...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The objective of this study was the ethanol which classified as agro fuels. The aim of our research was the calculation of efficiency of bioethanol production, and evaluates the yield of maize hybrids grown for this purpose. We examined the energy demand of corn production per hectare in two vintages of 2009 and 2010. The focus of the experiment was placed in three different doze of fertilizer. Results show that the control corn plot used the least amount of non-renewable energy. Improving starch yield by adding fertilizer required additional nonrenewable energy inputs. So then the invested energy has a great impact on the efficiency.
The Hungarian Large White and Hungarian Landrace pig breeds have outstanding lifetime performance, production parameters and crossbreeding ability. Nevertheless, during the recent decades, these breeds could not compete with the West European hybrid pigs concerning on production results. In this study, we made a complex andrological evaluation...of boars in different Hungarian nucleus breeding stocks. After taking blood and semen samples, performing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge, ultrasonic and thermographic examinations were done. Laboratory tests were accomplished in reproduction labs of NARIC ABNMS. Our goal was to determine the reproductive performances of boars and collect samples for future genetic examinations, respectively.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper is based on the researches carried out in an experiment placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain during 2008–2011in the following variants: V1=Irrigated, without irrigation suspending; V2=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in May; V3=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in June; V4=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in July; V5=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in August; V6=Unirrigated. The hybrid used: Fundulea 376. In the variant with optimum irrigation, water reserve on 0–75 cm depth was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity. Pedological drought was determined every year and the irrigation was also needed. The irrigation determined the increase of the total water consumption and yield gain in comparison with unirrigated variant. Irrigation suspending in different months determined the yield losses very significant statistically. The biggest protein content was registered in the variant without irrigation suspending; the values registered in the variants with irrigation suspending in May, June, July and August and in the unirrigated variant are smaller, with differences statistically assured. There was a direct link between de Martonne aridity index values and water consumption, yield and protein content and an inverse link between pedological drought and yield quantity and protein content. These are the arguments for irrigation opportunity in maize from Criurilor Plain.
Today, tomato has the second largest harvesting area globally, and the fourth largest in Hungary. The importance of industrial tomato is growing year by year, and one of the most important tasks is to satisfy the needs of the industry. To meet these needs, the producer has to find the proper genotype, which can achieve up to 100 t ha-1...p> crop yield. This quality has high importance to be researched.
The experiment was carried out in the Botanical and Exhibition Garden of the University of Debrecen, with 3 examined genotypes. The planting date was 3 of May 2018. The harvesting was two-threaded. On 27 of July the physical parameters – fruit shape index (length/diameter), firmness (kg cm-2), water-soluble dry matter content (Brix%) and weight of the berries (g) – were evaluated. On 15 of August the rheological parameters were examined – the force needed to tear the skin – bioyield point (g) and flesh firmness (g).
The fruit shape index was oval (between 1.19 and 1.24) for all the examined genotypes. The firmness was between 0.92 (UG1122713 F1) and 1.05(Prestomech F1) kg cm-2, which compliance the needs of the industry. The water-soluble dry matter content was suitable, with a value between 4.49 (Prestomech F1) and 4.65 (UG1122713 F1) Brix%. The weight of the berries was between 45.94 (UG989 F1) and 49.37 (Prestomech F1) g per piece.
The bioyield point was between 76.00 (UG1122713 F1) and 85.16 (UG989 F1) g. The flesh firmness was between 33.68 (UG1122713 F1) and 42.81 (UG989 F1) g.
Finally, we can conclude based on the obtained data that the UG989 F1 hybrid was the most proper for the applied cultivation conditions. This genotype can be recommended for the farmers even in extreme weather conditions.
Maize is one of Hungary’s major cereals. In the 1970s and 1980s, we were in the frontline regarding yields and genetic advancement. However, yield fluctuation in maize has increased to 50-60% from 10-20% since the 1980s, which was partly caused by the increase in weather extremes due to climate change and by agrotechnical shortcomings.
The agroecological optimum fertilizer dosage was N 40-120, P2O5 25-75, K2O 30-90 kg ha-1 active ingredient at a plant density of 60-90 thousand plants ha-1 depending on the hybrid and the year.
In order to ensure modern Hungarian sunflower production, the development of hybrid-specific techniques are highly important. The continual expansion in hybrid choice makes the examination of genotypes necessary in the relation of genotype and environment interactions and critical factors. The Plant density as a complex determinant factor has a... strong effect on sunflower yield, quality and plant hygiene. As a result of the experiments, we can state that the optimal density was 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar. In 2001-2002, the optimal density was 45.000-55.000 plant/hectar; while in 2000, it was 65.000 plant/hectar.
Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured of H1015 tomato hybrid with different bacterial treatments (B0–B1–B2–B3) and three irrigation treatments: regular irrigated (RI), deficit irrigated (DI) and non-irrigated conditions (I0). The aim of the experiments was to show the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the yield, dry m...atter and vitamin C content of processing tomato during different irrigation treatments, and measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence during the ripening and development stages. According to the results, none of the bacterial treatments had a statistical effect on the quantity and quality of the tomato and on the chlorophyll fluorescence, only the irrigation. Further studies are needed.
Bioenergies (among them e.g. bioalcohol) can be solutions for the replacement of fossil fuels. For its production, plants with high sugar or starch content can be used. Juice pressed from the stalk of sugar sorghum has high sugar content (14-17%) that makes it suitable for bioethanol production. During our experiment, we examined 53 restorer ma...le lines; among them 22 were silo type sugar sorghum. We studied the following traits: plant height, breeding time, level of foliation, stalk diameter, characteristics of stalk medulla, juice content of stalk, sugar content of stalk juice. According to examined characteristics, we selected six restorer male lines for studies in the forthcoming years: RL 1, RL 2, RL 3, RL 4, RL 5, RL 9, RL 12, RL 15, RL 18. Their stalk medullas were wet, stalk diameters were medium-thick, sugar contents of juices varied between 17 and 24% at the end of milk mature. Harvest was made in September, they can be classified into early maturation group. Male sterile female lines were the following: SL 1, SL 2, SL 3, SL 4, SL 5. The maintainer male lines were: CL 1, CL 2, CL 3, CL 4, CL 5. In Hungary, there are only a few male sterile female
lines, so we will use these lines for hybrid production during the next years.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to define the connection between the leptin (LEP) gene T3469C polymorphism and its potential association with production traits in improved hybrid pigs. The study included data from 397 gilts and barrows from 2 different sample. The polymorphism was identified by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method with HinfI restriction enzyme. Two alleles of LEP gene were identified: T (0.93) an C (0.07). The analysis of values of production traits, depending on LEP genotype did not reveal significant (P≤0.05) differences. In the examination the loin diameter (between the 2nd and 3rd ribs), the live weight at slaughter and the averege daily gain during fattening were higher at pigs with C allele than pigs with TT genotipe. Accordingt to our data the effect of C allele was favourable in this population, because these animals had bigger bodyweight without valuable change of lean meat percent.
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of vitamin and mineral supplement under permanently high environmental temperature (30±1 °C) on the digestibility of nutrients, performance and furthermore the composition of duck meat in the growing period. A total of four hundred mixed sex 14 days old Cherry Valley type hybrid ducks were used...for the study. Two experimental diets were formulated in the study (control and vitamin E, C and zinc supplemented diet). Based on the results the following conclusions were drown: the antioxidant defence system plays an important role in the reduction of heat stress generated lipid peroxidation process. Feed additives which have direct or indirect antioxidant effects can reduce the negative effects of heat stress on the ducks performance and meat composition. Digestibility of nutrients (Dry Matter, Crude Protein, Crude Fat) was not affected by antioxidant supplementation under chronic heat stress (30±1 °C). The performance was affected significantly by Vitamin C and E and zinc supplementation under heat stress (P<0.05). In the treated group the daily weight gain (dWG) increased and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved significantly (P<0.05). The energy and protein conversion was decreased also significantly (P<0.05).
One possible method for the determination of DNA-polymorphism is the PCR-based AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). This method had been succesfully introduced to the Department of Botany at University of Debrecen in 2000-2001 with the examination of hay saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its allies. Hay saffron is grown as a spice for s...ome thousand years producing the most expensive spice in the world. This plant is sterile, triploid reproduces only vegetatively with no fertile seeds. However its origin is unknown it exists only in cultivation and it is a mutated variety of another species or an artificial or natural hybrid. Usual methods for the systematic examination are restricted hence it seemed to be reasonable to apply molecular biological methods in its case. Results of this work include the introduction and many fold application of the method beside ensuring the consequences of science literature with determining the C. cartwrightianus to give the most similar genetical pattern to C. sativus.
Cultivation factors have a significant effect on the yield and yield security of maize. Ensuring a suitable green crop is important. Tricultural crop rotation (pea–wheat–maize) in the average of 25 years provided a 2 t ha-1 higher yield compared to monocultural cultivation. A harmonious NPK nutriment supply determines yield and y...ield security, which can be especially realized by means of the application of precision cultivation technologies. Under average circumstances N 80 kg ha-1, P2O5 50 kg ha-1, K20 60 kg ha-1 active ingredient is the agro-ecological dosage of artificial fertilizer.
Plant density is a factor that determines yield. Optimal plant density – beside the genetic characteristics of the hybrid – is mostly influenced by the level of water and nutriment supply.
The field research was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Debrecen at Látókép on calcareous chernozem soil in Hungary. We examined the effects of the sowing time and the fungicide treatment on the yield, oil yield and oil content of two different genotypes of sunflower hybrids (NK Ferti, PR64H42) in 2012 and 2013. We a...pplied three different sowing times (early, average, late) and two different treatment levels of fungicides (control =no fungicides applied, double fungicide protection).
During our research, we received better results in 2013 than in 2012. The application of different planting times affected the yield and oil yield production and the oil content as well. The optimal circumstances for yield and oil yield production were provided by late planting in 2012, while by average planting time in 2013. The highest oil yield results were reached by late plating in both years (except for hybrid PR64H42 in the double treated parcels where average plating time turned out to be more effective). The correlation between the plating time, the yield and oil yield production and the oil content was strong in 2012 (r=0.600**, r=0.639**, r=0.590**). On the other side, in 2013, the correlation was medium between the planting time, the yield production and the oil content.
We applied Pearson’s correlation to analyze the effect of the double fungicide treatment on the yield and oil yield production (2012: r=0.498**, r=0.407**). These results were better in 2013 (r=0.603**, r=0.623**), besides, the double fungicide treatment also increased the oil content (r=0.315**).
Hibrid maize is cultivated on larger plots, therefore the sown areas of hibrid maize are heterogeneous from a pedology aspect. Heterogenity causes problems during tasseling, chemical plant protection and harvest. The heterogenity of sown areas can be compensated by fertilization which is based on soil analysis. We carried out research into chan...ge of the soil on four soil types from 1987 to 2005.
There were no significant changes in pH, hydroiodic acidity, CaCO3-content, humus-content on meadow chernozem soil. We detected equalization of salin content in the examined soil layers. There were no significant changes in the measured values on chernozem meadow soil and solonetz meadow soil in 2005. We discoverd equalization of saline content on chernozem meadow soil, but the changes were not as obvious as the changes on meadow chernozem soil. We found salinization in the 30-60 cm soil layer on type meadow soil that may be due to water movement.
For industrial (bioethanol) production of maize, a new production technology is needed. I tested and selected hybrids appropriate for this purpose and set up fertilization and plant density experiments. The experiment were set up on chernozem soil in 2008.
In bioethanol production, the selection of a high-yielding hybrid with high starch con
We examinated three agrotechnical factors in 2011, 2012 and 2013 (sowing time, nutrient factor and plant density), as well as five different effects of genotypes on the crop of corn, on brown soil in the Hajdúság. The experiment was set next to the 47 main road in Debrecen, at the 6th kilometre stone.
In the present process...ing I would like to touch on the effects of sowing time and plant density, as I do not have the chance to present the whole experiment results here. It is true for all three years that the humidity factors differ from the long years’ average, so the genotypes had different reactions on it. According to our results we found out that the late sowing time’s result had the most successful crop yield result with 9975 kg ha-1, while examining the plant density the result of the highest plant density proved to be the best with 9967 kg ha-1.
We take the critical season in corns’ life cycle process into consideration when examining the results: June, July and August months’ humidity and temperature markers. According to the results in the tested 3 months we had 227 mm humidity with 10 days, when the average temperature was over 25 °C. The same factors in 2012 were 135.5 mm humidity with 37 days of average temperatures of 25 °C and in 2013 we recorded 102.5 mm humidity with 24 of these days.
Our goal is to help the farmers in the Hajdúság with the results of our sowing times, hybrid choice and plant density results.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crop year on the main components of maize grown for bio-ethanol production yield, starch content and starch yield per hectare of maize hybrids were investigated in a droughty (2007) and in a favourable years with optimal weather conditions (2008, 2009). We measured very low starch yield... (1.5 t ha-1) in the year with unfavourable precipitation supply (2007) together with higher starch content (73%). In the case of good precipitation supply we measured a much higher starch yield per hectare (7.7 t ha-1) with lower content (72.4%). In 2009 the starch content (74.5%) exceed the results of the two previous years, but on the other hand the average of starch yield was (4.9 t ha-1) which falls between the other two years values.
Two field experiments were carried out during the 2014 and 2015 seasons to evaluate certain genotypes of Egyptian cotton under well irrigated and water stress conditions. The cross combination Giza 69 x Australy recorded the best values for better parent heterosis for all physiological measurements and earliness index under well irrigated a...nd deficit conditions. Of the female parents, Giza 86 was found to be a good general combiner for most yield characters under both normal and stress conditions, followed by Giza 94. Data illustrated that Giza 45 was the best general combiner for most fiber quality traits under both conditions. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Dandra and Giza 69 x Pima S6 showed significant positive SCA values for seed cotton and lint yield/plant under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. However, the combinations Giza 77 x PimaS6 and Giza 94 x 10229 recorded significant positive SCA effects for seed cotton yield/plant under stress. Whilst, the cross Giza 68 x 10229 recorded significant desirable SCA effects for most fiber quality properties. In this context, the estimates significant positive general and specific combining ability effects indicated that the epistasis and/or dominance effects for F1 hybrid in cotton could be important to a certain extent.
Nowadays, for increasing efficiency of sunflower production treating hybrid-specific technologies was required. Increasing of hybrid choice gave reasons for trials in respects of critical factors, as well as in case of genotype-enviroment interactions. The effect of changing plant density show up as determinant factor which affects on yield as...well as on plant hygienic conditions. Trials were established on calcareous chernozem soil (Hajdú-Bihar county), in 2001-2002. The field trials were randomized, in four repetition on small parcels. The plant density trials were established in 35.000-75.000 plant/hectar interval using a scale of 10.000 plant/hectar. 10 hybrids were used in both year.
In 2001, 55.000 plant/hectar density was the optimal, in case of most of the hybrids. The yield of tested hybrids did not show significant difference. Yield decreasing effect of using less than optimal density was more significant than in case of using optimal plant density. In 2002, the optimal density was in 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar interval, there was no possibility to find narrower optimum.
Presence of Diaporthe helianthi and the damage caused by the pathogen was significant in 1997-1999, whereas in 2001-2002 the large-scale appearance of the pathogen did not occur. In 2001, the affect of high plant density on disease caused by Diaporthe helianthi showed just tendency-like appearance, in 2002, the infection showed up just in the end of the vegetation period, without significant damage. In spite of the low infection level, the difference between the infection of the diverse plant density treatment was significant. Increasing plant density made increase the frequency of the Diaporthe helianthi infection. The rate of the flower diseases was around 3-16% in 2001, the highest infection level emerged in 65.000-75.000 plant/hectar density, whereas in 2002, the rate of infection level was less than 10%. The increasing plant density helped the development of flower diseases.
Maize is currently the single raw material of bio-ethanol production in Hungary. The aim of our examinations is the observation of yield and
nutritional characteristics of commercial maize hybrids in Hungary from the aspect of efficient bio-ethanol production. We set up a
randomized block field trial. We determined the starch conten
In laboratory conditions, we examined the amylose and amylopectin ratio and the amount of resistant starch of the selected 20 maize hybrids.
According to our results, there is a significant difference between the starch yield the amylose component of the starch content and resistant starch of the examined maize hybrids. Our studies reveal that maize as a raw material must be selected based on the cultivation objectives. If the objective is bio-ethanol production, detailed knowledge of starch content is necessary. There is a significant difference among commercial maize hybrids in Hungary in terms of characteristics determining the producible amount of bio-ethanol.
We have investigated the plant number reactions of three maize hybrids of various genotypes in a small-plot field experiment. The plant numbers were 50, 70 and 90 thousand ha-1, while the row distances were 45 and 76 cm. The experiment was set on the Látókép Experimental Farm of Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University o...f Debrecen in four replications on calcareous chernozem soil.
The assimilation area and the leaf area index have important role in development of the crop yield. The studied three different genotype maize hybrids reached its maximum leaf area index at flowering. The maximum leaf area index increased linearly with increasing plant density. The season-hybrids reached less yield and leaf area index. According to our experimental results, we have concluded that with the decrease of the row spacing, the yield increased in the average of the hybrids. The studied hybrids reached the maximum yield at 70 and 90 plants ha-1 plant density. We determined the optimal plant number that is the most favourable for the certain hybrid under the given conditions.The higher plant density was favourable at 45 cm row spacing than 76 cm. The hybrids reached the maximum grain yield at 45 cm row spacing between 76 712–84 938 plants ha-1, while the optimum plant density at 76 cm row spacing changed between 61 875–65 876 plants ha-1.
The leaf area index values between the applied plant density for the flowering period (July 1, 24), we defined a significant differences. In the archived yields were significant differences at the 45 cm row spacing between 50 and 70, 90 thousand ha-1 plant density, while the number for the 76 cm row spacing used did not cause a significant differences in the yield. There were significant differences between the examined hybrids of yields.
I examined the effects of plant density and fertilisation on the yield of the maize hybrid Debreceni 377 SC, developed by the Agrárgazdaság Ltd., using the 3 year data sequence of a long term experiment set up at the Látókép experimental station of DU Center for Agricultural Sciences in years with average precipitation supply.
Maize has high productivity and produces huge vegetative and generative phytomass, but this crop is very sensitive to agroecological (mainly to climatic, partly to pedological conditions) and agrotechnical circumstances. In Hungary, maize is grown on 1.1–1.2 million hectares, the national average yields vary between 4–7 t ha-1 depending on...the year and the intensity of production technology. The longterm experiment was set up in 2015–2016 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (eastern Hungary). The maize research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép MÉK (Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management) research area of the University of Debrecen. We examined the following commonly used hybrids of Hungary: SY ARIOSO (FAO 300), P9074 (FAO 310), P9486 (FAO 360), SY Octavius (FAO 400), GK Kenéz (FAO 410), DKC 4943 (FAO 410). The experiment was set up in three different plant densities. These were 60, 76, 90 thousand plant ha-1. The experiment was set up with three different sowing dates, early, average and late sowing. The yield was measured using a special plot harvester (Sampo Rosenlew 2010), measuring the weight of the harvested plot and also taking a sample from it. As a next step, we calculated the yield (t ha-1) of each plot at 14% of moisture content to compare them to each other. We evaluated the obtained data using Microsoft Excel 2015.
The SPAD value, the chlorophyll fluorescence and the canopy temperature of the leaves and fruits of tomato hybrid “H1015” were investigated under non-irrigated (I0), deficit irrigated (I50) and well-irrigated (I100) conditions. The aim of the experiments was to show which treatment effect on the examined traits affected photosynthesis, leaf... temperature and yield quantity, as well as quality under water scarcity. In the control treatment (I0), the canopy temperature increased, but the SPAD decreased compared to the other two treatments (I50 and I100). Chlorophyll fluorescence produced a fluctuating result. In the end, the number of the fruits was high, but the number of the sick and green berries was increased.
Different influence factors on the magnesium (Mg) uptake in case of three maize hybrids with different long vegetation period have been investigated at the Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, at Debrecen-Látókép. The soil of the experiment is a calcareous chernozem, based on lo...ess, with high fertility, that is characteristic for soils of the region Hajdúság.
Upon irrigation is the experiment divided to main plots, by different hybrids into sub-plots, while treatments of five nutrientsupply levels with fixed N:P2O5:K2O rate (beside control)mean sub-subplots. Soil samples were taken from the upper, cultivated soil layer 3 times during the year 2008. Their pH has been measures in a 0.01 M CaCl2-solution and their Mg-content from the same solution and from ammonium-lactate acetic acid (AL) extract. Plant samples were taken seven times in the vegetation period, of which we measured the Mg-content. Beside this, the during the
vegetation period by maize biomass extracted Mg-amount has been calculated using fresh and dry matter weights. The effects of irrigation, hybrids and nutrient-supply levels on the soil pH and on the AL- and CaCl2-extractable Mg-amount have been studied, as well. After that I tried to find a correlation between soil pH and the Mg-content of soil determined in different extractants, beside this between the by the two solutions extracted Mg-amount.