The prime aim of this study is draw attention to the importance of the issue connection with PSI reuse, to give a survey of the attepts carried out so far, legal impoudments. With the help of this we are trying to systematize conceptual basic as well as to expand the fields researched. Regarding PSI reuse the 89/2003 Directives of EU serve far...the prime factor, as well as the LXIII. act of 2012. Which is the adoptation of the directive in Hungary including its modfications.
In Hungary a new governmental strategy is being formed, which would make the widespread use of PSI possible. Doing so via their reuse it would contribute to establishing new products and services. By this means it would greathy support the improving competitivness of the Hungarian economy.
the target for the European Union to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. In this process, the education and training are of great importance for the member states. The restructuring of higher education, the modernization of the universities cannot be achieved without new financial resources. They s...hould be ensured by increasing contribution of the private sector. However it is not enough to invest sufficient funds in the educational and training system, they must be expended efficiently. The free higher education itself does
not necessarily guarantee the equal access and maximal participation. The quality of higher education and equal opportunity can be improved, if the rising funds are expended on infrastructure development and creating an efficiently working student support system.
Quality, equal opportunity, efficiency – they are the most important views for the decision-makers in the higher education reform. In my paper, I would like to interpret definitions relating to higher education and in this way I attempt to evaluate the financing systems of the Hungarian higher education formed since the change of the regime, with special regards to the normative financial system combined with the payment of tuition fees. For classification, it is necessary to present the different basic financial models. Furthermore, on the basis of the above criteria, I try to make recommendations on how to improve the present financial model in order to achieve the Lisbon objectives.
The topic is important in our days, because tuition fees will be introduced in Hungary from 2008. The problem is very complex, although the analysts in most cases tend to approach the topic with prejudice, depending on their financial and political interests. My analysis may contribute to discernment in the tangle of the pros and cons.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The author briefly overview the history of the 60-year-old Hungarian Plant Protection Service, which has improved to a model by its ’golden age’ period with a well organized system and excellence of specialists on the chemistry period of Hungarian agriculture. The profound changes both in policy and economy resulted a serious structural changes which continue even nowadays. Meanwhile country borders have been opened than EU membership of Hungary have generated new challenges by appearance and spread of new pests.
The development of rural areas is a key role for the European Union and its member states as well. The rural development primarily achieved through the development of agriculture, because the main beneficiaries of the grant are the farmers. Hungary today is close to 1 million units in agriculture, but only 10% are competitive. Agriculture as an... industry according to its economic characteristics needs closely managed decentralization, where the autonomy of the units remain, but there is a central governing body, which constitutes a proffesional manager function. This is a superorganization, which stay above agricultural units, called cluster.
Agriculture has always been an important role in economy, food supplies, sustainability of society During our experimental work an effective extraction procedure has been developed for melatonin. Further chromatography was developed the quantitative and qualitative determination of melatonin. A compound that was equal to the standard was purifi...ed from the extract by preparative HPLC technique and the structure of the purified sample was confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. Based on our measurements, harvested in the state of biological maturity Hungarian sour cherry cultivars contain high levels of melatonin.
Our results show that "VN4" variety has extremely high melatonin content, 9.893 ug g-1 and suggest that "VN4" which were selected from the "Bosnyák" varieties is melatonin accumulating. The average value of the melatonin content of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars is 2.319 ug g-1.
The task of the national sustainable development strategy is to provide a long term conception for the economy and society, so that this might function and develop in harmony with the environment. Creating the conditions for sustainable agricultural production requires the elaboration and implementation of long-term programs spanning generation...s. The objective is to find a compromise between the conceptions appearing in the long-term and the short-term programs.
In Hungary, several principles, conceptions and proposals have been suggested regarding sustainable agriculture. In the present study, I intend to systematize the above mentioned principles and conceptions, and compare them to the conceptions regarding agriculture in the national strategies of the EU member states. Furthermore, I examine to what extent the agricultural policy of the European Union supports the conceptions regarding agriculture in the strategies. This topic deserves special attention, as the Hungarian national sustainable development strategy is being prepared and is supposed to be finished by the end of 2005.
The improvement of Debrecen International Airport has been taking place for more than a decade. The goal is to revitalise the domestic and international aviation of regional centres and connect the Debrecen centred economy zone with other industrial and commercial regions. Considering the market segments of the air cargo industry, and sizing up... the requirements of the enterprises, we are seeking to answer for what possibilities an air cargo operation has, and scheduled cargo flights, what alternatives the location of a cargo base has. Getting to know the technical background of ground handling, communication, safety, and security, we can state that the airport is able to handle international cargo aircrafts as well. Regarding to the quantity of frights, we find that there is a possibility of two flights per week. There is minor need of handling dangerous or unique parcels. The surrounding area of working zone is an excellent territory for locating and building cargo facilities, and its technical background. In case of continuously increasing traffic it is suggestible to use the territory behind the apron as a first step of the development. As the activity extends the second step could be the improvement of the southern zone just beside the runway. This way primarily the
scheduled air cargo flights could appear, then as the traffic of commercial scheduled flights increases simultaneously could grow the amount of
small parcel transportation.
The occasion that joining to the European Union general several new opportunities which are supporting development, changes and increasing disadvantages. We tried to capitalizing these resources less or major rate in national and international level too. These opportunities are projects, tenders whose longterm effects are measured difficulty, i...t is a hard task. In spite of this fact I feel it has got basement importance to determine project activity forming future developments and ways.
In my study I deal with Derecske-Létavértes Sub-region. My aims to survey economic background of this sub-region, seeking contexts between economical factors, influential agents and project activity or results. In a settlement level it is essential what kind of supporting forms are available for entrepreneurs, civil organization, economic development and local government, what are the founds could be realized their development plans.
The wine is still in Hungary in Hungarian history, culture, and one of the key elements of the economy are considered . Last, but not to the point of producing and selling the wine regions of livelihoods. Thousands of years in wine-producing traditions preserved in the modern winemakers, wine competitions demonstrate their skills. The Tokaj win...e region of the World's major and significant wine regions in Hungary.
Energy plays an important role in everyday life and in the economy. The use of fossil energy sources greatly damages the environment. Besides this, the quantity of these energy sources is limited. Therefore, it is important to increase the share of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, water, biomass) in energy generation. Huge amounts of ener...gy (1150-1300 kWh/m2) arrive at the earth from the sun, which utilized in passive and active ways. One of the active applications is photovoltaic current production, in the course of which electricity is produced directly with PV-Panels. This can be fed into the grid.
1.5 million people live in the large region containing 3 counties, which makes it the second most populated region after Central Hungary. Its economy and land use are still defined by agriculture and it has been the least developed region in the country for a long time. In the country this region has the second lowest GDP per capita and employm...ent rate. In contrast to the low values of the economic indicators the region has high potential for innovation. The University of Debrecen is located in the region having one of the widest range of education and intensive research and development is also a characteristic of the region.
The University of Miskolc – as part of a needs assessment – took up contact with businesses that have the nature of the industry in line with the strategic objective areas of the institution. The survey focused on industry-wide is so limited, most of the knowledge-intensive company was that the knowledge economy is distinguished by relevant... stakeholders through innovation activity.
The research results of the questionnaire are within the framework of this study, we intend to review how the knowledge-intensive small and medium enterprises differentiate implantation of the headquarters and activities their scope.
There are two types of embeddedness adapt the functions of universities with the aim to investigate the geographic scope of their activities in the extent of whether there is any impact on the local embedded and engagement.
Hungary’s total foreign trade has changed a lot since the change of regime. Several factors played a role in this process. The collapse of COMECOM, set of the world economy, WTOagreement, Agreement of Accession and CEFTA-agreement and accession to the EU affected this situation. After the change of regime Hungary had to react rapidly to these... new events: one of the most goals was to find new markets. Hungary’s total foreign trade balance is negative but this deficit has declined after EUaccession. The foreign trade in agriculture has realised positive balance for a long time. This balance is declining after 2004, in spite of that the agricultural export grows, but the import grows more dynamically.
Share of the Visegrad countries – join at the same time to the European Union as Hungary – from Hungarian agriculture exports gets higher, especially in the case of Poland.
Hungary’s trading partners of exports and imports are stabile and they come from old Member States. One hand is positive, but the other hand is not acceptable. It is important to get markets, because we strongly depend on Europe.
The situation of Hungary’s external trade is determined by the future of CAP and WTO Doha Round (reducing of agricultural customs, ceasing of export subvention system and etc.).
Hungary can keep in competition, if it extends its competitiveness, diminishes of costs, and improves of quality, logistic and marketing.
A feeding trial was conducted with 4 weeks old growing geese. Feeding treatments were different proportion of chopped grass and grain pellets. Daily DM intake, weekly live weight gains and final live weight was measured. It is concluded that 25% of chopped grass in the diet has similar result as only grain pellet diet. This is good for the econ...omy of goose production.
Agriculture has always been an important role in economy, food supplies, sustainability of society and creation of job opportunities in Hungary. Our country has resource-related strength of agriculture, because we have more than 4.5 million ha for agricultural production. Agricultural production can be influenced by several factors, including c...limate, hydrology, soil conditions and antropogenic impacts. Climate determines the quality and quantity of the crop yields. The climate conditions in Hungary are variable and it shows spatial and temporal extremes. As a result of this, drought have become more frequent in our country (2003, 2007, 2009, 2012), which is reflected in the decline in yields as well. In the present study, Pálfai's Drought Index (PAI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) were compared 2003–2012 in Debrecen. The temperature and precipitation data were calculated from data provided by a local meteorological station to work out PAI, while the SPI-3 index values were downloaded from the database of the European Drought Observatory. This allowed to drought assessment in a local and regional scale. Our study was supplemented with SPI-3, soil moisture anomalies, PAI and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) to evaluating the impact of drought on agriculture.
Almost fifteen years have passed since the reunification of Germany. At the beginning of the 1990s, it was still unclear how the agricultural sector in the former East Germany would be able to survive, as it was still characterized by large scale farms, organized for a socialist economy. The course of this essay will look at how the agricultura...l productivity has changed the two different productivity systems in the western and eastern part of Germany.
Productivity can be defined as output produced per unit of input. If we define productivity indicator as output per one type of inputs then we get so-called partial productivity index, however, if we define productivity indicator as output produced per unit of more than one inputs we get multi-factor productivity.
In agriculture, the most often used partials productivity indexes are: labour, capital, land productivity and intermediate consumption productivity.
The analysis of total factor productivity requires the aggregation of all inputs by using input prices.
After World War I., but especially from the second half of the 20th century the public policy development is determinative in urban development. The urban and the country planning appears under the auspices of the regional development policy between the world wars. After 1945 the primary goal in economic and development policy was the socialist... industrialization, with a priority on cities. In this period the driving force in urban development primarily were the industrial installations. As a result, economic and social structure was transformed. It is a fact, that planned economy gave a huge impulse to city network, which determine the trend of cities up to this day. After the regime change, as an effect of escalation of regional differences and as a result of economic processes the urban development took new directions. The state intervention changed, and the principles of decentralization prevailed in resource allocation. The private and non-profit sector appears in urban development, the governments gain more important roles. These three sectors became the movers of local development. To recognize the main trends of urban development in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, the local area development funds were examined in a special way in a given period. This study will show, the main tendencies of the consumption of decentralized regional development funds between 1996–2008, in the cities of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. This study also gives an answer for which factors convert the renewal of city network of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County after the regime change.
In the Hungarian Rural Development Programme (RDP) climate change adaptation is addressed through the measures in Axis 1, 2, 3 and 4. Under Axis 1 farmers can receive support for farm modernisation that will help them adapt to climate change. The processing industry will also be able to use the available resources for capital expenditure on bui...ldings and new equipment. Axis 2 and especially the soil and water package within the agrienvironmental
measure aim to support production methods, which protect soil quality and will help adaptation to climate change. Measures of Axis 3, such as basic services for the economy and rural population, village renewal and development will provide local communities the opportunity to identify actions that can be undertaken to deal with the effects of climate change. On the other hand, the extension of forest resources contributes to climate change mitigation and enhances carbon sequestration. New methods have been elaborated to the sustainable regional water management, irrigation, water regulation, defence against internal water, and soil protection established. Water management contributes to the balance of water quantity on one side, but also to mitigating the climate change on the other.
The practice of the conception and park-like economic development (between market economy circumstances) seems to be novel in our country. The first industrial parks have been established decentralized, with a local initiation, with some determining foreign undertakings early in the 90 years. Since then the increase of the number of the parks i...s high also the areas which have weaker economic level. We have make attention (in
the development politics) to the industrial parks working in the most harmful micro-regions, where the capital task is to extension of the employment, and to involvement of the capital. In the Northern Great Plain Region there are 31 industrial park at the ends of 2007. There are developed infrastructure and service in the big part of the parks. The smaller part of the parks cannot live on its title of industrial park, because of regional position, and concerned their management troubles. But the extension and developing of the park’s economic is very important in the region.
The decarbonisation of the power sector signifies reducing its carbon dependency. The aim of several programmes is making a conversion to a sustainable & low-carbon economy. Some of the targets by the EU are legally binding, thus appear in the national legislation and strategies. To meet the objective, we need to use renewable energy soures... expansively.
The concept of precision agriculture is straightforward at the scientific level but even basic goals are blurred at the level of everyday practice in the Hungarian crop production despite the fact that several elements of the new technology have already been applied. The industrial and the service sectors offer many products and services to the... farmers but crop producers do not get enough support to choose between different alternatives. Agricultural higher education must deliver this support directly to the farmers and via the released young graduates. The price of agricultural land must be higher if well-organized data underpin the production potential of the fields. Accumulated database is a form of capital. It must be owned by the farmers but in a data-driven economy its sharing will generate value for both farmers and the society as a whole.
We present a methodological approach in which simple models were applied to predict yield by using only those yield data which spatially coincide with the soil data and the remaining yield data and the models were used to test different sampling and interpolation approaches commonly applied in precision agriculture. Three strategies for composite sample collection and three interpolation methods were compared. Multiple regression models were developed to predict yields. R2 values were used to select among the applied methods.
close relation. This means that policies related to the economy and the environment cannot be handled without each other. The United Nations Conference (Stockholm, 1972) was the first global conference to signal that environment concerns have increasingly become subject of mainstream socio-economic policies. The process started in the Seventies..., laying emphasis on environment protection, plays an important role in the policy of international agencies. The use of environmental indicators is essential for monitoring the effects of environmental measures. The best way of evaluating sustainability if the results can be compared on a global level. International efforts are being made by the United Nations (UN), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Statistical Office of the European Commission (Eurostat) and other international agencies to develop a framework for environment statistics. This study deals with these frameworks, paying attention to agri-environment indicators. Hungary became a member of the UN in 1955, of the OECD in 1996, and will become a member of the European Union in 2004. The first summary in connection with environmental indicators of Hungary, taking the OECD Pressure – State – Response framework as a basis, was published in 1994. As a result, comparability of environmental indicators for Hungary with those used international are given.
The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. In Hungary, a relatively small size of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The tension between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to... be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially young adults, as they have no opportunities to find a job in their hometowns. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties.
Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presuppose the availability of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, a solution that provides the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments: a locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.
Under the aegis of the Lisbon Strategy, special attention is paid to education and areas left untouched by the European integration process. Human capital and research inputs were identified as major driving forces for long-term development. The European Union is keen on meeting its target of boosting research spending to 3% of GDP by 2010. In...order to contribute towards his goal, the European Commission has set aside an amount
which is double the budget of the 7th Framework Programme. Accordingly, preferences were given to research and development projects encouraging competitiveness in the food industry and other initiatives, such as the European Technology Platforms. Major obstacles to innovation in Hungary are: lack of funds, weakness of research network, poor structural relations. Better utilization of our comparative advantages should be targeted in order to have the Hungarian food industry become a driving force sector. This is to be promoted by the newly transformed food
engineer training (as a result of the Bologna Declaration) which can adapt better to the changing requirements of the labour market. Food science and related research could become determining factors for the food economy by setting up accredited training systems and enhancing food safety education and training in Hungary.
The globalised world is looking for savings and actually finds it in Poland. Global economy is a system of connected vessels, functioning in close relations, with increasing role of Poland. The text demonstrates the developmental perspectives of outsourcing and offshoring in the largest Polish metropolies and the possibilities of the developmen...t of smaller cities.