Composting of sewage sludges makes easier the utilization of sewage sludge in the agriculture and the composts in good quality could increase the nutrient content of soil. Due to the composting process, the sewage sludge composts with high organic matter content can be utilized in the same way as other composts or farmyard manure.
The yield potential of maize is very high. According to Tollenaar (1983), maize yield potential is as high as 25 t ha-1 (absolute dry yield) which is the highest among all cereals. In order to fully utilise this high yield potential, proper nutrient replenishment is of chief importance among all agrotechnical factors.
The aim... of research was to examine the effect of nitrogen fertiliser applied as basal and side dressing on maize yield.
The measurements were performed at the Látókép experiment site (47° 33’ N, 21° 26’ E, 111 m asl) of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen on mid-heavy calcareous chernozem soil with deep humus layer in an established experiment in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The trial design was split-split-plot with two replications.
Based on the experiment results, it can be established that the nutrient uptake of maize is greatly dependent on the amount of water store in the soil. From the aspect of the development of the maize plant and water supply, the most determinant factor was the distribution of precipitation over the growing season and not the amount precipitation. This is shown by the fact there was only 276 mm precipitation – which was favourably distributed – in 2012 to increase the availability of nutrients and the main average was the highest in this year (14.394 t ha-1).
Spring basal dressing helped maize development in all three years even on chernozem soil which is well supplied with nutrients. Although the effect of side dressing did not result in any yield increase, it could still contribute to mitigating the stress effects caused by environmental factors. Altogether, nutrient supply adapted to the various development stages of maize can favourably affect the success of maize production.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We have investigated the effect of the cropyear, the genotype, the nutrient supply and their interactions on the yield and the quality parameters of three different winter wheat genotypes in three different cropyears. The most disadvantageous influence on the yield averages was caused by the moist weather of 2010, when yield results fell behind the mean of the two other examined years and the nutrient optimum was around low doses. The optimal cropyear turned out to be the ordinary 2011, the best yield results were experienced during this cropyear. Although the drier periods in 2012 decreased the yield values, the varieties could realize high yield maximum values. Considering the yield results, Genius turned out to be the best variety. In respect of the quality traits, 2010 turned out to be the best cropyear in case of all the three varieties. Despite the dry weather of the spring of 2012, the precipitation fell during flowering and ripening phases had positive impact on the grain-filling processes and contributed to the development of better quality. As a consequence of the significantly lower amount of precipitation during the generative phenological phases, the worst quality parameters were realized by the varieties in 2011.
Models predicting the nutrient partitioning and animal performance have been developed for decades. Nowadays, growth models are used in practical animal nutrition, and they have particular importance in precision livestock farming. The aim of the present study was to introduce a broiler model and to provide examples on model application. The mo...del predicts protein and fat deposition as well as the body weight of an individual broiler chicken from digestible nutrient intake over time. Feed intake (FI) and the digestible nutrient content of the feed are inputs as well as some animal factors like: initial BW, feed intake at 1 and 2 kg of BW, precocity and mean protein deposition. The protein and energy metabolism is represented as in the classical nutrient partitioning models. The protein deposition (PD) is driven by digestible amino acid supply and is under “genetic control”, the so-called potential PD limits the actual PD if protein is oversupplied.
The authors discuss how the model can be used to simulate the animal response upon different scenarios. Examples are given to show that the diet might be limiting if some animal trait is changed. Applicability of the model has shown through running the model by using different feed strategies (three- vs five-phase-feeding) and variations with animal factors. In conclusion, growth models are useful tools to support decision making for defining the most suitable feeds used in a broiler farm. The model presented in this paper shows a high sensibility and flexibility to test different scenarios. By challenging the model with different inputs, the animal response in terms of changes in body weight and feed conversion can be understood more by studying the shift in deposition of chemical constituents. The examples provided in the present paper shows the benefit of using mathematical models and their applicability in precision nutrition. It can be concluded that the growth model helps to apply “from desired feed to desired food” concept.
In a small-pot experiment a bacterium preparation, Bactofil® A10 and an artificial fertilizer containing Ca(NO3)2 in different dosages were studied on calcareous chernozem soil, concerning the readily available nutrient content of soil (nitrate-nitrogen, AL-phosphorus, ALpotassium content of soil, some soil microbial char...acteristics (total number of bacteria and fungi, cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, CO2-production of soil), and the amount of the plant biomass.
The readily available nutrient content of the calcareous chernozem soil increased due to the treatments, except for the change in the soil nitrate-nitrogen content, which did not measure up to the control due to the effect of high-dosage Bactofil.
The treatments also influenced the examined microbial characteristics of the soil positively. The artificial treatments significantly increased the total number of bacteria and the number of cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria. The low-dosage Bactofil significantly increased the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria and both Bactofil dosage significantly increased the number of nitrifying bacteria. The measure of the soil respiration grew in all treatments, but significantly only in Ca(NO3)2 fertiliser treatments.
The quantity of the plant biomass was grew in a low-dosage Bactofil and significantly in the artificial fertiliser treatments. The highest plant biomass quantity was measured in the high-dosage artificial fertiliser treatment.
In the correlation analyses we found some medium positive correlation between the soil chemical, microbiological parameters examined, and the plant biomass in the case of both treatment-forms.
Based on our results Ca(NO3)2 artificial fertiliser treatments on calcareous chernozem soil proved to be more stimulating regarding the
examined soil characteristics and the amount of the plant biomass, but the low-dosage Bactofil also positively influenced the majority of the
soil characteristics examined in terms of nutrient supply.
The effects of crop rotation, nutrien supply and crop protection technologies, as well as the appearance of the main ear- and leafdiseases
(powdery mildew, helminthosporium leaf spot, leaf rust, fusarium) were studied on the crop yields of winter wheat variety MV
Pálma during the 2009/2010 crop year. The experiments were conducted in tri
five nutrition levels, with the use of three crop protection technologies (extensive, conventional and intensive) at the Látókép Research Site of
the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. Our results proved that the appearance of leaf- and ear-diseases were
significant in the wheat cultures during the 2009/2010 crop year, because of the rainy, warmer than usual weather, the lodging, and the huge
vegetative mass developed. The most severe infections by the four examined diseases after pea and corn pre-crops were observed at
extensive crop protection levels, when fertilizers were used at the highest dose.
Following corn pre-crop, in the case of all the three crop protection technologies the maximum rate of wheat yield results were achieved
at N150+PK level. The highest yield was reached at intensive crop protection level (6079 kg ha-1). In triculture, in case of all the three crop
protection technologies the maximum yields were achieved at N50+PK level; in extensive technology 5041 kg·ha-1 yield, in conventional
technology 6190 kg ha-1 yield was realised, while in the intensive technological model the yield was 7228 kg ha-1.
The relationship between yield and fertilizer amounts, the rate of pathogen contaminations, crop protection technologies and pre-crops
was defined with correlation analysis in case of different crop rotations during the 2009/2010 crop year. Based on the results of the
experiment, we found that in stands after corn pre-crop strong positive correlation was established between the crop protection level and the
crop yield (0.543), the nutrient levels and the emergence of the four examined pathogens, and between the nutrient levels and the yield
(0.639). Extremly strong positive correlation was observed between crop protection and yield (0.843) in triculture. Strong positive
correlation was detected between the nutrient levels and the presence of the four examined pathogens, as well as between nutrient and
lodging (0.688). Strong negative correlation was between the crop protection level and the four examined diseases both in biculture and
Satisfaction of the increasing needs of humanity causes large environmental load. To provide a livable environment for future generations we have to satisfy our needs with the use of sustainable management. This is one of the biggest challenges of nowadays.
The amount of wastes emitted in increasing volume can be decreased by the recycling o
These materials mostly with organic compounds could be the primary substrates of composts. Completed with suitable additives, and applied appropriate treating technology, composts are capable to supply horticultural plants with nutrients. Composting wastes and byproducts not just decreases the amounts of deposited waste materials, but increases the nutrient (macro- and micronutrients) content of soils, so this is an environmentally friendly and alternative way of nutrient management of plants.
In the case of winter wheat,the knowledge of several quality features is needed to be able to determine precisely the real quality of the given
wheat. Several systems have been worked out on the qualification of the winter wheat in Hungary and other countries as well. Evaluating the
quality is being made more difficult because the differe
the values of the several quality features are in different intervals and these data are different dimension values. On the evidence of the
results, in the case of considering several features,it can be difficult to rank into one concrete quality cathegory. Researchers are trying to
develop complex quality index numbers in order to be able to define the quality more precisely. One of these complex quality index numbers
is Gyıri’s, so called, Z-index.
In three years from 2006 and 2008, we examined the change of the quality features of nine varieties of winter wheat with the help of the
Z-index under the influence of the effects of the different cropyears and the fertilizer treatment. The results show that the Z-index of the
examined varieties of winter wheat were influenced by several factors. Examining the data of the three different breeding years together we
can observe the corrective effect of the different cropyears on the Z-index, and if we examine the three years separately and together, the
differences of the quality features of the different varieties differentiate very well, and with the help of the Z-index the comparison of the
types is easier and perspicuous, and the Z-index represents the different nutrient reactions of the different types as well. On the average of
the three years, the types gave the best results at N120-150+PK nutrient level. Among the nine varieties the best results were given by Mv Suba,
GK Békés and Mv Mazurka in the case of both low and higher nutrient levels.
The effect of crop production factors on maize yield are examined on chernozem soil in a more than 30 year old long-term experiment on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The aim of research is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, cultivation, plant numbe...r, genorype and irrigation. The analysis of the data in the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate the effect of maize yield, as well as that of the crop production factors and the crop year, while the correlations and interactions between these factors were also examined. During the examination of the cultivation treatments, it was concluded that the highest yield was obtained as a result of autumn ploughing, but its effect largely differs in the irrigated and the nonirrigated treatments. Based on our examinations, strip cultivation should be applied periodically (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening) in areas with favourable soil conditions free from compacted layers.
In years with smaller, average precipitation supply or when the precipitation was higher than average, higher plant numbers were more favourable. Under drier conditions, but especially in several consecutively dry years, a lower plant number can be recommended which is not higher than 60 thousand per hectare. In the case of favourable water supply, 70-80 thousand plants per hectare can be used. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was significant in the case of both non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it was much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment. The extent of weed coverage was significantly affected by the previous crop. In the case of a favourable previous crop (wheat), the weed coverage was significantly lower than after an unfavourable previous crop (maize). In the case of the same previous crop (maize), the extent of weed coverage was mostly determined by the crop year and the extent of precipitation supply. Irrigation is not enough in itself, because if it was not accompanied by intensive nutrient management, yields started to decline.
The results of researhc, development and innovation contributed to the technological method which makes it possible to apply locally adjusted sowing seed, fertiliser and pesticide in a differentiated way, as well as to change the method of operations within the given plot.
In sustainable (wheat) production plant nutrition supply and fertilization play decisive roles among the agrotechnical elements, because of their direct and indirect effects on other agronomical factors.
In long-term experiments, we studied the roles of agroecological, genetic-biological and agrotechnical factors in the nutrient supply, fert
The optimum N-doses (+PK) of wheat varieties varied from 60 kg ha-1 (+PK) to 120 kg ha-1 (+PK) depending on cropyears, agrotechnical elements and genotypes. The winter wheat varieties could be classified into 4 groups according to their fertilizer demand, natural and fertilizer utilization, fertilizer response and yield capacity.
Appropriate fertilization (mainly N) of wheat could affect both the quantity and quality of the yield. By using optimum N (+PK) fertilizer doses, we could manifest genetically- coded baking quality traits of winter wheat varieties and reduce quality fluctuation caused by ecological and other management factors. The efficiency of fertilization on different baking quality parameters (wet-gluten, valorigraph index etc) were variety specific (the changes depended on genotypes).
Our long-term experiments proved that appropriate fertilization provides optimum yield, good yield stability and excellent yield quality in sustainable wheat production. We could this get better agronomic and economic fertilization efficiency with less harmful environmental effects.
In a long-term field experiment set up at the Látókép experimental station of the Center of Agricultural Sciences of Debrecen University, the data of the last five years (1995-1999) were analyzed to determine the crop production factors with the greatest influence on maize production and the relationship and interactions between irrigation a...nd fertilization.
In the extremely dry year of 1995, fertilization was found to cause substantial yield depression in the absence of irrigation. According to results of analysis of variance, fertilization significantly reduced the maize yield by 40-90% compared to control plots. Under irrigated conditions, there was a considerable increase in the maize yield, the yield surplus being 4.4-9.4 t ha-1, depending on the nutrient supply level.
During the period from 1996-1999, when rainfall conditions were favorable for maize, fertilization significantly increased the maize yield even without irrigation over the average of the four years. The yield surplus due to fertilization was 3.9-4.6 t ha-1, depending on the fertilization rates. The maximum yield surplus was obtained on plots fertilized with 120 N kg ha-1, while at the rate of 240 N kg ha-1 the maize yield did not differ significantly from this value. During the period examined, corn yield was significantly higher at all three nutrient supply levels as the result of irrigation than in the non-irrigated treatment. As in the case of non-irrigated conditions, the highest fertilizer dose did not result in a substantial yield increase. An analysis of the interaction between fertilization and irrigation indicated that the yield-increasing effect of fertilization was not significantly different under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. The significant year x irrigation interaction was confirmed by the fact that the yield surplus (1.3-2.3 t ha-1) differed greatly from the irrigation effect recorded in 1995.
Wheat production is a determining branch within Hungarian crop production (produced on nearly one million hectares). Weather anomalies caused by climatic change confirmed the importance of the biological background (variety, hybrid) in wheat production. The adapting ability and reaction of different wheat genotypes towards nutrient supply were...studied in a long-term field experiment on chernozem soil type in the case of different pre-crops (sunflower and maize). According to the experimental results of the vegetation of 2017/2018, the yield of the variety Ingenio sown after the sunflower as previous crop ranged between 4168 and 8734 kg ha-1, while in the case of maize as previous crop, this value ranged between 2084 and 7782kg ha-1, depending on the applied nutrient supply level. The studied genotypes produced rather significant yield surplus as a response to the application of mineral fertilization (4.6–5.1 t ha-1 after sunflower and 5.7–6.3 t ha-1 after maize). Optimal mineral fertilizer dosage was determined by both the genotype and the pre-crop. N-optimum values of wheat genotypes was determined using regression analysis. In the case of the variety Ingenio sown after sunflower, the optimum range was N144-150+PK, while after maize, it was
N123-150+PK, respectively. For the hybrid Hyland, these optimum ranges were N114-120+PK, just as N150-153+PK, resp. The application of optimal mineral fertilizer dosages improved water utilization of the studied wheat genotypes to a significant extent. WUE values of the control, unfertilized treatments ranged between 4.1–8.3 kg mm-1, while in optimal fertilizer treatment, it ranged between 15.5 and 17.4 kg mm-1.
The Fleischmann Rudolf Research Institute in Kompolt is not only famous for plant breeding but the institute also surveys the effects of different nutrient supply methods since 1918. In 2017, we joined this research supported by EFOP 3.6.1 project. Our aim was to investigate photochemical processes – which is one of the most determinant in ca...se of yield – of crops by in vivo field measurements. We measured the chlorophyll content of leaves using Minolta SPAD 502. We used miniPAM fluorometer to determine actual photochemical efficiency and non-photochemical quenching of PSII during natural light conditions and also to evaluate the pigment (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and water content of leaves we applied field spectrophotometer (ASD FieldSpecPro 3). We utilized these methods by various treatments (1. treatment with soil bacteria + head and base fertilizer; 2. treated by only head fertilizer; 3. treated by only base-fertilizer) in field experiment of autumn wheat (4.1–2.43–1.19 ha) in June, 2017. The difference between treatments was clearly detectable. In the case of the first treatment, physiological processes were more intense and the ripening occurred earlier. The obtained yield was the highest in the case of the area treated by soil bacterial. Based on the results, the first treatment can be recommended in practice.
The experiments were set on lime-coated chernozem soil in 2013 and in 2014, in our study four hybrids were included with different FAO number. We studied the effect of NPK fertilization and row spacing on the yield. The fertilizer doses were based on a 25-year longterm experiment. Compared to control, the N40 +PK treatment has also achieved a s...ignificant yield increase, although some hybrids responsed with yield loss to the increasing fertilizer doses; this effect was observed especially in 2014. The majority of hybrids reached higher yields in both years using the 50 cm row spacing. The water release of hybrids was measured weekly during the maturation, at the same time points. The rainy September slowed ripening and the water release of the hybrids in 2013, so the grain wet content at harvest showed higher values. The moisture contents were increased for some hybrids, in spite of the positive and favorable dynamic of water loss.
On seven apple cultivars (Gala Must, Gloster, Granny Smith, Idared, Jonagold, Jonathan Csány and Mutsu), the author studied the influence of N-phenyl-phthalamic acid (Nevirol 60 WP) and fertilization on fruit setting and fruit quality.
The research results show that by using Nevirol 60 WP and applying fertilization, we can improve the fruit
Nevirol 60 WP has a great effect on the improvement of yield amount, especially by good nutrient supply. There is a significant difference between the reactions of different cultivars. The most sensitive to these treatments were the cultivar Gala Must and Granny Smith. Before using Nevirol 60 WP we have to take into consideration that the increased yield needs a higher nutrient supply; otherwise, fruit mass, diameter and fruit height will decrease, and the yield will frittered away. In the study, the most favourable effect of Nevirol 60 WP was detected under additionally fertilized conditions by the author.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. The animal husbandry is getting decrease, thereby there is the lack of organic fertilizer and it is suggested to find alternative nutrient supply methods. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far, which is appropriate for the requirement of organic farming.
The environmental adaptability of crop production is basically determined by the selection of biological background (plant species and
varieties) suitable for the region and the site. The aim of our work is to parametrize the plant assimilation, its intensity, dynamics and the
most important characteristics and the relationships to the qu
site of the University of Debrecen in small parcel experiments. We measured the leaf net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance,
intercellular CO2 level, the transpiration, the leaf temperature and the air temperature by the LICOR LI-6400 portable photosynthesis
system in field trials on the nutrient supply. The soil of the experimental area is calciferous chernozem with favorable water regime.
We have examined the photosynthetic activity, the productivity and yield stability of winter wheat varieties. We have compared the yield
results, at similar agrotechnical conditions in seven cropyears. We also determined the quality parameters of the winter wheat varieties.
Then we valued the yield stability of genotypes with the help of analysis of variance and linear regression equations. We have defined the
connections between assimilation parameters, the yield stability and quality parameters of wheat varieties.
The impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fert...ilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production.
Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.
The ecological characteristics and agro-ecological conditions in Hungary provide opportunities for quality wheat production. For the successful wheat production besides the favorable conditions; the proper use of expertise and appropriate cultivation techniques are not negligible. Successful cultivation affected by many factors. To some extent...we can affect, influence and convert the abiotic factors.
Today, a particularly topical issue is the question of nutrition and that the species’ genetic code can be validated using the appropriate quantity and quality fertilizer. Beyond determining the fertilizer requirements of the winter wheat it is important to align the nutrient to the plant’s nutrient uptake dynamics and to ensure its shared dispensing. In any case, it is important to note the use of autumnal base-fertilizer as complex fertilizer. Hereafter sharing the fertilizer during the growing season with the recommended adequate nitrogen dose.The first top dressing of winter wheat in early spring (the time of tillering) can be made, the second top dressing at the time of stem elongation, and the third top dressing at the end of the blooming can be justified. Determining the rate of fertilizer application depends on the habitat conditions and the specific nutrient needs of plants. In autumn the 1/3 of the planned amount of basic fertilizer should be dispensed (in case of N). During setting our experiment we used 3 doses (0 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient; 90 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredients and 150 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient). Application dates beyond the autumn basic fertilization are the following: in one pass in early spring, divided in early spring and the time of run up, early spring and late flowering. In addition to nitrogen the replacement of sulfur gets a prominent role as a result of decreased atmospheric inputs. The proper sulfur supply mainly affects the quality parameters. It influences positively the wheat flour’s measure of value characteristics (gluten properties, volume of bread, dough rheology.
In terms of nitrogen doses; the larger amounts (150 kg ha-1 N-1 drug), is the proposed distributed application, while in the case of lower nitrogen (90 kg ha-1 N-1 drug) in a single pass in the early spring can achieve better results. After using sulfur the quality values among the nutritional parameters that can be associated with gluten properties took up higher values than the samples not treated with sulfur.
Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.
Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization d...oses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).
The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.
With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds
The aim of our study is to examine the effects of different groundcover methods on nutrient availability and uptake of apple orchard. The
experiment was carried out at the orchard of TEDEJ Rt. at Hajdúnánás-Tedej, in Eastern Hungary. The orchard was set up on lowland chernozem soil in the Nyírség region. It was established in the autumn
The applied treatments were divided into two groups according to origins and effects. On the one hand, different livestock manures (cow,
horse and pig), on the other hand different mulch-matters (straw, pine bark mulch, black foil) were used. The different manures and mulches
were applied on the surface to test the effectiveness of these materials.
The effectiveness of manure treatments was higher than the other treatments on AL soluble P content of soil. Mostly the manure treatments
increased the AL soluble K of soil. Our all treatments increased 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble NO3 - -N content of the examined soil layers. The effect
of manure treatments was the highest. From the results it was evident that the amount of easily soluble organic nitrogen fraction distributed
more homogeneously than the other mineral N fractions examined.
Our results can be summarized as follows:
1. Our results pointed out that the used ground covering matters divided into several categories regarding its effect.
2. The available N, P and K contents of soil were mostly increased by applying manures.
3. The effectiveness of straw, mulch and mostly black foil was lower.
4. Differences were found between nutrient supplying treatments and the treatments which did not supply nutrients.
During the industrial production of broiler chicken, a large amount of manure is produced, of which easily contained nitrogen content (without pre-treatment) is released into the atmosphere as an air pollutant. In our experiments, we aimed to prepare compost tea, also known as water extract of compost, from pre-treated poultry manure in order t...o create a product can be utilized as liquid nutrient supply. The poultry manure source was the Baromfi-Coop Ltd. located in Nyírjákó, Hungary, where it was treated by composting. As a result of this pre-treatment of the poultry manure, its nutrient parameters improve and nitrogen is present in a form that is better utilized for plants. Furthermore, this product is suitable for further utilization and also can be the base material for a brand-new product. For this reason the effects of compost/water ratio, incubation time, low oxygen level, and extraction time on the parameters of the resulted product were studied in the frame of developing new soil-life enhancing microbial product, so-called compost tea.
Chemical parameters of the compost used as base material strongly determined the properties of the resulted compost tea, especially the ratio of the various nitrogen forms, their concentration and the salt content. It was found that adding water at a higher rate that means 1/40 and 1/50 mixing ratios results in more cost-effective production. In the experiment the compost tea were held under oxygen-poor conditions, therefore pH of the extractions decreased, which influenced the quality and quantity of their nutrient content.
The effects of different bacterial fertilizers and their combinations with NPK fertilizer and wheat straw were investigated on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass production of testplant. The applied quantities of the bacterial fertilizers were the double of the recommended dose. The experiment was set up in 2013 at th...e Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block design. Calcareous chernozem soil; originating from Debrecen (Látókép) was used with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 8 week) the samples of soil and plants were determined for nitrate-nitrogen, ALsoluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green biomass of ryegrass per pot, the dry matter and moisture content of ryegrass. Straw treatment resulted better water and available nutrient content of soil in general. Inoculation however was not improving the biomass production over the fertilizer treatment. Interrelation with the recommended dose could be further studied.
During my research, I studied the 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable NO3--N, NH4+-N, Norg, P and K contents of the soil samples originated from a long term fertilisation trial in the experimental site Hajdúböszörmény. Relationships among the soil nutrient contents, the agronomic nutrient balances... of the 2009 year, and fertilization were studied.
From the results of the study it was concluded as follows:
– Fertilization significantly increased the CaCl2 extractable NO3--N, NH4+-N, and K contents of soil.
– Norg fraction increased as a function of the increasing yield. Hence, it can be assumed that the greater the produced yield, the more the stubble and root residues remain on the arable land. These organic residues can result significant increase in the Norg content of soils.
– The CaCl2 extractable P and K contents were compared with the calculated P and K limit values. According to these, the experimental soil has a good phosphorus and lower potassium supply capacity. These results are in accordance with the results of the conventional Hungarian fertilization recommendation system.
– It can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 is able to determine not just inorganic N forms but Norg fraction as well that characterize the easily mineralizable nitrogen reserves. The results proved that AL-P and -K (ammonium lactate acetic acid, traditional Hungarian extractant) are in good agreement with the P and K reserves, but it is important from the aspect of environmental protection and plant nutrition to measure the easily soluble and exchangeable K-, and P-contents of soil. 0.01 M CaCl2 method is recommended for this.