The effect of wheat straw ash as a fertlizizer was studied in a pot experiment with an acidic sandy loam soil (pHKCl=4.9) with weak K and P supply. The test plant was ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The treatments were the following: 1. control untreated soil, 2. NPK fertilizer, 3. small dose of ash (1.4 g kg-1), 4 large dose o...f ash (2.8 g kg-1), 5. small dose ash completed with NP fertilizers. Soil parameters (pHH2O, pHKCl, ammoinum-lactate soluble P, K, 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble PO43--P, K, Mn, Cu, Zn ) and plant parameters (yield, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn uptake) were investigated. Based on the analysis of the straw ash sample and the results of pot experiment it can be stated that the wheat straw ash is suitable for the fertilization of the studied soil. The small dose ash completed with NP resulted in the largest yield increment (43%). In order of the treatments the pHKCl changes to: 4.9, 4.8, 5.2, 5.8, 5.1. As the N : P2O5 : K2O ratio is 0 : 1: 3.5 in the wheat straw ash sample, to reach optimal yield ash should be completed with N and P.
A major part of the animal products are based on the grasslands, due to the fact that the grassland ecosystems can be found all over the globe. In places where economical and successful crop production cannot be realized, the grassland based animal husbandry can be an efficient way of food production. In addition these ecosystems have an import...ant role in carbon sequestration, and with their rich flora – and the fauna connected to it – in conservation of biodiversity. The protection of nature, and the sustainable agriculture is getting more and more attention in the European Union, but looking at the consumers’ needs, the production of healthy food cannot be neglected either. Because of these facts, the effects of two specific composts - which are officially authorized in organic farming, in Agri-environment Schemes and Natura 2000 programs – on grass yields and sward compositions were investigated in a field trial. The investigation took place in Hungary, on a natural grassland based on solonetz soil. The first type of compost was a natural one (N) without any additional material and the other one was enriched in phosphorus (E). Both was produced by the research institute, made of sheep manure. Three rates of compost (10 t ha-1, 20 t ha-1,30 t ha-1) were tested on 3 m×10 m experimental plots. Every treatments had four replications and both type of compost had four-four control plots too, this way 32 experimental plots were included in the investigations. The yield of the pasture was harvested two-times (in May and in September) and before cutting the plots measurements on botanical compositions were made. Samples for laboratory analysis were also taken. Dry matter yield and crude protein content was measured in laboratory and with the received data the yield per unit area was calculated. Based on the research results we can say that the application of compost in any dose inflicts higher dry material and crude protein yield. The changes were partly due to some positive changes in sward composition, because of the better nutrient conditions. The research results indicate, that use of organic compost can be an efficient way to increase grass yields in a sustainable way.
Investigations were made in Martonvásár on the herbicide tolerance of 22 inbred maize lines and 3 parental single crosses when treated with one herbicide applied after sowing, prior to emergence, and with seven applied post-emergence in the 6-8-leaf stage. Visible damage was scored 14 days after the treatment.
An analysis of the phytotoxic
The principle, development and importance of the SDS-PAGE method are presented in this article. The SDS-PAGE method has become one of the basic methods of molecular biological research, because it is widely applicable and its sensitivity is excellent in the separation of wheat storage proteins.
We have shown the application of this method wi
We analysed the raw materials in various food products, including additives, carrier solvents and end product for several selected organic pollutants. We analysed these food products for the type of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and other currently used pesticides.
We analysed three product categories: bakery
However, the results for meat and fish products indicate that polychlorinated compounds are persistent and are of a lipophyl character, as some of these components have been detected in these food products, the concentration of the PCBs were detected in the range of 9.8-24 μg/kg.
management, although there are many chiseled methodologies plenty of professional literature.
The problem is more complex in strategic planning of regional communities – societies – of different range. These societies are very diverse, and accordingly the strategic goal setting can, and has to be very different than the strategic g
The group of methods for morphologic and structural analysis and the computer based MACTOR program could be used.
The output data are presented in a large number of matrixes, vectors, graphs and histogram’s, which describe very fair the possible scenarios for preparation and decision making about
Aim of financial statements’ risk analysis is to optimally allocate the audit resources. That optimum point can be reached, if we achieve maximum possibility of recovery of material risks. There are more than one procedures exist for researching of optimum point or risk assessment in other word, and they are needed to use even parallel. In or...der to take into consideration effects of risk we need to measure them somehow. At risk assessments risks are usually some kind of result of impact and possibility. Knowledge and measurement of impacts and possibilities are far not enough for assessment of certain risks. In this study I will present a possible usable risk assessment methodology for financial audit activities with using Multi Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT in the followings).
The aim of the present study was to determine marker proteins those are associated with functional longevity of dairy cattle. Holstein-Friesian cows were grouped based on their performance as follows: group 1) individuals with good longevity traits; group 2) short production life because of poor reproduction traits; group 3) short production li...fe with low milk yield. Twelve individuals were sampled in each group, blood and milk samples were collected from cows. Blood samples were analysed with two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLCMS/MS. The milk samples were analysed with MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-MS/MS. Using the optimized gel based proteomic approach,
we have succesfully separated 143 proteins in the group1, 139 proteins in the group2 and 136 proteins in the group3, but we could not find significant differences between groups in the expression pattern. Using MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-IonTrap MS, we have found eleven protein sequences those were expressed only in the samples of good longevity group.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Production year 2012 has been characterised by climatic extremities. The weather of this year can be considered very contradictory in terms of maize production. The droughty conditions of the winter and spring months had a negative effect on both germination and starting vigour. The favourable weather of May-July created ideal conditions for intensive growth and generative processes; however the lack of precipitation in August and September had a damaging effect on the development of yield composing elements and grain saturation processes as well. Under such circumstances, the sowing date models caused significant differences in the yield and quality of the hybrids belonging to different growth periods. The growing period of the maize hybrids has been shortened as a result of the unfavourable climatic conditions.
The effect of different compost doses on the nutrient contents of the soil (in depth of 0–30) were measured in an (organic and integrated) apple orchards. The leaf surface area per running meter shoot for certain apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova) were determined.
The field experiments were conducted in the Research Field of...Debrecen-Pallag, University of Debrecen, the analysis of the soil and plant samples took place in the laboratories of the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science.
The compost treatments increased the amount of the examined nutrients in the top 30 cm of soil originated from organic and integrated orchard. Changes in rainfall were observed in the trends of the leaf surface area of the two apple varieties. 2010 was rainy and 2012 was drier. The leaf surface area of the Pinova increased better under the precipitation/year effect, than in case of the nutrient supply treatments. The opposite was observed in case of the Golden Delicious.
The main objective of this study was to determine and organize beneficial and detrimental effects of hail protection nets, and as far as possible to quantify their economic impact. The main factors were determined, through which hail protection nets can affect the costs and incomes of the production, and as their sum the economic result. Consid...ering these factors together with the investment cost and the annual maintenance costs allows the economic evaluation of purchasing of hail protection nets. The analysis was carried out using a deterministic simulation model based on primary data collection from apple producing businesses. Installing hail protection nets as additional technological elements of intensive apple orchards can be concluded by all means as an economic investment – trough their protective effect. However, to achieve really favourable economic indicators, definitely bigger tree height is needed making possible the realisation of around 8.0 t ha-1 extra yield. The main root of this phenomena are obviously the extremely high investment costs of hail protection nets, which result in a large mass of fixed costs during the production period. Therefore the basic economic interest is reaching higher yields and thereby higher profits per unit area.
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of basic agrotechnical factors on the yield and quality of winter wheat. Two experiments were set in 2017/2018 growing season, where we studied the influence of different forecrops, fertilizing treatments and cultivars. 204 samples were measured with Single Kernel Characterization Syst...em and NIR grain analyser to determine protein (NIR-P), wet gluten (NIR-WG), Hardness Index (HI), kernel weight (KW) and kernel diameter (KD). Fertilizing had a significant effect on yield, KW, HI, NIR-P and NIR-WG, except KD. N90PK dosage was enough to realize yield potential for 6 out of 9 cultivars, but considering protein content N150PK dosage was needed. The forecrop had no significant influence on yield, KW, KD or HI, however sweet corn as previous crop had significant improving effect on NIR-P and NIR-WG compared to sunflower as forecrop. According to our data of correlation analysis, no negative relationship was found between yield and NIR-P, however HI was in medium positive correlation with NIR-P. The variety Vyckor had the highest yield, but in quality aspect, the highest NIR-P and NIR-WG values belonged to KG Kunhalom variety.
The paper presents a short review of the different types of farming systems:
Biofarming, Organic farming, Alternatíve farming, Biodynamic farming, Low input sustainable agriculture (LISA)
Mid-tech farming, Sustainable agriculture, Soil conservation farming, No till farming, Environmentally sound, Environmentally friendly, Diversity farmi
Crop production system, Integrated pest management (IPM), Integrated farming, High-tech farming
Site specific production (SSP), Site specific technology (SST), Spatial variable technology, Satellite farming.
It concludes that the various systems are applicable in different ratios and combinations depending on the natural and economic conditions.
The author predicts an increase in precision technologies , the first step being the construction of yield maps compared with soil maps and their agronomic analysis. Based on this information, it will be necessary to elaborate the variable technology within the field, especially for plant density, fertilization and weed control.
The changes in weed flora during the past fifty years based on 10.000 samples within the same fields using the weed cover method are presented.
An investigation of different grey coat colours and a connection between colour and age of horses was carried out with two Hungarian State Studs: Bábolna and Szilvásvárad. For objective measurement of coat colour Minolta Chromameter (Model CR-210) was used. The average value of L (lightness) level by Shagya and Pure Bred Arabian horses was 6...3.83 ± 2.23, for Lipizzan horses was x=71.00 ± 2.29 respectively. In each stud older horses (over 10 years of age) have a flea-bitten colour stage, which decreased the L value considerably. Changes in coat colour in connection with the greying process did not show an evident tendency in the three breeds.
Almost fifteen years have passed since the reunification of Germany. At the beginning of the 1990s, it was still unclear how the agricultural sector in the former East Germany would be able to survive, as it was still characterized by large scale farms, organized for a socialist economy. The course of this essay will look at how the agricultura...l productivity has changed the two different productivity systems in the western and eastern part of Germany.
Productivity can be defined as output produced per unit of input. If we define productivity indicator as output per one type of inputs then we get so-called partial productivity index, however, if we define productivity indicator as output produced per unit of more than one inputs we get multi-factor productivity.
In agriculture, the most often used partials productivity indexes are: labour, capital, land productivity and intermediate consumption productivity.
The analysis of total factor productivity requires the aggregation of all inputs by using input prices.
In the trade of the European Union principally the analysis of alveographical and extensographical parameters mean the acceptance system.
In the present study we analysed the extensographical parameters of 10 winter wheat varieties breed by the Cereal Research Non Profit Company with Brabender extensigraph and we made a comparison, correlati
In the past 10–15 years, the consumption of illegal drugs has increased significantly both in Hungary and in our county. In parallel with the society’s getting more and more open, the fulfilment of personal freedom, and the spreading of globalisation and individual culture, the use of drugs has become more and more accessible and acceptable... to the young.
Social problems are supposedly connected with the interviewees’ alcohol consumption. The EuroADAD questionnaire was used. The sample covered 190 interviewees. I have processed the data with the SPSS statistical program package.
The linear regression analysis was applied to examine the interrelations between the elements under study. Almost consume alcohol as well. Among the examined socio-demographic variables, youth alcohol consumption was most affected by the gender of the respondent, the dissatisfaction with living conditions, and the change of residence.
long-term experiments have an opportunity to investigate the effects of fertilization and plant nutrition. The paper reports the results achieved in the 39th years of a long-term-small-plot fertilisation and liming experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil in the Nyírség region. From the 32 treatment, four replications, altogether 1...28 plot experiments with 10 treatments are summarized. We took samples after harvest of triticale, in August.
We used a reliable method (segmented continuous flow analysis) to determine different (easily mobilized - 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble) N-forms of soil. The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble inorganic and total N content and the UV digestable organic-N form of soil were determined by this method.
The results are summarized below:
– The mineralized-N (Nmin.) content of soil increased with dose of nitrogen treatment. Liming treatments increase the amount of Nmin.
– The maximum content of easily mobilize organic-N-fraction was found in the upper (0-20 cm) layer. This fact due to the large amount of crop and roots.
– Changing of content of 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble total-N-forms due to N doses.
– The ratios of these N forms are variable. It is very important that the content of organic N fraction is not negligible and this fraction plays a main role in the plant nutrition.
In the last few decades a new intensive milking stock has developed as a result of breed-converter crossing in Hungary. Beside this reproduction biology of the population was affected adversely by the keeping-, and feeding technology. Serviceable lifetime has shortened and service period has lenghtened. Whereas profitable milk production needs...cows with longer productive life, larger life-time production. In our work we analysed the productivity-, and reputation parameters of the 200 highest lifetime-productivity cows of Hungary. We found that inheritance has not got important role in the serviceable lifetime. Adaptability and good constitution of Holstein-friesian is proved by the fact that cows with large life-time production are reared in large plants, some of them in large stocks, industrial environment. We found during the analysis of reputation parameters that these prominent cows mostly have deeper body, higher dairy form, higher rear udder, smaller foot angle. We found some weak connection between the milk production and the reputation. Loose correlations between useful material content and some linear traits were found.
Change in chemical composition and nutritive value of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaroides arundinacea) were investigated in springtime in 2004-2006. The nutritive value of Reed Canary Grass was observed between the end of April and the middle of June relating to the following parameters: crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, ash, N-free extract, ne...t-energy growth, net-energy maintenance, Metabolizable Protein Energy dependent,
Metabolizable Protein N-dependent.
It was also analysed whether a relationship between the climatic factors affecting the growing period as well the chemical composition of grasses and the annual weather were looked for. For the estimation of weather conditions the climate index was calculated. A correlation can be detected between the change of parameters of nutritive value and the quality of the current year. Between 2004 and 2006, the result of the analysis of nutritive value indicated a significant difference with respect to each chemical composition at the rate of P<0.01 depending on the time when the samples were taken. According to the outlined data it can be stated that the change of the value of crude protein and ash show decreasing endency agreeing the research literature. In parallel with the change of nutritive value, the amount of crude fibre and N-free extract increased. However, the value of Net-Energy maintenance revealed an alteration only in the first half of the observed period. The same alteration tendency can be detected
in the Net-Energy growth.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Today, an increasing number of natural disaster events are witnessed. Our respond to these disasters is increasingly important and more timely problem. Before PhD studies my research aimed at revealing the impacts reconstruction, restoration and damage prevention had on the environmental, social and economic segments of disaster-hit areas. This present paper intends to provide preliminary results of the work already carried out in the Bereg Region, where I specialized on the effects of Tisza flood.This paper focuses on the results and conclusions drawn from the analysis of environmental consequences resultant from the flood based on a study area.
Hundred animal species have disappeared during the last century. By this time, approximately one-third of domestic animals have been in the endangered category. Hucul horses are also in this category; furthermore saving the genetic diversity beside the race preservation is an important challenge as well. The number of mares and stallions is onl...y one of the expressive elements of genetic diversity; together with their quality determine the genetic variability of this breed. Beyond that, if an exact breed can originates from more founders, it can be more renewed genetically. Stud book documents these data by registering the mare families and stallions’ genealogical lineage. Molecular genetics, especially mitochondrial DNA analysis can make the precise identification of mare families possible. As a result of these molecular based methods, protection of genetic diversity, as well as breed preservation became more reliable. After the primer designing, the optimal primer pair was chosen which targets a 1092 bp length DNA sequence in the cytochrome b region. After the successful PCR optimalisation, we determined 170 Hucul mares’ sequences. According to our results, the samples compose ten haplotypes, which are much less, than the registered number of mare families in the stud book. Further investigations are needed to reach more representative results, and drawn the further consequences.
In our researches, we examine the soil microbial parameters related to the carbon cycle. In this study, we compare the changes of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil CO2 production in soil samples which were taken in spring and autumn. The 30 years old long-term experiment of Debrecen-Látókép is continued in our experiment...s. The long-term fertilization experiment was set in 1983, and our sample was taken in spring 2014. The examinations of soil respiration processes and factors that influence soil respiration are required in optimal management. In our study, we interested to know how the growing levels of fertilization influence the soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions in maize mono, bi, and triculture.
Hyper and multispectral imaging systems are widely used in agricultural and environmental protection. Remote sensing techniques are suitable for evaluating environmental protection hazarsd, as well as for agriculture resource exploration. In our research we compared aerial hyper and multispectral images, as well as multispectral digital camera...images with the background data from the test site. Hyperspectral records were obtained using a new 80-channeled aerial spectrometer (Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer /DAIS 7915/. We have chosen two farms where intensive crop cultivation takes place, as test sites, so soil degradation and spreading of weeds can be intensive as a result of land use and irrigation. We took additional images of air and ground with a TETRACAM ADC wide band multispectral camera, which can sense blue, green and near infrared bands. We had detailed GIS database about the test site. Weed and vegetation map of the area in the spring and the summer was made in 2002. For soil salt content analysis, we gathered detailed data frome an 80x100 m area. When analyzing the images, we evaluated image reliability, and the connection between the bands and the soil type, pH and salt content, and weed mapping. In the case of hyperspectral images, our aim was to choose and analyze the appropriate band combinations. With a TETRACAM ADC camera, we made images at different times, and we calculated canopy, NDVI and SAVI indexes. Using the background data mentioned above, the aim of our study was to develop a spectral library, which can be used to analyze the environmental effects of agricultural land use.
In the course of our examination, we assessed biometric data that determine gender, we evaluated sexual activity, measured the nourishment and necropsies of two feral pigeon populations feeding and nesting at animal breeding farms. The changes in the body weight of the different genders were significant on both farms (p<0.05).
The body we
On both farms, the elemental food source of the birds was the fodder and corn kernels given to cattle, and was supplemented by that of the pigeons living at the Debrecen farm with food from surrounding farms and with other seeds (pea, millet, rye).
By the examination of the genitals, the birds collected from the Nyírbátor farm showed sexual activity from the beginning of spring, and in the summertime decreasing activity is characteristic, while the pigeons from the Debrecen farm are only active from the summer months. In the course of the examinations in the Veterinary Institute of Debrecen, the birds proved to be free of parasites and the results of the Newcastle disease analysis were negative as well. The bacteriologic analyses showed a different proportion of E.coli, Pasteurella multicoda, haemolysing Staphylococcus bacteria at the two cattle farms. During the examinations for the statement of Salmonellas, this causative agent was stated only in case of birds that spend nights and nested in the town, which allude to human origin. We demonstrated Eimeria oocysts during the parasitological examination of the fecal samples in 5 cases at the Debrecen, and in 1 case at the Nyírbátor farm.