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Nutritional disorders of arable crop growth in eastern Croatia
Published September 5, 2018

Nutritional imbalances accompanied with growth retardation of crops at early growth stage were found since the last 40 years on certain arable lands in eastern Croatia. In this regard, phosphorus (P) deficiencies in maize and wheat were found mainly on acid soils of the western part of the region, potassium (K) deficiencies in maize, soybean on... the hydromorphic neutral to alkaline calcaric drained gleysols of Sava valley lowland, while zinc (Zn) deficiencies were observed mainly in seed-maize and soybean on neutral calcaric eutric cambisols of the eastern part of the region. Cold and moist spring is factor promoting P deficiency symptoms. As oasis of normal crops existed on same arable land, comparison of plant and soil composition was possible from typical sites. P nutrition disorders were in connection with the lower P and the higher aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations in the top of plants and the lower soil pH values. K-deficiency as result of strong K fixation and imbalances with high levels of magnesium (Mg) were the main responsible factors of low maize and soybean yields on some drained gleysols. Chlorosis incidences typical for Zn deficiency in maize and soybean were in close connection with the higher soil pH, the lower quantities of mobile Zn, here and there the higher mobile P in soil, the lower concentrations of Zn and the higher levels of Al and Fe in plants. Overcoming the above mentioned disorders and normalization of yields were achieved using ameliorative fertilization either by K or P fertilizers and in case of Zn by foliar spraying of crops with 0.75% ZnSO4 solution. Also, alleviations are possible by selection of more tolerant genotypes of field crops to specific types of nutritional disorders. From this aspect, some practical solutions were recommended for maize with reference to K nutritional problems.

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Grain yield and quality of maize hybrids in different FAO maturity groups
Published October 5, 2010

An improvement in the quality of maize grain by increasing the level of components responsible for its biological value is possible
by using genetic means. However, a change in the genotype, together with improving the nutrient properties of the grain, also has some
adverse consequences connected with a fall in yield and in resistance to ...diseases.
Field experiments were conducted during three years (2003, 2004and 2005) to evaluate environmental effects on grain yield and
quality responses of maize hybrids. Twenty one hybrids of various maturity groups (FAO 150-400) were planted to achieve an optimum
(60-70 000 plants per hectare) plant populations and grown under the medium-N (80 kg N ha-1) fertilization. Environmental conditions
significantly affected maize hybrid responses for grain yield, starch, oil and protein contents, and consequently, starch, oil and protein
yields per hectare. Hybrids of flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil content but the yield averages
were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer growing season and more intense
carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry
years are favorable for protein and oil accumulation. Positive correlation existed between starch content and grain yield and 1000-
weight as well as between oil content and volumetric weight among tested hybrids. Negatively correlation existed between grain oil and
starch content as well as between oil content and grain yield and 1000-weight. Thus, end-users that require high quality maize may need
to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with oil and protein content.

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Determining factors of test weight in maize (Zea mays L.)
Published November 15, 2007

Most domestic maize production products are sold on markets abroad. Among the increasingly restrictive quality requirements, the demand for the measurement of test weight has also appeared. This measurement is not unfamiliar in the case of other cereals, such as wheat and barley, but it has not been applied widely in maize. It is likely for thi...s reason that we have such little information and research available on this topic. In this study, we show the current state of this field with references from domestic and international literature.
The density of maize is the weight of a particular volume and the most frequent unit is the test weight (kg/hl). This physical quality factor plays important roles in the storage, transport and mill industries. The value of test weight is influenced by many factors. The most important ones are the moisture content of grains, drying temperature, drought, precipitation, early frost, and the hybrid characters of a given genotype (grain type, FAO number). In general, the grain with higher moisture content has lower test weight and the higher temperature during (above 82°C) desiccation also leads to unfavourable values. Factors such as a drought interval after flowering, early frost in the case of hybrids with higher FAO numbers, injuries by insects, as well as fungal infections also influence the structure and moisture content of the maize grain.
In the future, broader studies (hybrid testing, application of new agrotechnical elements) will be needed for understanding of the factors effecting test weight.

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Effect of arsenic treatments on physiological parameters of sunflower and maize plants
Published March 5, 2015

The environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic compounds. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic (As).

The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of As on fresh and dry weight of sunflower and maize in the early growth phases.

Seedlings were grown in climate room on nutrient solut...ion which were treated with 3, 10 and 30 mg kg-1 arsenic. The plants were treated separately with As(III) and As(V). After 14 day, changes in fresh and dry weight of maize shoots and roots were recorded. In the case of sunflower these parameters were measured after 21 day.

The applied As(III) and As(V) decreased the fresh and dry mass of the shoots and roots of seedlings, especially at concentration 30 mg kg-1. We can draw the conclusion that the treatments of the maize and sunflower roots with arsenic had negative effects on the biomass accumulation. We found that the sunflower plants are more sensitive to arsenic toxicity than maize plants, and all data demonstrate that the As(III) is more toxic to these plants than the As(V).

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The effect of and interaction between the biological bases and the agrotechnical factors on maize yield
Published June 30, 2018
The effect of and interaction between the biological bases and the agrotechnical factors on maize yield In our research, we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of m...aize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize. The experiment took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2; therefore, this experiment was half-industrial. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons.
We analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with a control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. The yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare to a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants ha-1.
In 2015, the highest yield was produced by hybrid P9241 with N80+PK and 70 thousand plants per hectare. With the N160+PK fertilizer dosage, the same hybrid responded the best, followed by hybrids P9486 and DKC4717. Using the same fertilizer treatment, the 80 thousand plants per hectare population density resulted in decrease in the yield with most of the examined hybrids. In 2016, with the increase in the number of plants per hectare, even with non-fertilised treatment (control treatment), the yield could be increased in the case of each hybrid.
Averaged over the different hybrids and fertilizer treatments, applying 80 thousand plants ha-1 instead of 60 thousand resulted in 1.0 ha-1 yield increase. In 2017, the number of plants had a slighter effect. With N160+PK treatment, in most cases no significant difference can be observed. The value of LSD5%: plant number: 0.20 t ha-1, hybrid: 0.28 t ha-1, interaction: 0.48 t ha-1. With N160+PK treatment, the hybrids produced yields between 10.07 and 12.45 t ha-1. When examining the three years in the average of the number of plants, with treatment without fertilisation, the average yield of hybrids reached 7.53 t ha-1. With N80+PK treatment, this value was 9.71 t ha-1 and with doubling the fertilizer dosage, this value increased to 10.42 t ha-1. No economic profit was gained as a result of applying double dosage of fertilizer; therefore, the N80+PK dosage can be considered ideal.
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The effect of NPK fertilization and the number of plants on the yield of maize hybrids with different genetic base in half-industrial experiment
Published March 23, 2016

In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of maize.

The experiment ...took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2, this it was a halfindustrial experiment. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. Yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare at a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants/ha.

In Hajdúszoboszló, in 2015 the amount of rainfall from January to October was 340.3 mm, which was less than the average of 30 years by 105.5 mm. This year was not only draughty but it was also extremely hot, as the average temperature was higher by 1.7 °C than the average of 30 years. In the critical months of the growing season the distribution of precipitation was unfavourable for maize: in June the amount of rainfall was less by 31mm and in July by 42 mm than the average of many years.

Unfavourable effects of the weather of year 2015 were reflected also by our experimental data. The yield of hybrids without fertilization changed between 5.28–7.13 t ha-1 depending on the number of plants.

It can be associated also with the unfavourable crop year that the yield of the six tested hybrids is 6.33 t ha-1 in the average of the stand density of 60, 70 and 80 thousand plants per hectare without fertilization, while it is 7.14 t ha-1 with N80+PK fertilizer treatment. That increase in the yield is only 0.81 t ha-1, but it is significant. Due to the especially draughty weather the yield increasing effect of fertilizers was moderate. In the average of the hybrids and the number of plants, increasing the N80+PK treatment to N160+PK, the yield did not increase but decreased, which is explicable by the water scarcity in the period of flowering, fertilization and grain filling.

The agroecological optimum of fertilization was N 80, P2O5 60 and K2O 70 kg ha-1. Due to the intense water scarcity, increased fertilization caused decrease in the yield. As for the number of plants, 70 000 plants ha-1 proved to be the optimum, and the further increase of the number of plants caused decrease in the yield.

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Occurrence of woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) in Hajdú-Bihar county, Hungary
Published October 30, 2011

Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) is native to East Asia, it spreads in several parts of the World and causes difficulties in plant protection, especially in maize. Difficulties in control of Eriochloa villosa originated from several reasons: seeds continue to germinate later in the season, significant part of seeds emerges fro...m a deep layer of the soil, and the species is less susceptible to some herbicides applied to maize than other annual grass weeds.
The first report on the occurrence of woolly cupgrass in Hungary was published in 2008, and it reported about the appearance of this species near to Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county), however, no information has been added about spread of the weed in Hungary until now.
A significant population was discovered next to Debrecen (Hajdú-Bihar county) in summer, 2011, and then weed associations were examined in maize, sunflower and stubble-fields on several km2 in the area to estimate the Eriochloa villosa infection. The weed species was found on every maize field bordering with a ground cover of 0.5-4%. Woolly cupgrass occurred inside of the 50% of maize fields, and reached a ground cover of 76% in case of most infected area, in addition it was found in sunflower and stubble-fields.
The spread of woolly cupgrass is expected in this area, which requires the consideration of this species in the planning of weed management technologies.

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Phytotoxicity levels in a wet year in an experiment on maize sensitivity to herbicides
Published November 2, 2014

The phytotoxic effects of herbicides applied pre-, early post- and post-emergence were studied in maize in a herbicide sensitivity experiment were set up in Martonvásár and Törökszentmiklós. The herbicides were applied in normal and in double doses to 37 Martonvásár inbred lines and to six parental single crosses. The small-plot experime...nts were set up in two replications. The wet weather that followed the pre- and early post-emergence treatments promoted the appearance of phytotoxic symptoms on maize. The degree of phytotoxicity was recorded on the 14th day after post-emergence treatment and on the 14th and 28th days after the pre- and early postemergence treatments. Herbicides applied pre-emergence only caused slight symptoms on maize. Although the double dose increased the damage, it was still not more than 5% on average. The symptoms caused by herbicides applied in the early post-emergence stage were more intensive than those detected in the pre-emergence treatments. However, the damage caused by the double dose of isoxaflutol + thiencarbazone-methyl and by the split treatment with nicosulfuron remained below 10%. The symptoms became somewhat more severe at the 2nd scoring date. Among the post-emergence treatments the maize genotypes had the least tolerance of the mesotrione + nicosulfuron combination of active ingredients, where the double quantities resulted in 13–14% damage in average.

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The scientific background of competitive maize production
Published September 5, 2018

The effect and interaction of crop production factors on maize yield has been examined for nearly 40 years at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen in a long-term field experiment that is unique and acknowledged in Europe. The research aim is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, tillage, genotype, sowing, plant densit...y, crop protection and irrigation. The analysis of the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate maize yield, as well as the effect of crop production factors and crop year, as well as the interaction between these factors.

Based on the different tillage methods, it can be concluded that autumn ploughing provides the highest yield, but its effect significantly differed in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The periodical application of strip tillage is justified in areas with favourable soil conditions and free from compated layers (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening). Under conditions prone to drought, but especially in several consecutive years, a plant density of 70–80 thousand crops per hectare should be used in the case of favourable precipitation supply, but 60 thousand crops per hectare should not be exceeded in dry crop years. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation is significant both under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it is much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment.

Selecting the optimum sowing date is of key importance from the aspect of maize yield, especially in dry crop years. Irrigation is not enough in itself without intensive nutrient management, since it may lead to yield decrease.

The results of research, development and innovation, which are based on the performed long-term field experiment, contribute to the production technological methods which provide an opportunity to use sowing seeds, fertilisers and pesticides in a regionally tailored and differentiated way, adapted to the specific needs of the given plot, as well as to plan each operation and to implement precision maize production.

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Effect of Copper, Zinc and Lead and Their Combinations on the Germination Capacity of Two Cereals
Published December 14, 2004

The majority of researchers have studied the following group of microelements: B, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na, Co, Mo, I, Sn, Cl, Al, V, F, Cr, Hg, Cs, Li, Cd, As, Th, Rb, Cr, W, Ti, Sn, Se, Ba, Br. Sporadically, the following elements have been mentioned too: Au, Ra, Hg and Pb. In this study, the effects of copper treatments and their combination with zinc... and lead microelements on the germination of maize and barley were investigated using different concentrations of these microelements. Six treatments were used: 1. Copper-sulphate (CuSO4) applied alone, 2. Zinc-sulphate (ZnSO4) applied alone, 3. Copper applied with zinc, 4. Lead-nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) applied alone, 5. Copper applied with lead and 6. Untreated control. Maize (Kiskun SC 297) and barley caryopsis were treated with copper and zinc solutions in the following concentrations: 0.03%, 0.003% and 0.0003%. Maize and barley caryopsis were treated with these solutions for 12 and 24 hours. Maize and barley caryopsis were also treated with lead solutions Pb(NO3)2 with different concentrations: 0.0005%, 0.005% and 0.05%. Maize and barley were treated with these solutions for 12 and 24 hours. In the combined treatments (3 and 5), the same concentration was used for each microelement as in treatments 1, 2 and 4. Control treatments were treated with water for both plant species. Our results showed that copper microelements significantly inhibit germination compared to the untreated control. The toxicity of copper is higher if concentration increases. Zinc microelements also inhibit germination, however its effect highly depends on the microelement concentration. Treatments of copper + zinc also inhibit germination. The two microelements applied together cause more phytotoxicity than they do alone. Lead is highly toxic to plants even in low concentrations. The toxic effect on germination dramatically increased when lead was applied with copper.

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Using research findings in precision maize production
Published November 13, 2012

The effect of crop production factors on maize yield are examined on chernozem soil in a more than 30 year old long-term experiment on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The aim of research is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, cultivation, plant numbe...r, genorype and irrigation. The analysis of the data in the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate the effect of maize yield, as well as that of the crop production factors and the crop year, while the correlations and interactions between these factors were also examined. During the examination of the cultivation treatments, it was concluded that the highest yield was obtained as a result of autumn ploughing, but its effect largely differs in the irrigated and the nonirrigated treatments. Based on our examinations, strip cultivation should be applied periodically (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening) in areas with favourable soil conditions free from compacted layers. 
In years with smaller, average precipitation supply or when the precipitation was higher than average, higher plant numbers were more favourable. Under drier conditions, but especially in several consecutively dry years, a lower plant number can be recommended which is not higher than 60 thousand per hectare. In the case of favourable water supply, 70-80 thousand plants per hectare can be  used. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was significant in the case of both non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it was much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment. The extent of weed coverage was significantly affected by the previous crop. In the case of a favourable previous crop (wheat), the weed coverage was significantly lower than after an unfavourable previous crop (maize). In the case of the same previous crop (maize), the extent of weed coverage was mostly determined by the crop year and the extent of precipitation supply. Irrigation is not enough in itself, because if it was not accompanied by intensive nutrient management, yields started to decline.
The results of researhc, development and innovation contributed to the technological method which makes it possible to apply locally adjusted sowing seed, fertiliser and pesticide in a differentiated way, as well as to change the method of operations within the given plot.

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Examination of Zn deficiency on some physiological parameters in case of maize and cucumber seedlings
Published October 5, 2010

Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient needed not only for people, but also crops. Almost half of the world’s cereal crops are deficient in
Zn, leading to poor crop yields. In fact, one-third (33%) of the world's population is at risk of Zn deficiency in rates, ranging from 4% to
73% depending on the given country. Zn deficiency in agr...icultural soils is also a major global problem affecting both crop yield and quality.
The Zn contents of soils in Hungary are medium or rather small. Generally, the rate of Zn deficiency is higher on sand, sandy loam or soil
types of large organic matter contents. High pH and calcium carbonate contents are the main reasons for the low availability of Zn for
plants (Karimian and Moafpouryan, 1999). It has been reported that the high-concentration application of phosphate fertilisers reduces Zn
availability (Khosgoftarmanesh et al., 2006). Areas with Zn deficiency are particularly extensive in Békés, Fejér and Tolna County in
Hungary, yet these areas feature topsoils of high organic matter contents. Usually, Zn is absorbed strongly in the upper part the soil, and it
has been observed that the uptakeable Zn contents of soil are lower than 1.4 mg kg-1.
Maize is one of the most important crops in Hungary, grown in the largest areas, and belongs to the most sensitive cultures to Zn
deficiency. Zn deficiency can causes serious damage in yield (as large as 80 %), especially in case of maize. On the other hand, Zn
deficiency can also cause serious reduction in the yields of dicots. One of the most important vegetables of canning industry is cucumber,
which is grown all over the world.
In this study, the effects of Zn deficiency have investigated on the growth of shoots and roots, relative and absolute chlorophyll contents,
fresh and dry matter accumulation, total root and shoot lengths, the leaf number and leaf area of test plants in laboratory. Experimental
plants used have been maize (Zea mays L. cv. Reseda sc.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Delicatess). A monocot and dicot plant have
chosen a to investigate the effects of Zn deficiency, because they have different nutrient uptake mechanism.
It has been observed that the unfavourable effects of Zn deficiency have caused damage in some physiological parameters, and
significantly reduced the growth, chlorophyll contents of monocots and dicots alike.

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The effect of plant density to the yield results and the yield components of maize hybrids
Published May 16, 2017

Maize is the crop that is produced on the second largest area in our country, in Hungary. It is planted on nearly 25% of the country’s growing area and it was produced on 1 090 439 hectares in 2016. Despite the continuous development of the biological basis and production
technology, the growth of the yield results is not constant, its flu...ctuation is significant. It can be even up to 60%, because of the extremity of the years. The exploitation of the yield potential of modern hybrids is possible if we harmonize the effects of the ecological factors and properly applied instruments of agro technology and by these we ensure their interaction to reach a favorable outcome. The applied plant density is an important, well researched, but at industrial level a not enough utilized element of the maize production.
The results of the extensive tests, done between 2009 and 2015, showed that the genotype, the year effect and the plant density are in strong correlation with each other determining the yield results. In the past seven years the examined genotypes reached the highest yield
performance at the highest plant densities. The early hybrids (RM90–95, FAO 200–300) are capable of producing them at higher plant density, while in case of the mid and late maturity varieties the further increasing of the density after reaching the optimum level led to yield depression.
According to our experimental results, the yield is in close positive correlation with the increase of the plant density. The effect of the growing season has great significance in forming the yield results and this determines the applicable plant density too.
The yield of maize is determined by a resultant of components. The main component is the number of ears per plant and the amount of kernels per ear, which is calculated from the number of kernels on an ear and the weight of them. The number of the kernels on an ear is
calculated from the number of rows on the cob multiplied by the number of seeds in one row on the cob. In dry years, at lower yield levels the yield decreases because of the shorter ears, while at the higher levels the number of kernels in a row and the thousand-kernel weight decreases,causing yield depression this way. From our examinations it turned out that the plant density reaction of a genotype is individual, every variety reaches its maximum kernel number per hectare – in other words the maximum yield - in an individual way.

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Evaluation of Two Heat Sum Calculation Methods in Maize Production
Published December 6, 2005

Maize production is of primary importance in Hungary, especially considering that its cultivation takes up one of the greatest ratios of land used for agricultural production. As a result, the number of farms where maize is not cultivated for either food production or foraging purposes is insignificant. For this reason, establishing economic pr...oduction is of decisive importance when it comes to determining the efficiency of farms. Profitable maize production depends on a number of conditions, including the professional suitability of farmers, while some aspects of production are independent from these. Heat-sum calculations form a transition from this aspect, since temperatures ocuring during the growing season cannot be influenced by man. However, the method of calculation and evaluation and thus the tool to improve production is in the hands of the farmer. This scientific paper aims to give a general description of heat-sum calculation methods.

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Effects of different crop years and sowing date on maize yield
Published April 23, 2014

We carried out the tests in the flood meadow soil formed on the alluvial cone of Nagykereki, Sebes-Körös belonging to the Bihar plane small region. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the different sowing date of maize on the yield trend based on a comprehensive study conducted for 6 years (2007–2012).

The sowing date ...of maize hybrids is a factor that significantly influences yield, however, its effect is not significant in each crop year. In the years when the date of sowing has a modifying effect, the reliable yield level can be reached with optimal sowing date management (24 April).

The advantage of early sowing (10 April) proved to be dominant in the year of 2012, the seeds were placed into the still wet soil therefore shooting was more balanced. Maize seeds sown at the time of optimal (24 April) and late (10 May) sowing dates were placed into the already dry soil, which deteriorated germination and the strength of early initial development that had an effect on the yield.

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Gene Bank Developed by Induced Mutation for Selection
Published March 4, 2006

Heterosis breeding in maize caused gene erosion by using uniform inbred lines. In order to strengthen the genetic base, we established a gene bank containing lines with broad genetic variability, resistance and adaptability. The maize gene bank is a result of our work in the past two decades.
The gene bank originated from treatments of maize... seeds of hybrids and inbred lines with fast neutrons. The 1500 maize lines have great genetic variability which can be exploited after strict assessment and selection. As a result of the past several years, P 26, P 61 and P 62 lines have been released after DUS investigation in 2001.

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Challenges and limtations of site specific crop production applications of wheat and maize
Published November 13, 2012

The development and implementation of precision agriculture or site-specific farming has been made possible by combining the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Site specific agronomic applications are of high importance concerning the efficiency of management in crop production as well as the protectio...n and maintenance of environment and nature. Precision crop production management techniques were applied at four locations to evaluate their impact on small plot units sown by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in a Hungarian national case study. The results obtained suggest the applicability of the site specific management techniques, however the crops studied responded in a different way concerning the impact of applications. Maize had a stronger response regarding grain yield and weed canopy. Wheat was responding better than maize concerning plant density and protein content performance.

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Comparative study of a winter wheat variety and hybrid sown after different pre-crops on chernozem soil
Published May 23, 2019

Wheat production is a determining branch within Hungarian crop production (produced on nearly one million hectares). Weather anomalies caused by climatic change confirmed the importance of the biological background (variety, hybrid) in wheat production. The adapting ability and reaction of different wheat genotypes towards nutrient supply were ...studied in a long-term field experiment on chernozem soil type in the case of different pre-crops (sunflower and maize). According to the experimental results of the vegetation of 2017/2018, the yield of the variety Ingenio sown after the sunflower as previous crop ranged between 4168 and 8734 kg ha-1, while in the case of maize as previous crop, this value ranged between 2084 and 7782kg ha-1, depending on the applied nutrient supply level. The studied genotypes produced rather significant yield surplus as a response to the application of mineral fertilization (4.6–5.1 t ha-1 after sunflower and 5.7–6.3 t ha-1 after maize). Optimal mineral fertilizer dosage was determined by both the genotype and the pre-crop. N-optimum values of wheat genotypes was determined using regression analysis. In the case of the variety Ingenio sown after sunflower, the optimum range was N144-150+PK, while after maize, it was
N123-150+PK, respectively. For the hybrid Hyland, these optimum ranges were N114-120+PK, just as N150-153+PK, resp. The application of optimal mineral fertilizer dosages improved water utilization of the studied wheat genotypes to a significant extent. WUE values of the control, unfertilized treatments ranged between 4.1–8.3 kg mm-1, while in optimal fertilizer treatment, it ranged between 15.5 and 17.4 kg mm-1.

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Impact of environmental changes resulting from different sowing dates on maize yield
Published February 25, 2014

Three Debrecen maize hybrids of different genotypes (Debreceni 285, Debreceni 377 and Debreceni 382) were examined on chernozem soil in a field experiment. During the two years of the experiment (2009–2010), we wanted to get to know how the examined hybrids reach to different sowing dates and what impact early, optimal and late sowing has on ...yield.

In 2009, balanced soil and air temperature resulted in steady emergence. However, the low temperature in early April and the cooling down in mid-May 2010 caused a delayed emergence.

The grain moisture content at harvesting and the high yield showed a strong crop year effect. In 2010, yield was much lower (1.664 t ha-1) and grain moisture was significantly higher (34%)than in 2009.

In 2009, early sowing resulted in yield decrease (P<0.05), but it also significantly reduced grain moisture at harvesting (P<0.05). Although late sowing slightly increased yield (not significantly), but grain moisture at harvesting increased by 9.2%. In 2010, optimal sowing date was shown to be the best alternative from the aspect of yield, but there was no significant difference in comparison with early and late sowing. Grain moisture at harvesting greatly increased (13.3%).

The Debreceni 382 maize hybrid reacted to sowing dates flexibly, neither early, nor late sowing affected its yield significantly and the grain moisture at harvesting showed 12% increase in the case of the late sowing date. In 2009, maize hybrids Debreceni 285 and Debreceni 377 reached their highest yield in the case of the sowing date which was shown to be optimal (23rd April), while the different sowing dates had no effect on yield in 2010.

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Evaluation of dry matter accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published June 30, 2018

The increase of the grain yield of maize is closely correlated with its seasonal dry matter accumulation. Dry matter is accumulated into the grain yield during the grain filling period. The following maize hybrids were involved in the experiment: Armagnac FAO 490, Loupiac FAO 380 and Sushi FAO 340. In order to determine dry matter content, two ...samples per week were taken on the following days: 22nd, 25th, 28th, 31st August, 4th, 7th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th September and 2nd, 6th, 9th, 13th October. In the course of sampling the weight of 100 grains from the middle section of 4 ears was measured in 4 replications. Dry matter content was determined after drying to constant weight in a drying cabinet at 60 °C. Harvesting was performed on 13th October 2017.

The daily precipitation sum was determined by local measurements, while the daily radiation and temperature data were provided by the Meteorological Observatory Debrecen of the National Meteorological Service in Budapest. Among the agrometeorological parameters, an analysis was made of the precipitation during the growing season, effective heat sums during the vegetative and generative phase, and the water supplies. The daily heat sums were determined using the algorithm proposed.

The amount of precipitation in the winter period before the 2017 growing season was 210 mm. The soil was saturated until its field capacity. The rather dry and warm March and April had a favourable effect, but there was no worthy amount of precipitation until May (51 mm) due to the condition of the dried seedbed. Sowing was performed on the 5th of May 2017 in a randomised small plot experiment. There was favourable precipitation and temperature during the growing season, thereby providing ideal conditions for maize development, growth and yield formation. There was near average amount of precipitation in each year. The total amount of precipitation in the summer period is 342 mm. Temperature was mostly above the average, but there was no long and extremely warm period.

The Armagnac hybrid reached its highest dry matter mass 126 days after emergence. Physiological maturity was reached sooner (on the 119th day) in the case of Loupiac, and even sooner in the case of Sushi (116th day). The thousand grain weight of Sushi (which has the shortest ripening period) was 286 g at the time of physiological maturity, while that of Loupiac was 311 g. Compared to Sushi, Armagnac showed 12 g more dry matter accumulation (306 g). In the case of all three examined hybrids, physiological maturity was preceded by an intensive phase, when the dynamics of dry matter accumulation was rather quick. On average, Sushi gained 2.8 g dry matter per day between 103 days following emergence and physiological maturity, while the same values were 3.2 g for Armagnac and 3.3 g for Loupiac. The aim of the regression line slope is to predict the behavior of the dependent variable with the knowledge of the values and characteristics of the independent variables using the regression line equation. Furthermore, to determine how the location affected the dynamic of dry matter accumulation in the Armagnac, Loupiac and Sushi hybrids. In regression analysis, the coefficient of explanation showed that the effect of day in the Armagnac was 97%, in the Loupiac 94%, in the Sushi 90 %. The determination coefficient (R2) is useful in determing how the regression equation fits. But, as we have seen, the determination coefficient alone is not sufficient to verify the model’s accuracy, in addition to the determination coefficient (R2), the normality of the data or the residuals, the variance of the variables at different levels, the independence of the data relative to time and non-oblique. Observations are evaluated for the correctness of the fitted model.

Dry matter values decreased evenly and slightly following physiological maturity. According to our research results, it was established that physiological maturity is followed by a moderate dry matter loss. Until harvesting, Armagnac lost 40 g of its thousand mass weight in 29 days, while the same value pairs were 69 g in 36 days for Loupiac and 29 g in 39 days for Sushi. Loupiac – which had the highest weight at the time of physiological maturity – lost the most of its dry weight; therefore, Armagnac and Sushi had higher values at the time of harvesting.

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Evaluation of the correlation between SPAD readings and absolute chlorophyll content of maize under different nitrogen supply conditions
Published December 15, 2019

Currently, one of the most important objectives of agriculture is to maintain the principles of the sustainability. The use of precision technologies in agriculture belongs to this topic. The use of precision technologies is increasingly widespread in the cultivation of various agricultural crops, including maize. Sensing is an important part o...f these techniques. In our experiment we compared two methods: measuring relative chlorophyll content and the method of determine the extractable chlorophylls. The experimental plant was maize (Zea mays L.) and the measurements were performed at an early development stage (V8) of three genotypes. Three levels of nitrogen (0; 80; 160 kg ha-1) were applied during the experiment. The relative chlorophyll content was measured by SPAD-502 (Minolta, Japan) and a handheld GreenSeeker (Trimble, USA) device. The extractable total chlorophyll content decreased in parallel with the increased nitrogen level. The obtained SPAD values were diversified furthermore the NDVI values have not been changed for the effect of different nitrogen fertilization. In the early stages of development of maize, these parameters need to be complemented with other measurements to provide reliable information about the crops nitrogen status.

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Mycotoxin contamination in maize triggered by arthropod pests and the related protection possibilities
Published May 16, 2017

Mycotoxin contamination in harvested maize has increased in the last decades, which can be unequivocally back to the plant health troubles caused by global warming. The increasing of wounds in maize crops was occurred by climate change both on direct (hailstorm) and indirect
(newly appeared pests) ways. In additional, the settling phytopatho...genic microfungi on these plant wounds inflict serious human and animal health problems.
The changing of Hungarian arthropod pests assemblages stand in the background of this dangerous nuisance complex. The spreading of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) bivoltine ecotype as well as the newly appeared adventive species [cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Hbn.), western corn rootworm (Diabrotica v. virgifera LeConte), fourspotted-sapbeetle (Glischrochilus quadrisignatus Say)] in Hungary can be responsible for this situation. In total, all technological elements, which obstruct the damage of these chewing mouthparts pests, as well as moderate the mechanical damage of maize, can be contribute to the reduction of both these phytopathogens injuries and mycotoxin contaminations.

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Analysis of maize and sunflower plants treated by molybdenum in rhizobox experiment
Published March 5, 2015

In this study, maize (Zea mays L. cv. Norma SC) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Arena PR) seedlings treated by molybdenum (Mo) that were cultivated in special plant growth boxes, known as rhizoboxes. During our research we tried to examine whether increasing molybdenum (Mo) concentration effects on the dry mass and absorption of some ele...ments (molybdenum, iron, sulphur) of shoots and roots of experimental plants.

In this experiment calcareous chernozem soil was used and Mo was supplemented into the soil as ammonium molybdate [(NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O] in four different concentrations as follow: 0 (control), 30, 90 and 270 mg kg-1.

In this study we found that molybdenum in small amount (30 mg kg-1) affected positively on growth of maize and sunflower seedlings, however, further increase of Mo content reduced the dry weights of shoots and roots. In case of maize the highest Mo treatment (270 mg kg-1) and in case of sunflower 90 mg kg-1 treatment caused a significant reduction in plant growth.

In addition, we observed that molybdenum levels in seedling were significantly elevated with increasing the concentration of molybdenum treatment in comparison with control but the applied molybdenum treatments did not affect iron and sulphur concentration in all cases significantly.

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Productivity and Nutrient Reaction of Maize Hybrids
Published December 6, 2005

Several factors influence the quantity and stability of maize yield, the most important being the nutrient supply, the hybrid and precipitation. In 2004, during the maize growing season the precipitation was more than the 30 year’s average, with 68.3 mm, but the distribution was unfavorable. The experiment was carried out in Debrecen at the E...xperimental Station of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production and Applied Ecology. We tested 10 various hybrids with their own genetic characteristics for five different fertilizer doses, in addition to the parcels without fertilization.
The favorable results reached were due to the rainy season. The average yield varied between 7.78-9.67 tha-1. The DK 440, PR37M34, PR38A24, PR39D81 and PR36R10 of the hybrids reacted to higher fertilizer doses with significant growth yields, the yield (more than 11 tha-1) was the highest for N200, P125, K150 fertilizing. The other hybrids, DKC 5211, Mv Vilma and MV Maraton, gave similar results at the N120+PK fertilizer dose and the ensuing doses depressed the yield. Fertilization was more effective thanks to the precipitation. The fourth and fifth dose increased or decreased maize yield depending on the nutrient reaction of the hybrid. The agro-ecological optimum of NPK fertilization was N120, P75, K90 kgha-1.
During the experiment we tested the moisture loss of five hybrids. The rainy crop year’s effect on the seed moisture content at harvest was higher than in previous years. The seed moisture content hybrids at harvest which have shorter crop years (FAO 300) was 18-19%, and hybrids with longer vegetation periods had more than 20% seed moisture content. DK 440 hybrid had the intensive moisture loss of the five hybrids, at the start of the measurement, the seed moisture content was higher than 40%, and it decreased to 18.6% by harvesting.

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The effect of crop year and agrotechnical factors on the yield of various maturity groups of Limagrain maize hybirds
Published July 18, 2012

The Limagrain maize hybrids in different maturity groups were examined at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Debrecen on a calcareous chernozem soil with loam texture, between 2001 and 2007 in a multifactorial long-term field trial. Doses of fertilizers: 1 N:0.75 P2...b>O5:0.88 K2O fixed proportion of NPK doses. The basic dose of nitrogen is 30 kg ha-1. The application of fertilization was 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 times more than the basic dose, beside of untreated control. The long-term field trial is performed in none irrigated and in irrigated version.
The goal of the study was to analyze the effect of precipitation (environment factor) in one hand, and to evaluate the effect of fertilization and irrigation (agrotechnical factors) on the yield of maize hybrids in different maturity groups in the other hand. At the same time I studied the effect of interaction of different factors on the yield of maize. 

Analysis the yield of Limagrain hybrids revealed: the years considerably affected the level of the yield. In dry years the yield was 1.351 t ha-1 less, than in rainy years. As the effect of fertilization the yield increased, the statistically proved biggest increment was at level of 90 kg N ha-1. Evaluating the maturity groups, FAO 300 hybrids reached higher level of yield. 
In non irrigated conditions in the average of the seven years 60 kg N ha-1 was sufficient to reach the maximum yield. The efficiency of fertilization on yield in irrigated version increased, 120 kg N ha-1 assured the reliable level of yield. 
Without irrigation in comparison to the results of FAO 200 group, with the growth of FAO numbers the yield is increasing in all cases. The most significant increase was at FAO 300 (3.562 t ha-1). With irrigation the greatest difference in yield was in FAO 400 (+2.720 t ha-1) compared to FAO 200.

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