This paper tries to find connections between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretation of sustainability from the view...point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change, the polarization of landscapes, will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region form two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of landscape. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analysing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation and the tasks of the future within the subject matters.
In harmony with European tendencies, the role of agriculture and its share in GDP output, as well as in employment, is continuously decreasing in Hungary and Hajdú-Bihar County. At the same time, according to the specialized literature, the role of agriculture is still extremely important in the income of the rural population and in easing the... present social tensions, and this will not change in the future. The economic and social processes of the last one and a half decades caused radical changes in agriculture. The above-mentioned processes resulted in new property and organizational structure in the field of leasehold and land structure. The rational land concentration which came to pass in the last few years can be mentioned as a favourable tendency that improves the efficiency of agricultural activities, as well as the more effective land usage accompanied by this process. In addition, it supports the integration with principles formulated in the Common Agricultural Policy. In this study, I survey the effects of established processes and the change of land usage in the case of individual family enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County. The choice of the examination area was motivated by the higher proportion of agricultural area in comparison with the national average and the fact that this sector has great importance today, too.
Issues of nitrogen are still of particular importance in crop sciences. 15N-tracer are used to identify the N dynamics in soils and the N transfer between soil and plant. This tool is also helpful in clarifying fertilization problems.
This article points out the special requirements for the application of stable 15N-isotops in agri-chemical
Change in chemical composition and nutritive value of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaroides arundinacea) were investigated in springtime in 2004-2006. The nutritive value of Reed Canary Grass was observed between the end of April and the middle of June relating to the following parameters: crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, ash, N-free extract, ne...t-energy growth, net-energy maintenance, Metabolizable Protein Energy dependent,
Metabolizable Protein N-dependent.
It was also analysed whether a relationship between the climatic factors affecting the growing period as well the chemical composition of grasses and the annual weather were looked for. For the estimation of weather conditions the climate index was calculated. A correlation can be detected between the change of parameters of nutritive value and the quality of the current year. Between 2004 and 2006, the result of the analysis of nutritive value indicated a significant difference with respect to each chemical composition at the rate of P<0.01 depending on the time when the samples were taken. According to the outlined data it can be stated that the change of the value of crude protein and ash show decreasing endency agreeing the research literature. In parallel with the change of nutritive value, the amount of crude fibre and N-free extract increased. However, the value of Net-Energy maintenance revealed an alteration only in the first half of the observed period. The same alteration tendency can be detected
in the Net-Energy growth.
Microelements are increasingly becoming into the focus of interest from both a point of view of nutrition science and feeding. An always growing care must be paid to the microelements coverage both in human and animal organisms because of incorrect alimentation habits and
unsatisfactory feedstuff nutrition value. For the increased supply of
We would like to draw the attention that the production of these items is more favourable in comparison with traditional foodstuffs or forage since yeasts are capable to multiply microelement levels compared to their original state, and establish organic bonds with them.
For this purpose, we explored and analysed the scientific literature, studies and research results on this subject, that is why we stressed the significance of yeasts, the features and health effects of certain microelements, as well as the possibilities for use of yeasts enriched with micro-nutrients.
Management is one of the ancient activities. Managerial behaviour helped humans to become sociable creatures. The aims and roles of management have continually changed along with social and economic changes. Some management theories in the early literature interpret the managerial function as „to instruct” and „to control” subordinates.... The manager – having the appropriate authority – unilaterally appoints the expected activities in accordance with the objectives of the organization and his/her own wish. Its form is the instruction or the command.
Later, organizations and management theories defined the managerial function rather as the impact on the employees than (or instead of) a unilateral manifestation of will. These focus on collaboration and imitation instead of on obedience. These theories were based on the fact that the employees work hard to succeed in meeting organizational goals because they want to meet their own needs, desires and wishes.
Today, management means being in a relationship with colleagues, effective and successful working methods and, last but not least, commitment and liability for the company. The responsibilities of directors are to estimate the employees’ competences and to apply the workforce expediently.
In our opinion, the two most important questions of human resource management (HRM) will be:
• the expectations made of the manager by the subordinates,
• the expectations made of the subordinates by the manager.
The expectations of management have continuously evolved along with the social, political and economical improvement. We consider the most important requirements will be the following:
• the exploitation of employees’ abilities (especially the leaders’),
• the exploitation of human resource,
• aim-oriented leadership related to different management levels.
The actual research covers only the examination of managerial requirements. We experienced that the expectations are affected by many factors starting with the fulfillment of a specific task to the social environment as a whole. Managements of the last century did not require such self-reliance, creativity and broad knowledge from their subordinates as they do today. Employees have to be able to adapt to new tasks, technology and methods; have to react quickly against the problems; and be loyal to the company and the manager.
We plan to expand our research backwards as well, in which we will search for the answer what kind of expectations are formulated by subordinates on the manager. Thus, we can approach and reveal the expectations (the examined factors) from two sides.
Due to this method, we would like to work out such coherences which can help us to demonstrate the opinions of the differently qualified employees of the organisations. The applied method provides us facilities to carry it out in various organisational parameters, such as functional form, size, effectiveness, range of activity.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Change is a natural characteristic of organisations at the end of the twentieth century and in the upcoming ages. The dynamism of the environmental effects and the heterogeneity of the environment urge organisations to continuously adapt to these changes. It means that organisations and clusters which are more or less agglomeration of organizations should be open to external influences and those organisations responding faster are more viable. From the professional literature several change management methods and tools are known. However, few sources deal with clusters. A cluster is also a unique organizational structure: its specialty lies in the fact that even large clusters are built up from smaller organisations in an environment where flexibility, rapid economic decisions and high level buoyancy is needed. The question is whether the general change management methods and approaches can be interpreted regarding clusters.
Although sheep breeding in Hungary is grounded in strong traditions, its activities only comprise 1% of the total production value generated from agriculture, and 2% of that for animal-based products. The most significant portion of incomes earned in the Hungarian sheep sector has, for years now, stemmed from the sale of live animals. The secto...r is decidedly export-oriented, as the domestic demand for its main product, i.e. lamb meat, and is minimal, equaling some 20-30dkg per person per year. Part of the sold animals is sold to market as dairy sheep, while the greater
part is sold in the category of lamb carcasses. For this reason, the average weight of slaughter sheep has lied between 19-22 kg for years now. The target markets for live lamb sales are predominately Italy and Greece. In Greece, movement on this market has shown an upward tendency in recent years; noteworthy are also sales to Austria, Holland, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Poland. In 2003, we exported sheep meat in the form of carcasses to Italy, as well as to Germany, and of these exports, 94% went to Italy, while the remaining 6% went to Germany.
Among sheep products, only the trade balance for live animal sales is positive. But even for such producers, only those who are specialized in intensive breeding and those sheep farms “targeting” meat production can obtain earnings. Specialized literature on the sector argues that the quality of Hungarian lamb has diminished dramatically and is beginning to lose its market position. If Hungarian lamb does not meet market expectations, then it will only be bought from producers at lower prices.
My research focuses on those factors which influence price. I separately discuss the question of quality, as one of the most important decisive factors on price. Within this discussion, I describe the market expectations which actually have an effect on the acceptance of live animals for sale on commission. In practice, after the problems of quality, the next most important question is that of when sale is made. In the course of my research, I studied the development of averages for sales on commission of live lambs using statistical methods. The most important problem of this sector is the hierarchical system used in sales: this is the topic hich neither the producer, nor the buyer, wish to discuss, not even with each other. On the basis of the information at my disposal, I outlined the levels of traders and individual levels used to arrive at commission prices. Finally, I examined the components of the production value of live lamb sales. The results I obtained quantified the key role of the prices and the yield, as well as the factors influencing income.
The hinge of the lupine crop cultivation technology is the sowing time and the determination of the breeding area. According to the literature the early sowing (as soon as possible to go to the soil) and larger growing area is recommended for seed production. Based on the results of our 2 years experiment, the effect of sowing time and differen...t spacing is important on yield of white lupine, and the effect of the sowing time is more significant. A decrease in the yield was observed after later sowings. The yield and the rate of its decreasing was varied in one year and among different years depending on wheather condition and sowing time.
The role of sowing time is significant for protein content of seeds. The average protein content decreased due to the later sowings in 2014, while 2015 the protein content of seeds in early sowing time and of plants sowed 4 weeks later was similar. We measured less protein content in the 2. sowing time sowed 2 weeks later than the first one. In the studied years the average protein content of seeds from different row spaces were not different.
In our days, ecologiacal and economic models of agricultural application are of ever increasing significance. These provide an opportunity for more accurate planning, and thus can favourably influence the efficiency and the economic situation of the given enterprise. The relevant literature divides models according to various criteria. The most... common is the division between optimising and non-optimising models. Non-olptimising models generally endeavour to make the best use of technological lines, of machine capacity, while optimising models are used to optimise revenues returns from sales; or occasionally, production costs. In our case revenue and returns from sales were optimised. The models examined consists of several modules. These are the following: plant cultivation modules, evaluations (assessment of situation, conception plan, complex corporate evaluation), supplementary sheets (sheets and charts for ancillary plant production, general costs of operation, summary and crops structure optimisation). With the help of the model annual plans of plant cultivation can be made an optimal crop structure may be planned with the resources of the enterprise taken into consideration, and thereby it becomes possible to define the largest net revenue on a corporate level.
In this study we focus on paleontological sites in the area of Lake Manyara and the Makuyuni River Basin, Northern Tanzania. This region is known for Middle Pleistocene fossil finds and artefacts. To analyze the spatial distribution of potential paleontological find locations we applied two different methodologies based on statistical mechanics... and on boosted regression trees. The first one is able to handle presence-only datasets such as the locations proper. The second approach was used to study the variable importance and to derive information on the related geo-processes for classified paleontological sites. The locations and their spatial distribution were retrieved from literature and collected by own field work over the last years. For the modeling we utilized environmental information such as spatially continuous layers of topography (30 m SRTM DEM), derivatives of topography, vegetation information as well as ASTER multispectral data as predictor variables. The results reveal
potential areas where further fossil sites may be located. Moreover, we assessed the processes that are related to sites with specific archaeological evidences. Therefore, the sites were grouped in three categories: i) artefacts sites, ii) fossil sites and iii) mixed sites. We applied boosted regression trees to analyse the processes related to the classified sites. The methodology considers not only site specific characteristics but implicitly also the related pedogenetic and morphogenetic processes. We were able to differentiate between artefact and fossil sites. Moreover, our analyses indicate an influence of transportation processes on the artefacts, whereas deposition of fossils does not seem to involve large scale transportation. Finally, we show that also the landscape can be reconstructed such as the former lake margin.
Literature sources mention 18 fish species from the Hejő watershed. In order to learn more about the fauna, we studied the brook and its tributaries between 2003–2005. We detected a total of 32 fishspecies, 17 of which are new for the watershed. Most of these are native species (Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus leuciscus, Leuciscus idus, Aspius as...pius, Leucaspius delineatus, Gobio albipinnatus, Abramis bjoerkna, Abramis ballerus, Lota lota, Gymnocephalus cernuus, Sander lucioperca), but there are some adventive ones (Pseudorasbora parva, Carassius gibelio, Ameiurus melas, Lepomis gibbosus, Perccottus glenii) and a spontaneously immigrated species as well (Proterorhinus marmoratus).
Specific natural values of the watershed are the isolated population of minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) in Kulcsárvölgyi Brook and the frequently occurring mudminnow (Umbra krameri) in the lower reach of Hejő Brook.
In my study, I examine the possibility of the reduction of green electric power’s gross production cost. My research topic may have wider considerations, since in the case of CHP technology the utilization of by-product thermal energy is not possible, and the whole production cost devolves upon green electric power. I introduce five options f...or the use of the heat energy, based on national and international literature and in-depth interviews.
From the aspect of efficiency, it can be stated that as alternatives, beer production and desiccation may be mentioned, since these two models were appropriate for the utilization of the total quantity of waste heat, and in the given circumstances the lowest reduction of green electric power’s production costs was achieved in these cases utmost.
Due to its manifold nutritional-physiological effects, table beet root would deserve more attention. Its active components and their role in human therapy and prevention should rank it higher in our list of vegetables.
The actual some 100 ha area under beet root could be considerably increased, if its role in nutrition and its varied product
Most of the physiologically favourable effects are related to its pigment content. Pigment content can be increased by choosing proper varieties and applying cultural methods which, favourably influence red pigment synthesis (optimal sowing date).
The high Mg-content and advantageous ion ratio must also be mentioned. They can be increased by Mg leaf fertilisation, as can solids content and foliage resistance.
The special knowledge accumulated in literature ought to be made known to experts so as to help them to set up trials and to introduce results into practice.
The aim of our research was the examination of breast-milk composition from mothers living in the Csík region and to follow their milk composition variations during lactation. In this article we present the results obtained from three mothers, paying particular attention to essential components. The breast milk samples were collected from heal...thy mothers with similar habits and age. The milk samples were collected with a hand pump at the
same time after the feeding. The sampling period was from day 5 to the 14th weeks of lactation. The nutrition of mothers was recorded on a questionnaire, completed by the mothers themselves. Comparing our experimental results with data in the literature it was concluded that the milk protein content was very similar to the milk of mothers from other European countries, and is decreased during lactation.
The total saturated fatty acid content was lower, but the palmitic acid content was slightly higher. Regarding the essential fatty acid composition the linoleic- and the arachidonic acid contents were appropriate from a nutritional point of view. The linolenic acid was present in lower amounts, but the docosahexanoic acid was almost undetectable.
The iron and manganese contents were in good agreemen with published results, but the zinc content of the breast milk was lower and its copper content was higher. These differences in milk composition can be explained by the different nutritional habits of our subjects.
Nitrogen plays significant role in the life of plants, it could be the main limiting factor of plant growth. Sustainable plant nutrition pays attention to satisfy the plants’ nutrient demand without chemical fertilizers, e.g. by bounding the atmospheric nitrogen. The nitrogen fixing organizations play important role in supplying plants with n...itrogenbecause the N2-fixingbacteria can fix high amounts of nitrogen.
Many effects of the sewage sludge compost extracts is known in the literature. We studied the effect of sewage sludge compost water extract in laboratory conditions on the growth of Rhizobium spp. isolated from green pea, while in a small plot experiment thepea-Rhizobium symbiosis were studied on sandy soil in the Nyírség region. The extract was produced under aerobic conditions. The compost extract was applied before and/or after sowing. In the laboratory experiments we used the sterile version of extract, in different doses.
In our work we present the effect of compost water extract on the number of green pea roots nodules, dry weight of the plant and reproduction of the Rhizobium bacteria.
Most domestic maize production products are sold on markets abroad. Among the increasingly restrictive quality requirements, the demand for the measurement of test weight has also appeared. This measurement is not unfamiliar in the case of other cereals, such as wheat and barley, but it has not been applied widely in maize. It is likely for thi...s reason that we have such little information and research available on this topic. In this study, we show the current state of this field with references from domestic and international literature.
The density of maize is the weight of a particular volume and the most frequent unit is the test weight (kg/hl). This physical quality factor plays important roles in the storage, transport and mill industries. The value of test weight is influenced by many factors. The most important ones are the moisture content of grains, drying temperature, drought, precipitation, early frost, and the hybrid characters of a given genotype (grain type, FAO number). In general, the grain with higher moisture content has lower test weight and the higher temperature during (above 82°C) desiccation also leads to unfavourable values. Factors such as a drought interval after flowering, early frost in the case of hybrids with higher FAO numbers, injuries by insects, as well as fungal infections also influence the structure and moisture content of the maize grain.
In the future, broader studies (hybrid testing, application of new agrotechnical elements) will be needed for understanding of the factors effecting test weight.