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Application of molecular genetic methods for species Equus caballus – Literature review
Published August 29, 2017
21-28

In this study our aim was to provide a comprihensive overview of the most commonly used methods in molecular genetic studies related to Equus caballus. Thus we are dealing with the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA, with microsatellites and also with single nucleotid polimorphism as SNP. The advantages and drawbacks of each method were also ex...plored.

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Possibilities of selection and production of blue and ornamental corn (Zea mays L.)
Published May 23, 2006
15-19

The cultivation of alternative crops has an important role in world agriculture. Their market share is continuously growing in the food industry sector. In the present study, we show the cultivation and breeding perspectives of ornamental and blue corn. There exists possibility to cultivate ornamental corn in Hungary. There are many cultivars o...f ornamental corn, with various kernel colors, husks, stalks and leave colors. Blue corn is unique among other corns. Blue corn higher in protein, iron and zinc than commercial dent corn. Pests affective ornamental and blue corn are the same as those of other commercial corns. Ornamental and blue corns need to be grown a minimum of 500 m away from commercial yellow dent corn to minimize any cross pollination which may result in off-color kernel. Our aim in the presentation of this review was to broaden Hungarian literature.

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Defining agricultural cluster’s conceptual framework with Delphi technique
Published May 16, 2012
63-66

The cluster concept is well defined in the literature, but its agricultural adaptation has not been detailed. A method is needed, which involves 
experts into the study, who are able to confirm that the modell is correct and help to define the conceptual gaps. The Delphi technique is suitable
for the task. This is a well-structure, i...terative future foresight technique, based on experts opinion about the research topic. The method leads to consensus by all means, but it also can have a negative outcome of the researcher's point of view, that's why we have to formulate scenarios.
The aim is not statistically significant result, but to build in new ideas into the modell with brainstorming.

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How can we determine the expected prices for lambs? – Analysis of the Hungarian and Italian lamb prices
Published July 28, 2008
59-67

The Hungarian sheep sector has become a one-market sector, almost the whole amount of slaughter lamb went to Italy, which increased its defenselessness. In addition to the sole Italian market showing a permanent demand for Hungarian lambs, it would worth to exploit possibilities in other European markets considering the seasonal differences in ...Italian prices. Such markets can be the Spanish and Greek for ”light” and the French, German and English markets for ”heavy” lambs. Both the Italian and Hungarian prices have three major periods: Easter, Ferragusto and Christmas. Due to the changes in the prices, the producers often suffer great losses, therefore, the temporal adaptation of production, market research, technological and development activities need to be improved. It is important that the living of Hungarian sheep breeders should not be dependent solely upon the Italian market, distribution of products should be ensured in other markets too, so that the safety of sales be increased and higher prices and higher income could be achieved. The European lamb prices are characterized by large seasonal fluctuation and the degree and timing of changes are different in the different countries. Study of the literature and the results obtained in my study on lamb sales called for an analysis and study of the possibilities of price forecasting. In my study, I performed a forecasting of lamb prices in Hungary and Italy for the period between 1996 and 2006 based on the data of the European Committee. Among the forecasting methods, seasonal decomposition and SARIMA models are the most precise, producers can achieve a better market position by using these in the practice.

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Fractionation of chicken egg proteome by isoelectric point in liquid phase
Published March 20, 2014
39-42

The application of proteomics is relevant to physiology, reproduction, immunology, muscle and lactational biology in animal science, altough its use is still limited. One of the greatest challenges of proteome analysis is the reproducible fractionation of the complex protein mixtures. The fractionation methods can increase the probability of bi...omarker protein discovery. The fractionation by liquid-phase isoelectric focusing is one of the prefractionation methods. As a result, protein fractions can be easily collected, pooled and refractionated. There is a lack in the knowledge of gel-based proteomic methods of egg as only a limited number of protocols can be found in the literature, thus sample purification and fractionation require a time consuming optimisation procedure. The aim of this study was to fractionate egg yolk and white proteins by isoelectric point in liquid phase.

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Önitatók konstrukciós és hidromechanikai vizsgálata
Published March 27, 2002
52-57

Our research aimed to examine Hungarian automatic drinking system constructions and hydromechanics under laboratory conditions and in operation with special emphasison the small volume, valve types.
Considering that no Hungarian standard of automatic drinking system examination and qualification exists, on the basis of technical literature, ...the new examination method of automatic drinking systems has been elaborated.
For laboratory measurements, a universal measuring bench was assembled which is applicable to the hydromechanic testing of all automatic drinking systems (cattle, sheep, pig).
Summary of the laboratory measurements:
Upon comparison of the flow capacity of the valves, in the case of same opening values (h/dn), the rubber spring valve of SZI type automatic fountain has the highest flow capacity, although in the case of 100 kPa pressure even this type has only 15-16 l/min value which hardly surpasses the lower limit of the desired 15-25 l/min range.
The loss coefficients of the valves, on investigating in the range 100-200 kPa, showed the lowest value (2,2-5,8) with the steel spring self drinking device.
Summary of the operational investigations:
In the long term operational investigations, the rubber stripped valve and the rubber spring automatic fountains had the most favourable operational reliability values: K4=0,98 and K4=0,94, respectively.
From the aspect of animal operation of the valves, all the Hungarian types are frontal operated, thus such system automatic valve drinking devices can be used only in long and moderately long stands, directed toward the animal.
On the basis of hydromechanical and construction examinations of the Hungarian tied cattle production technology the construction modification of the rubber spring valve of SZI type automatic drinking fountain, which is the most frequantly used in this country, was carried out. Due to design modifications the valve parameters improved significantly.
The goals of the accomplished valve modification were
ζ'sz – loss coefficient to be reduced
q – flow capacity to be increased

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On the connection between spatial development and sustainable landscape in the Northern Great Plain region
Published November 20, 2011
145-148

This paper tries to find connection between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretations of sustainability from the view ...point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change – the polarization of landscapes – will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region from two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of spatial development. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analyzing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation within the subject matters.

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Managing risk using real options in company’s valuation
Published April 8, 2014
125-132

The valuation of company is very important because provides information about the current value/situation of company, and through this, provide the opportunity of choosing the best company’s growth alternatives. The future strategic decisions are characterized by lack of knowledge, information, so all measures of company’s growth are closel...y linked with uncertainty and risk. The company’s valuation process is also related with uncertainty and risk. The risk may result both from the assessed assets and the technique used. In literature, we could find three approaches for risk management: capital budgeting based method, methods based on portfolio analysis and real options approach of risk management. Among them, the real options based methods is the most revolutionary approach for risk management. The advantages of the method, consists in the fact, that the process of establishing strategic decisions integrates the possibility of reversibility, delay and rejections, which isn’t it possible at two previous methods. The method also takes into account the total risk of company, so both the company-specific and systematic risk. In this study, I have used one of the best-known real option based method, the Black-Scholes model, for determining the option’s value. Determination of option value is based on the data of enterprise, which was tested Monte Carlo simulation. One of the basic assumptions of the Black-Scholes model is that the value of option is influenced by several factors. The sensitivity of option’s value could be carried out with so-called “Greeks”.. In the study the sensitivity analysis, was carried out with indicators Delta (Δ), Gamma (Γ) and Vega (ν). The real options based risk management determinations were performed in the R-statistics software system, and the used modules are 'fPortofio' and 'mc2d'. By using of real options method, I have calculated the average value of company capital equal with 38.79 million. By using simulation was carried out 1000 runs. The results of this show a relatively low standard deviation, small interquartile range and normal distribution. In the calculation of indicator Delta, could be concluded the value of company moves in 0.831 proportion to the price of options, the standard deviations of index is low, so the real option based method could be used with success in company’s value estimation. The Gamma index shows the enterprise value is sensitive just for large changes. The result of Vega reflects the value of option, so the company’s value volatility, which is small in this case, but this means a volatility of value. In summary, we can conclude that the call options pricing model, well suited for the determination of company’s value.

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Deproteinized plant juice as part of circular economy: A short review and brief experimental data
Published December 1, 2020
23-26

As the population of the Earth is constantly growing it generates an unmet demand for protein, which is an urgent problem. The protein extraction process is a potential solution, which offers high-quality plant protein suitable for animal and human nutrition at a favorable price. The process used within our project produces green juice from... the green alfalfa biomass through pressing. After the coagulation of protein from this green juice, the by-product is called DPJ (Deproteinized Plant Juices) or brown juice. Our preliminary results match the international literature, namely that brown juice take up as much as 50% of the fresh biomass in weight. To utilize this by-product is a crucial part of the process to make it environmental-friendly and financially viable as well. The examined brown juice samples came from a small-scale experiment of alfalfa varieties carried out in the experimental farm at the University of Debrecen. According to our preliminary results, brown juice has high macro- and micronutrient values, furthermore, it has a potentially high amount of antioxidant compounds. The study highlights that brown juice is suitable as an ingredient in microbiological media, in plant nutrition as a supplementary solution, for feedstock and for preparing human food supplements or functional foods. The potential utilization of all biorefinery products makes it a very appropriate technology for today’s challenges.

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Occurrence and damage of the alfalfa root longhorn beetle (Plagionotus floralis Pallas, 1773) in old alfalfa stands in Hungary
Published November 10, 2010
82-88

The alfalfa root longhorn beetle is a pest of small importance in old alfalfa stands. It is rarely cited in the international, national literature, or even mentioned in specialized manuels. Plagionotus floralis is common in Hungary but its population density is low. It is a polyphagous species but it has importance - regarding the references ... only in alfalfa. This paper analyses data gained in old alfalfa fields at two different regions of the country (Máriabesnyő, Debrecen). Damage of P. floralis was 56% in the roots of an 8-year-old stand in Máriabesnyő. Lenghts of tunnels were between 3 and 22 cm. In spite of the tunnels the alfalfa plants were viable. There was no root longhorn beetle in the 15-year-old Debrecen stand, however it has been found former in the region. The reason for the important density of P. floralis in Máriabesnyő could be the considerable diversity and covering of flowering weeds around the field. Adults of P. floralis feed on flower pollen and nectar. As to the Debrecen area,weeds were cut regularly, so the edge vegetation was poor. Present conditions (no pest control on alfalfa fields, overuse of old and failing alfalfa stands, many untrained growers) favour the reproduction and possible damage of alfalfa root longhorn beetle. 

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The effect of various composts on vegetable green mass on two soil types
Published May 16, 2017
179-183

Composting of sewage sludges makes easier the utilization of sewage sludge in the agriculture and the composts in good quality could increase the nutrient content of soil. Due to the composting process, the sewage sludge composts with high organic matter content can be utilized in the same way as other composts or farmyard manure.
Composts p...roduced in different ways have different effects on the physical, chemical and biological properties of different soils, although their positive effects have already proved in the literature. In our study the effects of composts from different composting processes were investigated in soil-plant systems. The different physical and chemical properties of the two examined soil types (arenosol and chernozem)strongly influenced the nutrient supply capacity of composts which could be characterized by the growth of ray-grass as a test plant in the pot experiment. In this work we examined the effects of three different composts on the green weight of plants on the fourth and eighth weeks after the treatment and sowing.

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Study of The Amount of Produced Animal Manure and Biogas Potential in a 5, 20 and 40 km Zone around Debrecen
Published May 23, 2006
64-68

The guiding principle for our research is that decentralized energy supply systems should be located near local consumers. One big, local market for energy from biogas plants in Hajdú-Bihar county is Debrecen. In the course of the investigation of biomass suitable for biogas production in the area of Debrecen, this study determines the quantit...y of biogas producible from animal manure. Municipalities around Debrecen were examined in circles with 40, 20 and 5 km radius. Livestock data of these settlements stem from the Agricultural Census in year 2000, actualized by the county trend of livestock changes. Manure quantity and biogas potential in these places are estimated with coefficients from the literature and our calculations. In the largest circle, about 1.4 million tons of manure is produced, from which round 94 million m3 biogas can be produced. Biomass produced in the settlements and producible biogas shows a remarkable trend of concentration, which supports our recommendation on the system of energy supply.

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Special landscape values of the settlements in “Érmelléki löszös hát” geographical micro region
Published May 16, 2012
45-50

The objective of this study is to present the concept and significance of special landscape values. The research explains special landscape values within landscape protection using Hungarian scientific literature as well as international and national law. In the last decades the measurement and conservation of non-protected landscapes and lands...cape elements were emphasised by landscape protection. One of the biggest research of the last years was TÉKA project, done by Corvinus University of Budapest Faculty of Landscape Architecture. The program dealt with surveying Hungarian landscape values. In this paper I am going to analyse the types of special landscape values and their frequencies on a plain region using an open database prepared by TÉKA program. In addition to the definition of special landscape values in the Érmellék loess ridge geographical micro region the study intends to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of using the database.

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Research of the interrelations between actors and strategic goals in decision making
Published June 5, 2009
71-75

management, although there are many chiseled methodologies plenty of professional literature. 
The problem is more complex in strategic planning of regional communities – societies – of different range. These societies are very diverse, and accordingly the strategic goal setting can, and has to be very different than the strategic g...oal setting of enterprises.
The group of methods for morphologic and structural analysis and the computer based MACTOR program could be used.
The output data are presented in a large number of matrixes, vectors, graphs and histogram’s, which describe very fair the possible scenarios for preparation and decision making about
strategic plans.

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Búzalisztek minőségének becslése tészta nyújtás-szakítás alapján állományvizsgáló műszerrel
Published March 27, 2002
38-44

Literature experience was utilised to develop a method for the extensograph analog testing of paste with a QTS25 Texture Analyser. 54 wheat flour samples from the same variety from variety-preservation experiments at the Szeged were tested with this method. A study was made to establish whether the method is suitable for the estimation of resul...ts derived by traditional classification (trial baking, farinograph and gluten tests).
A close and significant correlation was found between the hardness and area data measured with a QTS25 micro-extensograph, the farinograph values and the gluten spreading data, and also between the stretching index (BC/AC) and the water uptake capacity. These correlations correspond well with the findings from a previous experimental series on industrial flour samples. A close and significant correlation was likewise observed between the grain hardness established by the MININFRA method and all the QTS25 micro-extensograph data. In contrast with earlier QTS25 data, however a close correlation was not found between the QTS25 data and the loaf characteristics.
With the use of micro-extensograph data, the estimation of the baking industry value has been improved through stepwise variable selection, with the inclusion of several variables. The estimation of loaf volume could also be solved by means of stepwise variable selection with the inclusion of QTS25 and MININFRA data.

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Connections between the residential circumstances and the roma segregation processes in the outskirts of Hajdúböszörmény in the light of empirical examinations
Published December 16, 2012
187-193

In addition to the processing of the available special literature, this study aims to provide an accurate view of the segregation processes in Hajdúböszörmény, as well as their effect on the real estate market by interviewing roma people living in Hajdúböszörmény and by getting to know the opinions of the affected professionals and deci...sionmakers working at the local authorities.

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Assessment of energy generated by biogas production in the educational industrial unit of the University of Szeged, Faculty of Agriculture, with special regard to biomass originating from agriculture and the food industry
Published July 16, 2007
137-140

The importance of waste treatment is increasing. Environmental aims are the main driving force. Stricter regulations for landfills lead to the development of alternative treatment methods for waste. For agro-mechanical research, wastes from animal rearing and the food industry, secondary-tertiary biomass, is of deep concern. Available technolog...y is versatile and relatively simple to use as a reliable and effective means of producing a gaseous fuel from various organic waste. The most common application has been the digestion of animal dung, agricultural, and food-industrial waste. This was studied by our department in our pilot farm of our Faculty. The 50-dairy cow, family sized model farm was built in the summer of 1991, as a result of a Dutch – Hungarian cooperation, on the property of the Faculty. The new pig farm, with 30 sows, and the new goat farm, with 100 nannies, was given to the Faculty on 25 April 2001. On the basis of livestock data, the annual dung production and the producible energy were determinate. The energy was calculated by biogas production coefficients in literature.

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Effect of feeds with different crude fiber content on the performance of meat goose
Published December 15, 2019
5-8

In the last 50 years, poultry meat production has increased dynamically. The role of crude fiber content in feed is unclear based on a small amount of literature about goose feeding.

The aim of theis experiment was to determine how various crude fiber content (55; 60; 65g crude fiber/kg feed) influences the performance of meat geese in ...the second phase of the rearing period. 150 goslings (3 treatments, 5 cages/treatment, 10 birds/cage) were included in the test. The experiment started and finished at the age of 21st and 63rd  day, respectively.

The obtained results suggest that various crude fiber content did not influence the performance of meat geese significantly; however, a feed of 55g crude fiber/kg resulted in better fattening results (final body weight, body weight gain, specific feed protein and energy conversion rate). In addition, compound feed of 65g crude fiber/kg proved more favourable with respect to cost-efficiency. Based on the obtained results so far, further models and farm experiments are required.

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Correlation between body condition change and reproduction parameters of Holstein-Frisian cows after calving
Published December 1, 2010
49-52

The authors examined the body condition with relation to reproduction of Holstein-Friesian cows on three dairy farms in the South Plain region. During the examination they analyzed the data of 516 births of 494 Holstein-Friesian cows. They were trying to find correlation between the first service, the service period and the service rates. The e...xaminations with regard to the correlations were different from the ones published in the professional literature. The body condition at the time of calving affected the interval from calving to the first service but not the conception
rates or the service period. The examinations did not prove any correlations between body condition changes and reproduction.

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Tending operation model for red oak stands
Published May 16, 2017
133-136

Red oak (Quercus rubra L.) is our most important exotic oak species, that possesses growing culture with almost one hundred years in our country. Plantation character of red oak growing predominates principally by applied regeneration method (mostly artificial), regular planting space, applying defined method and planting space regulation syste...m. Forest tending model for red oak, that considered stopgap in the native literature is intended to serving the latter. Especially important equation in the viewpoint of stand growing, that describes relationship of stem number (N, in hectare) and diameter at breast height (D1.3 in cm) is: N=e9.80220-1.12607lnD1.3.

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Verifying the farm size – environment interaction
Published May 23, 2006
33-41

With this study, based on experience gained in the United States of America, the author intends to draw attention to the fact that farm size related questions in Hungary, which form an integrant part of farm policies all around the world, cannot and should not be discussed without taking environmental relations into account. In the United State...s, where the excessive use of agrochemicals poses a great threat to the environment, many researchers claim that the conventional large farm model is now getting outdated. These experts question the social and economic benefits of a large farm oriented farm structure and try to convince researchers arriving from Middle- and Eastern-European countries to reform their thought on optimum farm structure. In their opinion, it is essential to let countries in the region understand that they are not required to follow the US course of large farms, which many experts in the States also would prefer to leave. From the facts presented in this study, it can be concluded that large farms by nature can protect the environment less efficiently than small farms. It is also pointed out that the excessive use of fertilizers, which is a trait often attributed to large farms by researchers throughout the world, do not yet apply to large farms in Hungary. As regards the use of pesticides in Hungary, the unfavorable tendency portrayed in foreign literature is identified in this analysis, according to which the larger the farm involved in field cropping the larger per hectare doses they use to protect their crops.

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Determining the optimal age of breeding gilts and its impact on lifetime performance, Literature review
Published May 23, 2019
15-20

Lifetime sow performance is a critical indicator for producers managing a commercial sow herd. It is comprised of sow longevity, lifetime piglets born alive, lifetime number of pigs weaned and lifetime non-productive sow days. Increased lifetime performance and longevity in sows reduces costs of replacement gilts and improves herd performance a...nd profitability (Sasaki et al., 2008, 2011). One of the most critical factors driving the performance of sow herds is gilt management. Decisions regarding gilts have profound effects on sows’ lifetime performance. Age at first breeding of a gilt is a management decision that has been shown to affect performance and retention of the gilt in a herd.

The main aim of this review is to establish factors affecting age of first breeding of gilts and its impact on lifetime performance.

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A study of product strategy priorities at the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region
Published June 5, 2009
55-64

Through a non-representative sample of the small enterprises of the North-Alföld Region, this paper studies the product strategic priorities enabling us to make a detailed typology of small
enterprises. According to the relevant technical literature, the types of small enterprises have typical strategic priorities. Obviously, each group can... be characterised with certain strategic
priorities, which are sharply distinct from each other. These priority features are shown in the form of characteristic features in the enterprise’s marketing activities, market behaviour (product policy, innovation attitude, technology, price policy). This paper studies the enterprises of the sample through the role of production technology, material quality, low price and branding endeavours affecting product positioning.

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Application of molecular genetic methods for birds (literature review)
Published March 23, 2016
37-41

Ornithology studies have been extended by molecular genetic techniques. In this paper we are dealing with the most common use of areas. Our basic aim is to give a comprehensive view of the most commonly used methods in ornithological studies, including the available results by their use. We also deal with the following areas: an essential step ...during examination namely the applicability of sample collecting methods, and the unique identification, also the sex determination, methodology of DNA barcoding, as well as the role of molecular methods to protect endangered species. We discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the methods, such as the current trend for each method.

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Application of AFLP-Method in Plant Sample Identification
Published May 11, 2003
207-213

One possible method for the determination of DNA-polymorphism is the PCR-based AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). This method had been succesfully introduced to the Department of Botany at University of Debrecen in 2000-2001 with the examination of hay saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its allies. Hay saffron is grown as a spice for s...ome thousand years producing the most expensive spice in the world. This plant is sterile, triploid reproduces only vegetatively with no fertile seeds. However its origin is unknown it exists only in cultivation and it is a mutated variety of another species or an artificial or natural hybrid. Usual methods for the systematic examination are restricted hence it seemed to be reasonable to apply molecular biological methods in its case. Results of this work include the introduction and many fold application of the method beside ensuring the consequences of science literature with determining the C. cartwrightianus to give the most similar genetical pattern to C. sativus.

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