standards. This way standard quality products can be sold easier and by increasing their income, manufacturers can contribute to the improvement of the environment.

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Slight damage of the great green bush-cricket (Tettigonia viridissima) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in some Hungarian maize fields
Published June 2, 2015
65-70

Characteristic cricket damage was observed in two maize fields in northern Hungary, at Máriabesnyő, a district of Gödöllő. The damage level of the two fields did not differ significantly and continual monitoring of field1 showed also a stable infestation level. T. viridissima nymphs and a female were found and observed as feeding on maize ...plants. The crickets must have disappeared after 18.07. because no more fresh damage was observed after this date. The chewing’s number about on one and two % of the examined plants amounted one and six a plant and their size was between one and eight cm2. This infestation was quite little and might have caused apparently no yield loss. Compared this damage of T. viridissima with former Hungarian experience, this was the usual negligible damage despite the explicit draught in July and August 2015. As regards the global warming, orthopteran damage may be more obvious in the future.

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Impact of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the growth and micronutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published September 5, 2018
211-219

Micronutrients are as important as macronutrients for crops. Each micronutrient has its own function in plant growth. Zinc is important for membrane integrity and phytochrome activities. Copper is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of wheat. Manganese is required for enzyme activation, in electron transport, and in disease resis...tance. The pot experiment was set up in greenhouse on calcareous chernozem soil Debrecen-Látókép with a spring wheat. In certain development stages (according to BBCH growth scale of wheat), at the beginning of stem elongation (29–30), at the heading (51–59), at the flowering (61–69) stage three average plants were removed from all pots for analysis. Fresh and dry weight of the plant samples were measured. Plant leaves after drying were digested by HNO3-H2O2 methods and manganese, zinc and copper contents of plant were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At the flowering stage, when the nutrient uptake of plants is the most intensive, the weight of wheat ranged between 0.94–1.57 g plant-1. In this development stage, the NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of wheat, and compared to this the NS3 treatment decreased that value already. The results show unfavourable effect of NS3 treatment. On the basis of microelement content of wheat and the weight of a plant, nutrient uptake by plant were calculated. At the beginning of growth the starter treatment had positive effect on Cu-uptake compared to the NS1 treatment, where the same dose of fertilizer was stirred into the soil. Wheat is very sensitive to copper deficiency, so copper dissolved by starter treatment could be favourable to the early development of wheat. At flowering stage the Zn-uptake of wheat became the highest and it was between 133.7–234.6 mg plant-1. The Mn-uptake of wheat plant was higher than the Cu- and Zn-uptake of wheat.

This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the untreated soil had higher Mn-content, than Cu- and Zn-content. To summarize the results, it can be stated, that the copper uptake of wheat was more affected by the different treatments in the stage of stem elongation, while Mn- and Zn-uptake of wheat were influenced primarily in the stage of heading and flowering.

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Effect of mineral fertilizers with different sulphur content on the yield of winter wheat in a small plot experiment
Published November 2, 2009
97-100

We can find more and more references on the importance of sulphur and sulphur fertilization, mainly in the case of most important field crops, as cereals, maize, and the oilseeds. The traditional sulphur sources continuously lost their importance by the stringent air pollution orders and nowadays they are not able to meet the demands of plants.... Besides, the application of superphosphate, as phosphorus mineral fertilizer, decreased in several countries. Sulphur fertilization is required in most cases to reach the required yields and quality parameters. The lack of
sulphur causes decreased nitrogen utilization and yield by cereals as winter wheat, moreover, results less favourable baking parameters.
We have examined the N and S content of different parts of winter wheat plants in a small plot experiment at the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Látókép Experimental Station. We have also studied the effect of different sulphur fertilization forms and doses on the baking quality parameters and yield. Our aim was to contribute to the development of yield and quality improving sulphur fertilization methods, adaptable by practice.
We have measured the lowest yield in the case of one of the control plots, and 100 kg/ha nitrogen, 80 kg/ha potassium and 70 kg/ha phosphorus nutrient supply resulted the lowest yield (8.7 kg/plot). The maximum yield, 10.2 kg/plot was also experienced on superphosphate fertilized plot by the application of 140 kg/ha phosphorus dose. Application the first dose of both Biofert and FitoHorm 32 S leaf fertilizers raised the yield from
9.1 to 9.9 kg/plot. ANOVA proved that Biofert and FitoHorm 32 S had no significant effect on the amount of yield, the increase is only a tendency.

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The effect of increasing compost rates on the yield and nutrient content of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published December 16, 2012
127-134

Satisfaction of the increasing needs of humanity causes large environmental load. To provide a livable environment for future generations we have to satisfy our needs with the use of sustainable management. This is one of the biggest challenges of nowadays.
The amount of wastes emitted in increasing volume can be decreased by the recycling o...f them. The disposal of waste materials formed in the public spaces of cities and during the processing of agricultural row materials and by-products in landfills is inconceivable, so they must be recycled.
These materials mostly with organic compounds could be the primary substrates of composts. Completed with suitable additives, and applied appropriate treating technology, composts are capable to supply horticultural plants with nutrients. Composting wastes and byproducts not just decreases the amounts of deposited waste materials, but increases the nutrient (macro- and micronutrients) content of soils, so this is an  environmentally friendly and alternative way of nutrient management of plants.

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