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The phosphate state and biochemical mobilization of phosphorus compounds in arboreal plants’ soils
Published November 3, 2010
95-98

Some indices of the phosphoric fractions of primery degraded soils, which are formed separate areas of technogenic landscapes, on a spoil-bank of iron-ore mine in the near of Kryvyi Rig, under act of lignosa, which are used for biological recultivation of degraded soils are investigated. Maintenance of mineral phosphates and features of organic... phosphorus accumulation are set in soil under arboreal planting. Nutrient supply of plants is enhanced by mobile phosphates and their dynamics during vegetation period. Activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase enzymes are concerned also. On the basis of the soil enzymes activity information it is stated, that under the 35-years-old plantage of Robinia pseudoacacia L. the biochemical mineralization of organic phosphorus compounds passes considerably more actively than under Pinus pallasiana D.Don.

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Effect of agrotechnical factors on the activity of urease enzyme in a long term fertlization experiment
Published February 18, 2016
43-48

The soil is a natural resource, the fertility preservation is an important part of the sustainable development. We have to monitor the transformation dinamics of the organic nitrogen-containing substances, to get accurate information about the changes of the nitrogen cycle in the soil.

Physical and chemical properties of the soil and th...e microorganism effect on the organic matter in the soil – in addition to the composition of organic matter. Wide variety of extracellular enzymes are present in this decomposition. These enzymes help in the transformation of the macromolecules to transforming low molecular weight compounds so they will be available during the assimilation.

The urease enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to CO2 and NH3. The urease is widely spread in the nature, it is present in the microorganisms, plants and animals.

We found that the soil moisture content, the rotation and the fertilization affect to the amount of urease in spring. Furthermore, we get significant difference between the irrigated and non irrigated samples in the second period of the year. Based on our results we can state that the activity of urease was higher in spring 2014.

The objective of our study was to present how the different agronomic factors affect on the activity of urease in a long term fertilizationexperiment.

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Effect of crop residues on soil aggregate stability
Published October 10, 2008
23-32

Soil structure may be improved by adding readily decomposable organic matter. The extent of amelioration depends on the chemical build-up and decomposability of the crop residues. Three different kinds of organic matters were investigated: (1) maize stem, (2) wheat straw, and (3) maize stem
& wheat straw. Comparing the aggregate stabiliz...ing effects of the differently decomposable organic matters to each other, the expected maize stem & wheat straw (mw) > maize stem (m) > wheat straw (w) order was proved.

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Study of factors controlling the amount of 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable Norg fraction
Published September 5, 2018
437-449
The use of new methods describing the “readily available” nutrient content of the soil is spreading on a global scale. The 0.01 M CaCl2 extractant is a dilute salt solution in which the easily soluble inorganic (nitrate-N and ammonium-N) and organic N fractions, P, K and micronutrients are also measurable. The 0.01 M CaCl2 has been tested... in the University of Debrecen, Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Sciences since the 90’s. The results of the researches related to organic N fraction, performed in the last decades, and the results of the present study (originating from the long-term experiment of Karcag, 2007–2009) can be concluded as follows:
The measurement of easily soluble and oxidizable organic nitrogen (Norg), besides inorganic fractions, could improve the nutrient management.
The amount of the Norg fraction is determined by the soil conditions, therefore it is considered to be a site-specific parameter.
Management practices and cropyear affect the amount of Norg as well. The present research confirmed that, the effect of fertilization on the amount of Norg can be explained by the changing of the yield (related to total biomass production), while the effect of cropyear is related to the differences in mineralization circumstances and yield as well.
The measurement of the Norg fraction is increases the accuracy of N-supply, therefore it could prevent the environmentally harmful excess N application as well.
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Analysis of aerobic biological waste treatment methods especially in the case of composting
Published September 18, 2014
33-37

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used in agriculture. The characteristics of the organic wastes in most cases make the direct utilization impossible, they need pre-treatment before use. One treatment solution of these wastes is composting. During composting the organic wastes lose their hazardous characteristics and we gain a final product, the compost, which can be used in agriculture as organic fertilizer. The main conditions of effective composting are the follow and understand of the degradation process. During our research we examined different measuring methods (gas concentration and reflectance measurements, temperature mapping) that makes a cost and time effective possibility to directly analyze the degradation.

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Experiments on the Nutrient Removal and Retention of an Integrated Pond System
Published December 6, 2005
18-23

A combined intensive-extensive fishpond system developed for the purification and re-use of intensive fishpond effluent water was studied during a three-year experimental period. The investigated pond system consists of five small-size intensive culture ponds of 1 ha total water surface area with 1.5 m water depth and a 20 ha extensive culture ...pond with 1.0 m average water depth. The water was recirculated between the intensive and extensive ponds with around 60 days retention time in the extensive treatment pond.
Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus budget and water purifying capacity were described and evaluated by means of regular measurements of nutrient concentrations in the water and sediment. During the three-year test period, 81.5% of organic carbon, 54.7% of nitrogen and 72.2% of phosphorus were retained by the system as a percentage of the total input of each nutrient. A significant amount of the total nitrogen input was removed by the harvested fish, which was much higher than in traditional fishponds or intensive fish culture systems. The efficiency of nutrient removal is clearly indicated by the 27.3% nitrogen assimilation.
Only a small percentage of the total nutrient input was discharged into the environment during fish harvest, which was 9.0% for organic carbon, 13.2% for nitrogen and 12.1% for phosphorus. The combination of intensive and extensive fishponds with water recirculation resulted in significant reduction of nutrient discharge into the surrounding aquatic environment, primarily due to the high nutrient processing and retention capacity of the extensive fishpond ecosystem.

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Survey of the environmental impacts of pond fish farming
Published May 23, 2006
19-24

The aim of this study was to survey the nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter loads and the discharge of fishponds. The inputs and outputs of nutrient amounts of fishponds and their sources are described. The impact of a fishpond on the nutrient loads of receiver waters was determined. The investigations of this study were to determine and ev...aluate the nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter budget of fishponds representing different technologies and areas.

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Utilization and examination of red, elemental selenium nano spheres, produced by fermentation technology, in animal tests
Published November 13, 2012
245-247

In our experiments we tested the toxicity of Nano-Se and LactoMicroSel® compared with other organic and inorganic selenium forms, in case of a subakut animal test. We produced the Nano-Se and LactoMicroSel® by probiotic lactic acid bacteria in our laboratory. (Prokisch et al., 2010; Eszenyi et al., 2011). We mixed the inorganic selenium forms..., selenite and selenate, the organic form, Sel-Plex® and our products, Nano-Se and LactoMicroSel® into the standard food of laboratory mice and we fed them for two consecutive weeks. After the extermination we observed mortality, the change of body mass,and measured the blood antioxidant capacity with FRAP method.

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New challenges in soil management
Published September 5, 2018
91-92
Soil management represents two important tasks that are harmonization of the soil protection with demands of the crop to be grown on the given land under prevailing farming condition. Further goals are to preserve and/or develop the soil physical, biological and chemical condition and to avoid the unfavourable changes of the soil biological a...ctivity and the soil structure. Classical authors emphasised the importance of creating proper seedbed for plants. In the physical approach, tillage was believed to play an important role in controlling soil processes. Consequently, the period of several centuries dominated by this approach is referred to as the era of crop-oriented tillage (Birkás et al., 2017). The overestimation of the importance of crop requirements resulted in damaging the soils, which inevitably led to turn to the soil-focused tillage. Since the first years of climate change, as the new trends have raised concern, tillage must be turned into a climate-focused effort with the aim of reducing climate-induced stresses through improving soil quality.
The development of soil management has always been determined by the economical background. At the same time, deteriorating site conditions have contributed to the conception of new tillage trends by forcing producers to find new solutions (e.g. dry farming theory in the past or adaptable tillage theory nowadays). Győrffy (2009) recited the most important keywords were listed in 2001 and that seemed to be important in the future of crop production. These keywords (endeavours) were as follows:
− Biofarming, organic farming, alternative farming, biodynamic farming, low input sustainable agriculture;
− Mid-tech farming, sustainable agriculture, soil conservation farming, no till farming, environmentally sound, environmentally friendly, diversity farming;
− Crop production system, integrated pest management, integrated farming, high-tech farming;
− Site specific production, site-specific technology, spatial variable technology, satellite farming;
− Precision farming.
Győrffy’s prognosis proved to be realistic and the efforts mentioned above have mostly been implemented. New challenges have also appeared in soil management in relation to the last decades. The most important endeavours for the future are:
1) Preserving climate-induced stresses endangering soils.
2) Turn to use climate mitigation soil tillage and crop production systems.
3) Applying soil management methods are adaptable to the different soil moisture content (over dried or wet may be quite common).
4) Use effectual water conservation tillage.
5) Use soil condition specific tillage depth and method.
6) Adapting the water and soil conservation methods in irrigation.
7) Preserving and improving soil organic matter content by tillage and crop production systems.
8) Considering that stubble residues are matter for soil protection, humus source and earthworm’ feed.
9) Site-specific adoption of green manure and cover crops.
10) Applying site-adopted (precision) fertilization and crop protection. Considering the development in agriculture, new endeavours will occur before long.
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Rye plant parameters in the Westsik crop rotation experiment
Published April 27, 2020
39-45

Our research work was carried out in the Westsik crop rotation field experiment in 2018. The main research purpose was to analyse the effect of the different organic and chemical fertilizers on parameters of rye. Our results revealed some differences between the different fertilization methods. One spike weight, grain weight of one spike, r...ye plant height, rye plant weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight in crop rotations VII, XV and VIII were different from the data of all crop rotations. This finding can be explained by the fact that crop rotations VII and XV were non-fertilized, only 23.3 t ha-1 straw manure (VII) or green lupine manure was applied as a second crop (XV). In addition, crop rotation VIII consists of four parts where we apply chemical fertilization with green lupine manure as a main and second crop. There is a positive close correlation between rye plant height and other studied characters (rye plant weight per m2, spike length, weight of one spike, grain weight per spike, spike weight per m2, grain weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight).

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Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils
Published May 11, 2003
85-89

The soil constitutes the basis of the food chain. To keep soil conditions in a good trim is very important, it’s part of the sustainable development and of producing food supply harmless to health.
In some cases, soil productivity is the only important part, qualitative requirements or economical characteristics can improve it. The soil is... threatened by two danger factors: the soil degradation and the soil pollution. The accumulation of different harmful and/or toxic substances in the soil is well known. Heavy metals constitute a part of it. Metals in the soil and in the soil-solution are balanced. This balance depends on the type of the metal, on the pH, on the cation-band capacity of the soil, on the redox relations and the concentration of cations in the soil.
To be able to handle the metal contamination of the soil, it is important to estimate the form, the possible extension and the concentration of metals.
Of course, the different types of soils have different physical-chemical, biological and buffer capacity, they can moderate or reinforce the harmful effects of heavy metals. To draw general conclusion of the dispersion and quantitative relations on the metals originated from different contamination sources is hard, because in some emissive sources contamination is limited in small areas but on a high level, some others usually expand on larger areas, and as a result of equal dispersion, the contamination’s level is lower.
Heavy metals – unlike alkali ions – strongly bond to organic materials, or infiltrate in a kelát form. Their outstanding characteristic is the tendency to create metal-complex forms. Kelats take part in the uptaking and transportation of heavy metals. Heavy metals exert their effects mostly as enzyme-activators.
The metals cannot degrade in an organic way, they accumulate in living organisms, and they can form toxic compounds through biochemical reactions.
Lot of the heavy metals accumulate on the boundaries of the abiotic systems (air/soil, water/sediment), when physical or chemical parameters change, and this influences their remobilization.
Human activity plays a great part in heavy metal mobilization, results in the human origin of most biochemical process of metals.
To understand the toxic influence of accumulated metals of high concentration, their transportation from soils to plants or their damage in human health, must clearly defined and investigated.
For effective protection against soil pollution, the types and levels of harmful pollution to soil must identified, regarding legal, technical and soil-science aspects, preferable in a single way. Difficulties in this area mean that toxicity depends on loading, uptake, soil characteristics and living organisms (species, age, condition etc.), furthermore, local and economic conditions considerably differ.

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The possibilities and limitations of organic fruit production
Published December 15, 2010
41-45

In this review, direct and indirect technological elements of organic production are discussed. Today, there is a growing interest in production prepared without chemicals. We discuss the following issues: site selection, soil, rootstock and cultivar requirements, plant material, planting distances, crown formation, phytotechical operation, irr...igation, soil tillage, soil covering and muchning, nutrition supply. Separate section deals with methods of plant protection.

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Selenium speciation analysis of selenium-enriched food sprouts
Published March 11, 2014
23-28

In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched pea and wheat sprouts. During our research we aimed not only to measure the total selenium content of the sprouts but to identify different selenium species.

Scientifical researches show why the analytical examination of different selenium (Se) species is necessary: consumption of all... kind of Se-species is useful for a person who suffers in selenium deficit, while there is significant difference between effects of different Se-species on person, in whose body the Se-level is just satisfactory. Biological availability, capitalization, accumulation, toxicity of Se-species are different, but the main difference was manifested in the anti-cancer effect of selenium.

During our research selenium was used in form of sodium selenite and sodium selenate, the concentration of the solutions used for germination was 10 mg dm-3. Control treatment meant germination in distilled water. Total selenium content of sprout samples was measured after microwave digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different extraction solvents were applied during sample preparation in order to separate different Se-species (0.1 M and 0.2 M HCl or 10 mM citric acid buffer). We wanted the following question to be answered: Which extraction solvent resulted the best extraction efficiency? Selenium speciation analysis of sprout sample extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with anion exchange column, detection of selenium species was performed by ICP-MS.

Evaluating our experimental results we have been found that significant amount of selenium of inorganic forms used during germination transformed into organic selenium compounds. There was difference between the amount of Se-species in pea and wheat sprouts and selenium uptake and repartition of selenium species were depended on Se-form used during germination. In addition the chromatogram analysis made us clear as well, that the citric acid solvent proved to be the most effective extraction solvent during sample preparation int he view of organic Se species.

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From Organic to Precision Farming (Contemporary Publication)
Published December 10, 2002
81-86

The paper presents a short review of the different types of farming systems:
Biofarming, Organic farming, Alternatíve farming, Biodynamic farming, Low input sustainable agriculture (LISA)
Mid-tech farming, Sustainable agriculture, Soil conservation farming, No till farming, Environmentally sound, Environmentally friendly, Diversity farmi...ng
Crop production system, Integrated pest management (IPM), Integrated farming, High-tech farming
Site specific production (SSP), Site specific technology (SST), Spatial variable technology, Satellite farming.
Precision farming
It concludes that the various systems are applicable in different ratios and combinations depending on the natural and economic conditions.
The author predicts an increase in precision technologies , the first step being the construction of yield maps compared with soil maps and their agronomic analysis. Based on this information, it will be necessary to elaborate the variable technology within the field, especially for plant density, fertilization and weed control.
The changes in weed flora during the past fifty years based on 10.000 samples within the same fields using the weed cover method are presented.

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Examination and statistical evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of windrow composting
Published May 20, 2020
33-38

 

The treatment and utilization of plant and animal waste and by-products from agriculture is very diverse. Traditional environmental management practices for waste management have been retained through soil conservation and the applied of recycle degradable organic substances in soil. The management o...f by-products from agriculture (animal husbandry) is important because a closed loop can be created to utilize by-products (manure, feathers) from the production of the main product (eggs, meat, milk) and to form a raw material for a new product. It is important to treat the resulting by-products, especially deep-litter manure, as it has served as a basis for compost-treated manure to develop an organic-based, soil-conditioning product line. Poultry manure by itself is not suitable as a substrate for aerobic decomposition, so it has to be mixed with other substances (zeolite, bentonite, soil), because of its high nutrient capacity, it is an acidifying substance.

The aim of this study was to compost the mixture of poultry manure and hen manure by the addition of zeolite and to monitor the composting process. It was also our aim to statistically determine the effect of the zeolite on parameters describing the composting process.

The windrow composting experiments were set up in the composting area of the University of Debrecen, Institute of Water and Environmental Management. The composting experiment was 62 days long, during which the main parameters describing the composting process were continuously monitored: temperature (°C), moisture content (w/w%), electrical conductivity (mS/cm), organic matter content (w/w%), examination of nitrogen forms (w/w%). In this study, three factors were investigated: temperature, humidity, and pH. For statistical evaluation, R software and RStudio user interface were used. We developed a repeated measurement model, in which the fixed and random effects were determined for our parameters under study, and the resulting relationships were shown on interaction plots.

Based on our results, the temperature of the prisms has become independent of the ambient temperature and the composting stages can be separated in both the control and the zeolite treated prisms. In the repeated measurement model, we proved that treatment, time and treatment: time interaction were significant at both temperature and pH.

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The effect of compost made of sheep manure on the first cut of a semi-natural grassland
Published December 28, 2018
25-29

In an experiment, two types of compost were tested on natural grassland in order to improve the productivity of a natural sward on solonetz soil. Both composts were made of on-farm produced sheep manure, but the second one was enriched in phosphorus. These fertilizers/composts are officially authorized and can be applied in organic farming. Zer...o application and three rates of fertilizer were tested (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1, 30 t ha-1) on 30 m2 experimental plots wit four replications. Dry matter, crude protein and net energy content for maintenance were measured and determined and their yields per unit area were calculated. We found that all the treated plots produced significantly higher yield than the control ones, and in some cases the yields were almost three times higher. However, the optimal compost dose varied, depending on the examined parameter. Based on the evaluation of the experiment results along with rainfall data, it was concluded that, with higher precipitation, the positive effect of the compost application was bigger. The difference between the natural and enriched compost is remarkable, but it has to be mentioned that even the natural compost showed good results; therefore, it is also effective in improving the fertility of grassland.

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Examination of CO2 emission of different stubbles on a chernozem soil
Published November 3, 2010
53-59

Applying alternative soil cultivation methods based on reduced disturbance of the soil more favourable conditions can be created in order to increase the organic matter content of the soil and the availability of the nutrients for the crops. In complex soil tillage experiment – in 1997 was set on – at Karcag, as the element of the investiga...tion of soil reduced and conventional tillage systems. There is close correlation between the degree and intensity of CO2-emission from the soil and the structural state and organic matter content of the soil. In order to quantify the increased CO2-emission from soil due to soil preserving cultivation systems, in situ CO2-emission of soil was measured by means of an ANAGAS 98 infrared gas analyser. The soil type of the investigated plot is meadow chernozem solonetz in the deeper layers, a soil type that is characteristic
for the Trans-Tisza Region of Hungary. In this paper the results gained from the measurement on different stubbles are published, as we consider stubbles the most suitable state when the effects of different soil cultivation systems on the microbiological activity of the soil can be compared. Experimental data provided information about the length of the time period when CO2 emission increasing effects of soil cultivation are observable. Studying the effect of different soil cultivation methods on the CO2 emission from chernozem soil is indisputably actual and needs more efforts as it can contribute to develop a more environmental friendly agricultural production. The main goal of these measurements was to determine the effect of soil cultivation technologies and certain agrotechnical elements on the factors of the soil carbon cycle.

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The effect of compost application on physical properties of sandy soil
Published February 10, 2013
67-70

The sewage sludge compost is suitable to improve the colloid-poor sandy soils, which are common characteristics of poor water- and nutrientholding capacity. The general characteristics of sandy soils are the light mechanical composition, the low content of humus and mineral colloids, large pore size and a bad aggregate stability. They have a po...or nutrient supply capacity, due to its high porosity the organic matter is degraded very quickly to mineral colloids (Stefanovits et al., 1999).

By the compost application the soil is enriched mineral and organic colloids, thereby improving the soil structure. The effect of addition of compost to soil the water- and nutrient-holding capacity and porosity could be increased and the bulk density could be decreased (Martens and Frankenberger, 1992).

The aim of our experiment is to carry out physical measurements to determine the effects of compost treatment. In this study the results of the first year are presented.

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Composition and role of hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) communities in an organic apple orchard
Published November 2, 2009
57-61

The use of hoverfly (Syrphidae) larvae in biological control is gaining more attention where the damage by their prey, aphids is  significant, especially in agricultural fields and orchards, where they lower the number of aphids. The present study focuses on one hand on faunistics, on the other hand on testing the different available colle...cting methods for later research. Collecting in an organic apple orchard near Debrecen yielded 525 specimens of Syrphidae mostly by netting but also with white tray traps. Collected species are differentiated according to their feeding (94.1% aphidophagous). The three species found in greatest numbers are Sphaerophoria scripta (Linnaeus, 1758), Melanostoma mellinum (Linnaeus, 1758) and Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776). The available information on their biology is reviewed and their potential value of hoverflies in biological control is discussed.

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Tulip bulbs preparation by heat treatment for forced culture in green house
Published October 5, 2010
70-72

Tulip can be grown in parks as ornamental plant and cut flowers, or possibly in protected areas for cut flowers during winter and early
spring.
An important condition for the successful cultivation of tulips is the quality of the bulbs that are going to be planted and their
biological preparation.
Under the quality aspect bulbs have... to be uniform and large, preferably with circumference greater than 11 cm and must have good
phytosanitarical status.
Preparation of organic bulbs for ensuring the continuation of the differentiation process of germs (floral), is made during the storage.
It is known that the preparation of organic bulbs are made in interaction with environmental factors, among which temperature plays an
important role. At the beginning and throughout the process of biological preparation, temperature is maintained at a higher level then the
temperature must be low until planting.
The temperature level and the duration of treatment varies by followed objective respectively early or late flowering and staggered
flowers production over a longer period of time.

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The study of headspace sampling for the measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds byGC-MS
Published May 23, 2006
35-38

Headspace sampling was studied for GC-MS measurements. A quick, direct method was developed for the measurement of petrol, gasoline and volatile organic solvent contamination of soil. According to our results this method is suitable for quick qualitative analysis of VOC contamination of soil, and helps to make decisions about further measuremen...ts. We concluded that an accurate quantitative measurement is not possible.

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Comparative Study on Different Water Bodies and their Sediments
Published December 22, 2010
17-21

Hungary is rich in natural water resources, therefore investigation of these biotopes is an important task. The Szarvas- Kákafok deadarm is the largest horse-shoe lake of the Tiszántúl, its lenght is 28 km. It has an important role in recreation and agricultural utilization. The quality of the deadarm is influenced by the river Körös, but ...also by communal and agricultural pollution. Our goals were to estimate the intensity of the
sedimentation processes, and the water- and the sediment quality as well. Also, we examined an artificial wetland system, constructed by the Fish Culture and Irrigation Research Institute, Szarvas.
The calculated sedimentation was 0.4-0.5 cm year-1, which indicated an intensive eutrophication process. The constructed wetland system was able to decrease the organic load of the intensive fish culture company. On the basis of our TOC measurements, the organic matter content of the effluent water remained whitin the water quality limits.
The changes of the material cycling could be more intense in the water body, then in the sediment. The oxido-reduction potential of the sediment could indicate the ecological state of the shallow lakes, therefore it could be an easily measurable indicator in the water classification.

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Evaluation some important microbiological parameters of the carbon cycle in chernozem soils profiles
Published October 24, 2016
33-39

Some chemical and microbiological properties of the carbon cycle were investigated in three chernozem soil profiles. The soil profiles originated from a long term fertilization experiment (potato) of the University of Debrecen, Látókép, Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden (grassland) and a large-scale farm (sunflower) of Ukraine. The results of the or...ganic C-content, total number of bacteria, microscopical fungi, cellulose decomposing bacteria, CO2-production, microbial biomass carbon and saccharase and dehydrogenase activities were compared and evaluated with the help of correlation analyses. Close correlation was found between the organic carbon content and the number of microscopical fungi,, saccharase and dehydrogenase enzymes’ activities, as well as close correlation was found between the dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass-C and saccharase activity.

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Agricultural aspects in river basin management plans
Published November 13, 2012
149-152

In the European Region agriculture is the second largest water user after power industry cooling water use. As part of the implementation of Water Framework Directive EU Member States prepared their river basin management plans by the end of 2009 or first half of 2010, In these plans impacts of agriculture on water bodies have received attentio...n. The detailed information elaborated in the plans by countries and river basin districts were uploaded into the WFD section of the WISE system. This database provides opportunity for multi-criteria analysis for different water types. The paper discusses the effects of agriculture on hydromorphological pressures and impacts affecting surface water bodies. It was pointed out that among the pressures affecting European surface water bodies the hydromorphological and diffuse pressures represent the highest ratios (Figure 1). Within the hydromorphological pressures affecting classified surface water bodies the ratio of pressures related to agricultural activities is low,
it does not exceed 1% at European level. In case of Hungary the agriculture related river management pressures effect about 80% of the surface water bodies, which is much higher than the corresponding European average. The agricultural water abstractions affect about 10% of the Hungarian surface water bodies (Figures 2 and 3). The river and lake water bodies are impacted in significant ratio by nutrient enrichments and organic material enrichments, while in case of river water bodies the impact of organic material enrichments is also significant (Figures 4 and 5).

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Yield and sward composition responses of a native grassland to compost application
Published August 29, 2017
35-38

A major part of the animal products are based on the grasslands, due to the fact that the grassland ecosystems can be found all over the globe. In places where economical and successful crop production cannot be realized, the grassland based animal husbandry can be an efficient way of food production. In addition these ecosystems have an import...ant role in carbon sequestration, and with their rich flora – and the fauna connected to it – in conservation of biodiversity. The protection of nature, and the sustainable agriculture is getting more and more attention in the European Union, but looking at the consumers’ needs, the production of healthy food cannot be neglected either. Because of these facts, the effects of two specific composts - which are officially authorized in organic farming, in Agri-environment Schemes and Natura 2000 programs – on grass yields and sward compositions were investigated in a field trial. The investigation took place in Hungary, on a natural grassland based on solonetz soil. The first type of compost was a natural one (N) without any additional material and the other one was enriched in phosphorus (E). Both was produced by the research institute, made of sheep manure. Three rates of compost (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1,30 t ha-1) were tested on 3 m×10 m experimental plots. Every treatments had four replications and both type of compost had four-four control plots too, this way 32 experimental plots were included in the investigations. The yield of the pasture was harvested two-times (in May and in September) and before cutting the plots measurements on botanical compositions were made. Samples for laboratory analysis were also taken. Dry matter yield and crude protein content was measured in laboratory and with the received data the yield per unit area was calculated. Based on the research results we can say that the application of compost in any dose inflicts higher dry material and crude protein yield. The changes were partly due to some positive changes in sward composition, because of the better nutrient conditions. The research results indicate, that use of organic compost can be an efficient way to increase grass yields in a sustainable way.

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