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The effects of joining The European Union in the area of tourism within health tourism in Hungary
Published September 2, 2009
169-177

The occasion of Hungary joining to the European Union caused difficult tasks and questions for tourism in Hungary. Tourism sector must have been prepared for joining to European  Union, which means developing a well-functioning and future planning strategy. It has to improve taking parts our tourism into international market without signif...icant deficit. The main aim is achieving the sustainable tourism by approach marketing and environmentally sound of way that is able to become competitive.
My aim is to analyze by numerous indexes what are the effects of joining Hungary to the European Union in tourism sector. However the results need to extend survey into many years. It is very important to reach long-term economic results and development, next to it has to be suitable impacts for social and natural environment, quality of life and developing health tourism as well.
To sum up we can establish extension of European Union area has improved diversity of tourism destination and goods, accessibility of natural and cultural features. 

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107
Present situation and future prospects for Hungarian fruit and vegetable sector
Published July 28, 2008
31-38

Changes in people’s lifestyles and the emergence of nutritional science have created favorable opportunities for a boom in fruit and vegetable consumption, which have been fully exploited by the adaptive fruit producer and exporter countries. Unfortunately, Hungary is not one of these countries. Affected by a number of uncertainty factors, th...e Hungarian fruit and vegetable sector has fallen behind international trends, seeking opportunities for survival (Erdész, 2007).
The impacts of the country’s accession to the EU have been more adverse than expected. While no administrative measures are used to control production and the increasing competition and import have put Hungarian producers to a loosing position. The cooperation producers, the well-organized work of professionals and the coordinated activity of producers marketing organizations may resolved some of the problems affecting the sector.
The fruit and vegetable sector can also anticipate significant changes during the new seven-years budget period of the CAP reform.
With the new drat reform of the sector, the European Commission intends to simplify the common organization of the fruit and vegetable market, improve competitiveness, increase market orientation, promote fruit and vegetable consumption and to continue the environmental efforts.
Hungary has had great expectations concerning the reform of market regulation, but the Commission proposal didn’t bear out the expectations, because the new proposal includes insignificant changes in important issues and fails to provide sufficient additional resources for the catching up of he new member states.

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102
Health factor in food consumption
Published September 2, 2009
125-132

Consumer lifestyle and health are relevant factors to understanding consumption preferences. In the last few decades the number of lifestyle diseases has dramatically increased. The main cause for these diseases is the change in lifestyle; including a lack of attention to physical activity and good nutrition. Health and lifestyle are important ...factors by purchase decision process. In accordance with these, I examine the consumer behaviour toward soft drinks with special regards to healthy lifestyle and the state of health. My examinations can be considered mainly as a
qualitative research, which can serve as a basis for further analyses and research, however, the conclusions and experience gained from it are worthy of consideration. I differentiated five soft drink categories: ice tea, carbonated soft drinks, fruit juices, mineral waters, sport and energy drinks and studied the consumer behaviour toward them. The study focuses on the consumption of these and the factors influencing their purchase with special regards to lifestyle.

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Differences in Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
170-180

An important ambition of EU regional politics is the reduction of disparities. An important strategical objective of the Commission is to terminate underdevelopment and to ensure the development of the regions based on the principles of solidarity, equity and justice. The commission has dedicated forty percent of its common budget to achieve th...ese goals. The differences in development are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, the quality and quantity of human resources, the accessibility of the region and factors influencing local quality of life.
The new spatial structure has been formed by the processes of the change of regime, the events of nineties and the economic renewal based onforeign capital investments parallel with crisis phenomenon. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation have significantly transformed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities have formed, which strengthened due to the formation of east-west slopes and local crisis zones. The outstanding improvement of the capital resulted in great regional development differences, which can be detected when examining regional distribution of gross domestic product. The Eastern part of the country was most heavily affected by the collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the Eastern markets.
It is of key importance for the region to strengthen regional competitiveness, which requires the application of consistent development-politics. Economic development is the most important, which can also draw the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. It is important to develop the processing industry, the supply networks and to ease the lack of capital it is also important to involve foreign capital. Developing agriculture plays an important role in transforming the structure of the economy. Since the conditions of the region, its traditions and long-term competitive advantages are favorable, thus can represent a greater ratio in the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting marketing, quality agricultural development and producer-retail cooperation. It is also highly important to promote development in transportation and informatics infrastructure and human resources.
In the future – based on the strength of the region – it is necessary to achieve such a consistent regional development politics, which by validating the principles of regional politics, serves the interest of utilizing regional development supports most efficiently and prevents the irreversible underdevelopment of the region and promotes fast development.

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Pricing in the pig production
Published July 28, 2008
25-29

During my research work I will exame the state of pig production and the pigmeat trade in Hungary as well as in the EU. In this article I am looking at this branch, I plan to ask consumers about this topic. There is no point in importing pork if there is no market for it. The reality is that we like what is new, unusual and different. What lies... behind this way of thinking?
Everybody agrees, consumer habits differ culturally, and this is true in European countries as well. I find it interesting to examine what parts of the pig are favoured the most by consumers in certain countries. As habits are different we can say that certain countries prefer pork chops while on other countries’ menus pork knuckles can be found. If we follow this train of thought it becomes apparent that due to these differences the price of pork varies from country to country.
According to figures, it is clear that certain countries are able to produce pork products cheaper. Since market works on the principle of supply and demand, those who offer their products cheaper will have a greater chance of remaining in this sector. Those on the other hand who can only produce their products at a higher price will eventually disappear from the market. The price is determined by the rate of the forint to the euro. Today’s strong forint is leading to the growth in imports. Recently, pork exports have fallen, but if the rate were to be 280 forints as it has been in the past, then it would be more favourable to sell pork products.
As Hungarian prices are high, meat processing companies are forced to import from neighbouring countries, which means a cheaper source of product. This has led to a decrease in the number of pig in Hungary meaning that we are now an overall importer of pork products rather than an exporter.

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Changes in the Hungarian law and in the classification system regarding to ’people living with disabilities’ between 2008 and 2013
Published August 12, 2013
43-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays employment is a hot topic in Hungary. The rate of inactive people on the labour market is very high. Many kinds of supplies are provided by the State for example for the group “people living with disabilities”. It is very difficult to provide job for these people after their rehabilitation. Statistical figures show, that the highest ratio of “people living with disabilities” can be found in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary (30 per cent of the total number of “people living with disabilities”).

The employment of these people means extra costs for enterprises. At the same time the complete accessibility of workplaces is still not realized in many cases in Hungary yet. Currently only a few enterprises are specialized to employ people living with disabilities in the North Great Plain Region. Unfortunately most of the enterprises don’t want to employ them. New workplaces for these people should be created by the utilisation of European Union and national available sources in order to integrate them into the job’s world in long run. I represent the changes in the law and in the classification system in this area.

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Economics of broiler fattening in Hungary
Published July 28, 2008
171-180

The purpose of this study is to present economic circumstances of Hungarian broiler sector based on secondary data after brief introduction of international and home situations. Then it analyzes costs, revenues and profit relationships of producers, which has competitive efficiency indicators and high standard production based on a model create...d on the basis of primary data.
The paper confirms the Hungarian poultry sector international competitiveness falling. One important reason of this situation is the low profitability in the sector, which is typical of both farms produce under worse efficiency indicators and high standard producers. Beside lack of technological standards and efficiency, adverse trend of output and input price – mainly feed price – impact low profitability.
Realization of technological developments and improvements according to international tendency, which affect directly or indirectly the efficiency and costs of broiler fattening are determining in point of realizable profit

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Customer Relationship Systems and Business Models
Published September 2, 2009
99-106

The object of this study is a comprehensive review of customer relationship management (CRM) systems applied increasingly in several fields of economy. The CRM is not merely a subsequent software technology and application in the field of Business Intelligence, but rather a novel, comprehensive customer-centric approach to an organization’s p...hilosophy in dealing with its customer for the sake of realization of short- and long-range business target contrary to the traditionally widespread productcentric approach. The object of the study, following a short
synopsis of the theoretical and practical aspects of the CRM systems, is to analyse the range of the actual and potential users and to survey the CRM market. It will be analysed the scope of CRM supported business activities and processes, the terms and possible methods of launching and will be outlined a feasible model, too. The aim of conspectus of different CRM strategies (layers) is to reveal the urging need of turning approach in the field of management.

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Hungarian total foreign trade after the change of regime
Published July 28, 2008
145-154

Hungary’s total foreign trade has changed a lot since the change of regime. Several factors played a role in this process. The collapse of COMECOM, set of the world economy, WTOagreement, Agreement of Accession and CEFTA-agreement and accession to the EU affected this situation. After the change of regime Hungary had to react rapidly to these... new events: one of the most goals was to find new markets. Hungary’s total foreign trade balance is negative but this deficit has declined after EUaccession. The foreign trade in agriculture has realised positive balance for a long time. This balance is declining after 2004, in spite of that the agricultural export grows, but the import grows more dynamically.
Share of the Visegrad countries – join at the same time to the European Union as Hungary – from Hungarian agriculture exports gets higher, especially in the case of Poland.
Hungary’s trading partners of exports and imports are stabile and they come from old Member States. One hand is positive, but the other hand is not acceptable. It is important to get markets, because we strongly depend on Europe.
The situation of Hungary’s external trade is determined by the future of CAP and WTO Doha Round (reducing of agricultural customs, ceasing of export subvention system and etc.).
Hungary can keep in competition, if it extends its competitiveness, diminishes of costs, and improves of quality, logistic and marketing.

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Industrial Utilization of Grasses
Published May 11, 2003
131-134

The Agricultural Research and Development Institute P.U.C., Szarvas – realizing the importance of using the biomass in a number of ways – was one of the first in Europe, who began the breeding of grasses suitable for industrial utilization. The possible areas of using the energygrass – which could be called industrial grass – are the fo...llowing:
– Energetical use
– Paper industry use
– Utilization as an industrial fibrematerial
– Use for feeding
The aim of the breeding programme: developing the kinds of grass, which yields big drymaterial mass and suitable for industrial utilization. These kind of grass, taking soil-utilization, economicality and environmental protection, offer and ensure new marketing perspectives and employment facilities for the disadvantageous areas.

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Consumption tendencies of foods of animal origin in Hungary
Published September 2, 2009
7-17

One of the most important indices of the population's food consumption are the quantities of the consumed foods expressed in a natural measure. In the course of my examination from the 1980 years I examined how our dietary habits changed. I was able to demonstrate it by the time series examination well, in which years and in a what kind of meas...ure these consumer changes occurred. The trend analysis was in it onto my help, that let me be allowed to depict his beat as the changes of the food consumption visual.
In his totality the Hungarian population nutritional and from his consumer customs we may relate that the present nourishment increases it unambiguous the diet pendant the risk of illnesses, furthers their development, aggravates their effect, and contributes to the population's adverse health conditions powerful.
It was over in some years, in a decade on a unfortunate manner, we lost the natural instinct of the selection of the food in a considerable part. Our diet fundamental the narrower and the customs of wider environment, his rules, the social values, beliefs define it. Because of this to feed it is necessary to study it.
The changed and the health-conscious nourishment would be  important for him herding back into a upturned dietary habit correct bed with a wide circle recognizing him with the population, his role could be big for the healthy, or functional foods. The nourishment gives his pleasure likewise while we take over healthy foods.
The recognition of the changes of the demand and accompanying him with attention could be the domestic food producers' fundamental interests. The consumer types and the market segments should be mapped, that they suitable marketing a strategy can be aimed at it, and into the direction of the healthy nutrition to push away, and would be need onto an efficient informative campaign, onto an advertisement message formulated well, onto the making aware of this, that let the advertisement supply an educational function in one. 

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397
Connections between land usage, property structure and agricultural enterprises in Hungary
Published May 23, 2006
31-34

The last decade of Hungarian agriculture was marked and changes which affected all parts of agricultural production. This process resulted in a new ownership and organisation structure. The paper presents the effects of the changes in ownership on land use and the various enterprise forms and intends to outline the main tendencies. In general, ...it can be stated that the role of agriculture in GDP production and employment is decreasing in Hungary, but according to concurrent opinions of experts, agriculture still has and will have a major role in income production and the ease of social tensions in rural areas in the future as well. Hungary’s accession to the European Union provides new chances and new prospects for Hungarian agriculture and rural areas. Hungarian agriculture became a part of the internal market which includes about 450 million people. The safety of marketing became stronger, the rate of financial support is increasing and the income of growers will increase in the future. This process implies more obligations and the keeping of strict regulations. Competition inside the internal market is intensifying, competitiveness will be more important while the chances of development and investment of the growers and the feasibility of more effective land use are increasing. After the accession, integration into the directives formulated in the CAP and the packages of measures accepted in it is framework have growing importance.
These directives encourage farm-reallocation, namely the rational estate concentration. In general, it can be stated that rational estate concentration, and more effective land use as a consequence, will increase the efficiency of agricultural production.

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Hungary’s correspondence with the EU regulations regarding liquid bio fuels
Published July 28, 2008
119-128

During the recent years researchers from different countries have found that our environment is at risk. It has been recognised by the leaders of the member countries and they have made decisions together concerning environmental protection in several agreements, contracts. Unfortunately, these decisions have been weakened and adumbrated on num...erous occasions by certain interests.
However, the energetic exploitation of the biomass has been supported by the economic and social changes of the previous years, more specifically, that of the bio fuels. The significant increase in the price of the traditional energy sources, the import dependency of the countries, the foreseeable exhaustion of the resources, the changes occurred due to joining the EU are all such problems that facilitates the application of bio fuels, as a good solution.
Our country decided to modify the then existed bio fuel component rate of 2% to 5.75% which has to be achieved by 2010. Since then, in March 2007 it has been expanded to 10% until 2020 (concerning energy content). This decision was taken knowing that this year (2006) the bio fuel rate has been 0.5%. However, the rate of 2% has not been achieved even in the EU. One can understand that the implementation cannot be fulfilled without significant political decisions and support. The main reason for this is that the price of bio fuels is not competitive with the present fossil-origin energy prices in Hungary. So in 2007 several regulations were modified. The most important one is perhaps the regulation of the revenue tax, which caused the successful tax-differentiation concerning bio fuels in more member states between 2007 and 2008. Its essence is that the revenue tax is not decreased, but if the fuel does not contain a bio fuel component of 4.4 bulking percentage per litre, „punishment” tax has to be paid. Moreover, on behalf of the implementation, regulations concerning bio fuels and bio fuel components are improving
At present the production and the application of bio fuels without any support are not economical yet. That is why it is important to emphasize the support policy of our country. After joining the Union, the new members can receive some shares from the direct disbursements, but only a tan increasing rate, we can achieve the 100% in 2013, though there is an opportunity for national contribution. Energy plants produced in agriculture receive separate supplementary support which is an advantageous opportunity for the farmers of the sector. Bio fuels cannot only be supported through agriculture, of course, but by research development, investment etc.
All in all, it can be concluded that Hungary seeks to fulfil the EU responsibilities taken and by this, to contribute to the maintenance of the sustainable progress, decrease of environmental pollution and the import dependency of energy sources.

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The possibilities of the development of functional dairy products
Published December 1, 2010
33-36

Because of our new aged world’s emerging stress, over exhausting and move less lifestyle the pollution, the not appropriate food consuming and the low calories in the consumed food there are more and more the called „civilian” disorders.
Many people have diabetes and osteoporosis others fight with lung, cardiovascular system, problems ...and find cancers of many kinds without age exemptions. 
There could be a solution in changing lifestyle. In the developed side of the world there are presence of food lines with higher content in nutritious and/or vitamins and fibers such as: kalium, calcium, selen, magnesium, plus it contains less saturated fat. Because of that there is a new word in dietetics as functional foods.
Food having more inner content and/or biological values, so healthier, are called functional foods. Those foods components picked carefully for healthiness by modern knowledge of dietetics.
One of the best raw materials for functional food is the milk. It is already healthy by itself. The Körös-Maros Biofarm Ltd. has a goal of developing and marketing, health protecting organic functional foods in hungaricum products from cured milk. The Jedlik Ányos project helps the Ltd. to achieve this goal. We just finished an antioxidant test and we check if the antioxidant in present in the milk than we check the final product of the presence of the original antioxidant and the form and amount of it.
It had been feeding, for two weeks for three herd of cows selected for age, milk output and consanguinity. All of the three herd had been feeding with basic forage. One of the herds had been getting vitamin-E in the amount of 250 mg/bwkg the other group got licopin in the amount of 200 mg/bwkg once a day each by each orally, the third herd was the control group. 
After two weeks we toke a sample of every herd were processed the samples into yogurt and cheese. Than we checked the raw milk, the cheese and the yogurt for antioxidant content with HPLC method. The test ended with good results by finding a great amount of antioxidant, in not only the raw milk but also in the final product. 

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Analysis of organic farming’s economic viability at different subsidy levels
Published July 28, 2008
111-118

Applying a data-collection-based economic model, I analyzed the economic viability of organic farming at different subsidy levels. The database is concentrated on the Hortobagy region. On the basis of data, I built an average sized and operated organic farm model with both arable land cultivation and animal keeping activities. The analysis of v...iability is based on gross profit calculation and compared with the criteria of the long-term economic viability, determined by the author. This study summarizes the most important results of the analysis.

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The Present and Future of Tokay Aszú
Published November 26, 2003
87-92

Tokay wine is Hungary’s noblest wine. Beyond doubt, it is one of those uniquely Hungarian products, which has been without rival for centuries. Today the role of quality has become increasingly important and consumers who are ready to pay more for quality wines expect it. This wine will be able to get back its original popularity if the messa...ge of its excellence reaches the public. Knowledge of historical wine-producing regions constitutes a part of basic education and wine-marketing could take important measures to spread it since good products need to be sold properly and consumers require information about wines – with gastronomy – and wine producing regions.
With foreign invested capital, advantageous changes have been started in Tokay-Hegyalja. However, there is much still to do in order to produce, sell and consume Tokay wine on such conditions that are really worthy of a Hungaricum. It is essential to approach the famous oenologists of Europe and the world and to establish suitable production conditions for every winegrower. In addition to following consciously prepared wine-marketing directions, our country needs to make an expected name for this Hungaricum. These aims are important mainly because of approaching EU-accession. There is timely to study on what conditions Hungarian viticulture and oenology could access. It would be a great success of the Hungarian delegation if they could make current Hungarian laws of Tokay-wine-production accepted in the EU. Of course, all of these would be valid after EU-accession. During the pre-accession period, our country needs to fulfil several stipulations. For example, origin-protection, establishment of a registry system, law harmonisation, development of an institutional system.
Strengthening of home consumption has always been an inspirational tool in a product’s life cycle. It is important not only to take the requirements of foreigners into consideration and to produce for export, but we also need to satisfy the home market. Considerable stress should be laid on establishing and preserving viticulture. Increasingly, buyers expect high standards and they are ready to pay more for quality wines. They also demand appropriate professional information and consultation. So there is a lot to do and theoretical approach should be followed by action. In order to get to know what quality expectations exist, we have to examine the consumers of the Hungarian wine-market. Study of the Hungarian people’s consumption behaviour, referring to Tokay „aszú”, was closely connected with my work.
Participants of my study were consumers who buy Tokay „aszú” mainly in shopping centres, supermarkets and low-price shops specified for wine selling. Wine shops have important roles as they give opportunity for salespersons to make closer relationships with buyers. These shops could be communication channels of spreading wine culture. It would be favourable if in every town or city there were at least one wine shop giving the opportunity of consultation besides commercial activity and also providing services that support the improvement of wine culture’s position. The majority of questioned people spend less than 4.000 Forints on buying of Tokay „aszú” in a year. Results of the questionnaire survey support the fact that there is a demand for these wine-specialities, but lack of money strongly effects demand.
The Following summarises the history of Tokay wine, tasks of Hungary and the expected effects relating to EU-accession. Regulation of oenology and the wine-market, referring to quality wines and main results of the survey are also overviewed in the text.

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Analysis of changes in resources and outputs of companies and partnerships in Hungarian agriculture
Published November 20, 2011
65-68

The aim of the study was to examine the achievement of Hungarian agricultural companies and partnerships, particularly agricultural co-operatives based on the aggregated database of National Tax and Customs Administration (NAV)1. From the methodological aspect, descriptive statistical methods and time series analysis were used. One of the most ...important conclusions is that the socio-economic weight of the agricultural co-operatives was strongly decreased in the period after the EU accession. The other important statement is that apart from the general examination of economic actors on aggregated level the comparative analysis of the single organizations forms would be needed. In the case of co-operatives, separated examination of the former type producer co-operatives and the so-called new type ones (e.g. marketing co-operatives etc.) would be necessary.

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Case study based analyses of economic viability of Hungarian beef farms
Published July 16, 2007
184-193

Our country has great traditions in the field of beef production. As early as the Middle Ages, Hungary was known as Europe’s beef exporter. In this decade, production of the Hungarian Grey has increased, due to the popular method of keeping these animals extensively. These animals were even exported to the European markets on foot.
After j...oining the European Union, this sector of agriculture has been receiving attention due to the major subsidies which were given. Accordingly, numerous farmers have tried to enter this sector of production. However, the power relations have been changed lately, as have the technology used in production, which has undergone several developments. The integrative connections in the sector had been split and also the size of optimal and sustainable production has arisen.
The economic activities must be judged by their effectiveness and profitability, but in most cases their effectiveness can only be seen through such outstanding facts which are independent from the farmer.
I would like to model the economy of a certain enterprise, and the size and the level of its production, through my research under the actual economic circumstances. In my research, I pay special attention to the circumstances which are important in the Hungarian agricultural sector and rural development.

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Die Möglichkeiten des ökologischen Marketings in der nördlichen Region der ungarischen Tiefebene
Published December 14, 2004
62-68

Diese Studie sucht die Antwort auf die Frage, welche Chancen das ökologische Marketing in der Nördlichen Region der Tiefebene in Ungarn haben kann. Wir haben in den Jahren 1996 und 2003 in unserer Region eine empirische Untersuchung anhand eines standardisierten Fragebogens, und danach persönliche Interviews im Kreis der Unternehmensleiter d...er Lebensmittelbranche durchgeführt. Aus beiden Untersuchungen hat es sich herausgestellt, dass der Umweltschutz nur durch Gesetzesvorschriften den Unternehmen aufgezwungen wird. Die Anregung des Marktes und der Medien hat eine geringere Bedeutung. Der Umweltschutz liegt unter den Zielen des Unternehmens auf dem letzten Platz. Die Unternehmensleiter meinen: die Stärkung der Rolle des Umweltschutzes würde die Kosten des Unternehmens steigern und kurzfristig den Profit in geringem Maße vermindern.

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Prospects of tobacco sector due to changing of union subsidy system
Published July 28, 2008
45-51

Some 80% of the revenues from tobacco production originate from subsidies, therefore the existence of the tobacco industry basically depends on the system of subsidies. According to the current position, in the transitional period of introduction of the CAP reform (from 2006 to 2009) at least 40% of tobacco premiums shall be decoupled from the ...production, while the tobacco producing member states may decide to continue to pay the remaining 60% (or a less rate, depending on the rate of decoupling) in a coupled form. Tobacco premiums shall be fully decoupled as from the 2010 crop, however farmers will be eligible only for 50% of the subsidies, and the rest 50% shall be used for subsidising rural developments in tobacco producing regions (Radóczné, 2007).
This change affects the section very seriously. In EU-15 member states this system was introduced in 2006, which resulted in giving up tobacco growing by high percentage of the farmers (70-80% reduction of tobacco production in Greece and Belgium, and 45% reduction in Portugal). In Hungary – due to the small scale of the tobacco section – this rate reduction in production would jeopardise the existence of the section, therefore we are interested in maintaining the existing system of coupled subsidies to as a large extent and for as long time as possible.
This study shows the possibility of tobacco sector before and after introducing the changes in the system of subsidies, and formulates the most serious problems and roles of the sector.

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