Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important consuming cereal crop in the world after rice and wheat. This requires an understanding of various management practices as well as conditions that affect maize crop performance. Water deficit stress during crop production is one of the most serious threats to crop production in most parts of the world a...nd drought stress or water deficit is an inevitable and recurring feature of global agriculture and it is against this background that field study of crops response to water deficit is very important to crop producer and researchers to maximize yield and improve crop production in this era of unpredicted climatic changes the world over.
A pot experiment was carried out to determine the effects of water deficit on growth and yield formation of maize. Two maize cultivars were used Xundan20 and Zhongdan5485. Three levels of soil water content were used in two stages of water control levels at two stages of the maize plant development
1. The JOINTING STAGE: A. CONTROL (CK) soil water content: from 70% to 80% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 55% to 65% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 40% to 50% of the Soil water holding capacity at the field.
2. The BIG FLARE PERIOD: A. CONTROL (CK) soil water content: from 75% to 85% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 58% to 68% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 45% to 55% of the soil water holding capacity at the field.
This research mainly studied the effects of water deficit on physiological, morphology and the agronomical characteristics of the maize plant at the different water stress levels.
The importance of these results in this experiment will enable plant producers to focus and have a fair idea as to which stage of the maize plant’s development that much attention must be given to in terms of water supply.
In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched pea and wheat sprouts. During our research we aimed not only to measure the total selenium content of the sprouts but to identify different selenium species.
Scientifical researches show why the analytical examination of different selenium (Se) species is necessary: consumption of all... kind of Se-species is useful for a person who suffers in selenium deficit, while there is significant difference between effects of different Se-species on person, in whose body the Se-level is just satisfactory. Biological availability, capitalization, accumulation, toxicity of Se-species are different, but the main difference was manifested in the anti-cancer effect of selenium.
During our research selenium was used in form of sodium selenite and sodium selenate, the concentration of the solutions used for germination was 10 mg dm-3. Control treatment meant germination in distilled water. Total selenium content of sprout samples was measured after microwave digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different extraction solvents were applied during sample preparation in order to separate different Se-species (0.1 M and 0.2 M HCl or 10 mM citric acid buffer). We wanted the following question to be answered: Which extraction solvent resulted the best extraction efficiency? Selenium speciation analysis of sprout sample extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with anion exchange column, detection of selenium species was performed by ICP-MS.
Evaluating our experimental results we have been found that significant amount of selenium of inorganic forms used during germination transformed into organic selenium compounds. There was difference between the amount of Se-species in pea and wheat sprouts and selenium uptake and repartition of selenium species were depended on Se-form used during germination. In addition the chromatogram analysis made us clear as well, that the citric acid solvent proved to be the most effective extraction solvent during sample preparation int he view of organic Se species.
The development and implementation of precision agriculture or site-specific farming has been made possible by combining the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Site specific agronomic applications are of high importance concerning the efficiency of management in crop production as well as the protectio...n and maintenance of environment and nature. Precision crop production management techniques were applied at four locations to evaluate their impact on small plot units sown by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in a Hungarian national case study. The results obtained suggest the applicability of the site specific management techniques, however the crops studied responded in a different way concerning the impact of applications. Maize had a stronger response regarding grain yield and weed canopy. Wheat was responding better than maize concerning plant density and protein content performance.
The aim of the present study was to perform lifetime performance analysis in three pig breeds; Hungarian Large White (n=295), Duroc (n=76) and Pietrain (n=91) on a commercial farm using analysis of survival sows. We took into consideration the age of sows at the time of their inclusion into breeding, their age at the time of culling, time spent... in production, number of mating and parities, parity percentage, intervals between litters, number and mean of piglets born alive and born dead, number of raised piglet litters, number and mean of 21 days old piglets, the weight and mean of raised litter and raise percentage.
We carried out the analysis by SPSS 22.0. Single factor analysis of variants, Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox PH model were used. The determination of the significance of risk rates differences was done by Wald chi square test.
Our results showed that the average culling age were 1056 (±33.52) days for the Hungarian Large White, 735 (±73.56) days for Duroc and 818 (±71.98) days for the Pietrain.
The log rank test of the survival analysis indicated a significant difference between the three tested genotypes (χ2=16.981, P<0.001), which means that the survival percentage of the individual breeds varied significantly from one another. In comparison with the Hungarian Large White genotype the Duroc genotype has a 1.6 times higher (P<0.001) culling risk while that of the genotype Pietrain was 1.36 times higher (P<0.001).
Our results can be used to compare the breeds kept under the same conditions and to compare the life span of one genotype under different farming conditions. Factors that increase survival and improve the profitability of pig farming can be determined by this method.
Maize is the crop that is produced on the second largest area in our country, in Hungary. It is planted on nearly 25% of the country’s growing area and it was produced on 1 090 439 hectares in 2016. Despite the continuous development of the biological basis and production
technology, the growth of the yield results is not constant, its flu
The results of the extensive tests, done between 2009 and 2015, showed that the genotype, the year effect and the plant density are in strong correlation with each other determining the yield results. In the past seven years the examined genotypes reached the highest yield
performance at the highest plant densities. The early hybrids (RM90–95, FAO 200–300) are capable of producing them at higher plant density, while in case of the mid and late maturity varieties the further increasing of the density after reaching the optimum level led to yield depression.
According to our experimental results, the yield is in close positive correlation with the increase of the plant density. The effect of the growing season has great significance in forming the yield results and this determines the applicable plant density too.
The yield of maize is determined by a resultant of components. The main component is the number of ears per plant and the amount of kernels per ear, which is calculated from the number of kernels on an ear and the weight of them. The number of the kernels on an ear is
calculated from the number of rows on the cob multiplied by the number of seeds in one row on the cob. In dry years, at lower yield levels the yield decreases because of the shorter ears, while at the higher levels the number of kernels in a row and the thousand-kernel weight decreases,causing yield depression this way. From our examinations it turned out that the plant density reaction of a genotype is individual, every variety reaches its maximum kernel number per hectare – in other words the maximum yield - in an individual way.
The skill of dealing with people was given a special importance by the persons interviewed during my examination by means of questionnaires although most of the specialist works I
consulted did not pay too much attention to this fact. When asked about the particular fields of further studies, only a small proportion of the respondents regard
personality important. I think to dissolve this paradox is necessary as without the development of personality it is impossible to improve interpersonal skills, that is one of the basic pillars of good performance at work. Regarding that it is the graduates who fill managerial posts, dealing with people belongs to one of their tasks.
Among the respondents if the first degree were from a college and not from a university, the greatest proportion of those studying further would live in Heves and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén counties. However, this connection cannot be proved in Budapest. Individual motivation is the main drive of studying further after obtaining a degree in a greater and greater proportion.
The graduates’ studying further is significantly directed to acquiring extra knowledge rather than a totally new profession and they get a deeper insight into the knowledge necessary for
their profession driven by their own motivation.
Energy balance is the net result of the energy intake (nutrition) and expenditure (basic metabolic rate). The purpose of the daily feed intake is to provide energy and nutrients for maintenance, production and fill and maintain energy storages in form of glycogen and fat. Animals can adjust their feed intake to ensure their energy demand. Food...intake regulation in animals and human is a very complex process, in which the digestive system, the central nervous system, the joining hormonal and non-hormonal factors, and the integrating hypothalamus take part. This review primarily focuses on the action mechanism of some important appetite regulating neuropeptides, and their impacts on the performance traits of the economically significant animal species.