This paper tries to find connection between sustainable landscape and spatial development policy of the Northern Great Plain region on the basis of specific examples explained in scientific literature. Searching for the common roots of spatial development and sustainability the paper explains two interpretations of sustainability from the view...point of landscape, than the most significant element of current landscape change – the polarization of landscapes – will be introduced. This trend in landscape change basically determines the direction of spatial development. This paper analyses the Northern Great Plain region from two different approaches. In the first grouping the region is exposed from the view point of spatial development. In the second partitioning the area is divided into subject matters based on the principles of sustainability and polarization of landscape. This research – analyzing development plans and strategies – considers the current situation within the subject matters.
The examination of the potentially toxic elements content of the wines is not easy task, because the most elements are in little concentration (mg kg-1 or μg kg-1) in the wine and the wines contain great amount of organic matrix. The efficient sample preparation is essential for the accurate determination of element conte...nt. The eim of our research was to determine which sample preparation method will be the most efficient in examination of wines with ICP technology. The examined wine sample was a 2008 Chardonnay from the Eger wine region. We did the sample preparation and analysis examination in University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Institute of Food Science, Quality Assurance and Microbiology.
We did the analysis examinations with ICP- MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy). We always did the sample preparations and the examinations in three times rehearsal. The applied sample preparation methods: dilution with distilled water, open digestion and microwave digestion.
We were able to measure B, Al, Mn, Fe and Zn with only dilution and open sample preparation. In the smaller quantity present Sr and Ba were measurable in the wine in the case of all three methods well. We were able to measure the Co with dilution and open digestion method, while Cr, Ni, and Te with only dilution method. In the case of arsenic we were not able to measure reliable result with dilution and open digestion method because of organic matrix and other components
(alcohols, monosaccharides, polysaccharides, polyalcohols and inorganic salts). On the whole we are able to say that in the case of certain elements (B, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, Ba) the open digestion and dilution sample preparation is applicable well, however, in the case of certain elements (As, Al, V, Cr, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg, Pb) we have to develop the methods. It may be development of one of the way, if we develop sample preparation methods to examined element specifically and not
to wine generally.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">By the strengthening of the economic competition became it apparent a company can’t be valued separate, it should be examined as a complex system. In the assessment of corporate performance is increasingly emphasized the environmental performance. The relevant information of stakeholder about the environmental performance is todays an expection, For this, a management control system is needed, which provide relevant information to managers, hence facilitating the informed decision. This study highlighted, accounting systems are able to meet this demand sufficiently, the accounting means not only the usual bookkeeping, it can be interpreted as a management-controll system, which can help in the valuation of the environmental performance.
An informatical innovation is essentially a private business in the life of a venture but the ability of evolution and adaptability of ventures is remarkable for the national economy too. This is why it is important to observe the economical effects of IT investments. The introduction of an information system – as in the cases of other invest...ments – requires pre- and post-calculations for payback of fixed assest, thrift and profitability. The operation of an information system means not only one-off acquisition of instruments and intangible assets, but requires continuous development, version control and improvement of hardware in the sake of conservation. There is a high rate of depreciation of IT investments in Hungary, because such goods change too quickly, together with the economic environment. If the conservation of IT instrument value wanted one has to make new expansions continually. IT specialists have determined some indices, one of which is Total cost of Ownership, which is an important indicator for investment analysis. In practice, there are some other models and methods we can adopt in our analysis. In this paper, I collected several relevant and usable methods for pre analysis of IT projects. Management can adopt these models in his investment process to make sound decisions.
In the 21st century, every economic sector must use the chances of evolution, technical and technological acquisitions, due to the level of competitiveness on the market. Such a sector as agriculture, where technology and the ideology of production are changing and adapting very slow to global expectations, by taking maximum advantage of opport...unities, is a more central question. The greatest problems of Hungarian agriculture’s competitiveness are that this sector is very weak in capital and production costs make producers uncompetitive on the market. We can remedy this situation by using sources logically, purposefully and system approached. Logistics can provide the most useful assistance in such efforts.
In agricultural logistics, there is a great deal of uncovered territory. The aim is to transplant methods that are working correctly in other sectors into the agricultural sector, while maintaining development. One of the most important areas is transport logistics and material movement. Methods of analyzing and planning transportation and material movement found in professional literature do not take into account the specific needs of agricultural production. My aim is to examine the effect of facility location in the running of an enterprise. Through the results, I make suggestions for modifying the currently used logistic method and suggest further methods of examination. The effect of agro-specific needs must be examined in carrying out innovations and making logistical planning methods reliable.
One of the key sustainability challenges for the coming decades will be to improve the management of natural resources in order to reduce current levels of anthropogenic environmental pressure and respect the biological and physical limits and the carrying capacity of the planet. The first step towards meeting this challenge is an enhancement o...f the understanding of the material basis of our society. In the past 15 years, scientists in several research institutes have created a fast growing field of research, a new family of different methods, named material flow analysis (MFA). These instruments have an increasing policy relevance: international organizations (UN, EU, OECD) have encouraged member states to establish MFA accounting in their statistical programmes and urged governments and economic actors to use these tools. In this paper I present selected examples to reveal how the MFA approach and derived material flow indicators can be used for the evaluation of sustainability policies at municipality level.
I consider it important that the fattening of broiler producers in an economic sense to remain alive in the present difficult situation. This does not mean to me, that just does not generate a loss, but they do remain in their activities after income. Because if you do not have sufficient income in a given sector then the technology becomes obs...olete over time and income deficit due to the possible improvements are still lagging behind, resulting in competitive disadvantages occur. The natural efficiency remains a priority, because fundamentally determine our competitiveness in the broiler production. In the present study, scenario analysis can prove the veracity of my claim, in point of the three most important natural efficiency indicators. The natural efficiency indicators of a company compared to the natural effectiveness of our country and the our competitions (Western-European countries).
Nowadays global warming is a major issue to our environment. This issue is generated by the modern human activities like industry and intensive agriculture. This research is about methane emission from rice paddy fields. The aim of the study is to lower the methane emission from the field with the help of using different type of fertilizers, wh...ilst we keep in focus the efficient economic operation. The main experimental field is Matsuo paddy field, (Matsuo town, Sanbu city, Chiba prefecture) which is analyzed by the Chiba University’s soil science laboratory, they provided the data for this study. During the study three type of fertilizer was analyzed which are all organic and the control was a regular chemical fertilizer. For all fertilizers the cost and income of the production were calculated and the profit was weighted with the methane emission what a specific fertilizer produced during the cultivation. In the future if the organic fertilizers are in focus than it is necessary to find a new material what can be competitive with the chemical fertilizers in focus of GHG emission or find an alternative way of the usage of methane in biogas production.
Hungary lies on the northern edge of rice production area. According to this, the climatic conditions area not perfect for this species. The production area of rice involves typically the poorer quality soils, however these meet the requirements of rice. In Hungary exclusively domestic types are grown which have high yield and good quality and...these are usually wore successful than foreign types. On the other hand, these Hungarian types should be improved considering safety in production. Nowadays, rice is grown in large scale companies with 300-1400 hectares, where production technology already exists, machinery is suitable, however the latter one a little bit old.
The average yields of the analysed companies were 3-4 t/ha in the past few years, which were a little bit above the national averages. The operating cost per hectare is almost 200 thousand HUF, from which the main part is the cost of machinery (35%) and the material cost (34%). The main part of the latter one is the irrigation costs (30%). The average cost, calculated from the total production cost, is 80 thousand HUF/t. Considering the above-mentioned costs and the price of rice (75 thousand HUF/t) it can be stated that the profitability of the rice sector is not the best, the cost rated profitability is -6.6%. According to the results of this analysis possibilities for the increase in profitability and improvement are increased subsidies and market price, as well as genetic improvement.
Hungarian scientific practice focuses mainly on statistical methods to elaborate sector-specific trends. This paper aims to offer another alternative. The author’s view is that in rapidly and significantly changing markets, data extrapolation is not necessarily the ideal way to forecast certain trends of the sector. Agricultural Supply Chains... have been restructured lately. There are remarkable developments in fields such as: warehousing systems, telematic systems, transportation. This is one of the reasons several drivers may alter the trends determined previously by statistical professionals. AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) synthesizes expert opinions concerning the future, so it is a decision-supporting method and therefore more flexible to the changes of the sector. The author introduces the application of the AHP for Agricultural Logistics Trends.
Feed manufacturing and human food production are the main routes of use for agricultural products. The food industryparticularly has intensively implemented the recent quality management principles and developed systems that facilitate the continuous improvement and efficiency of the industrial production. Feed production has taken similar appr...oaches however the intensity of deployment at the manufacturer and the rollout towards its supply chain has shown slower progress. The methods, that the feed manufacturer manages the supplier chain of mainly primer agricultural products according to, have a certain impact on the efficiency of the inbound operations, feed product quality and its consistency as well as on other resources. These methods have been built on sound quality management principles that are stated not only in quality standards but also in relevant regulations. Current study addresses the questions related to the link between supply chain quality management and feed product. The objective of the frontier research was to highlight the theoretical possibilities and benefits of the robust design methodimplemented into animal feed manufacturing dealing with highly variable ingredients.
Wineyard pruning utilization for energy purpose is not only a theoretical possibility, the machine background has also been developed. Economic- and environmental experimentations has made by specialists and they seek to developed the best practice in logistics suitable for local conditions and they propagate the results for the potential users.... Nevertheless, the utilization does not seem to be typical in Hungary and some other wine-grower countries. For example, in Hungary the additional energy from vineyard pruning eventuates – tillage, nutrient supply; – phy+tosanitary, environmental pollution; – energy management and economic questions.
In Hungary the most important problem is practice of the vineyard pruning utilization were mentioned by the users is the establishment of collection system and the high logistic costs as Marczinkó (2007) experiences confirm this. As I experienced in practice, the winegrowers are uninterested in utilization. Most of them burn it at the end of the vineyard in many cases without considering of the relevant statutory prohibition.
As my own several years expriment shows at Mátra wine region it is not the technical background which causes the failure. We can use effectively balers or chippers for collection. The cost of chipping is 14 535–27 000 Ft per hectars with the introduced technologies on Mátra wine region. The cost of 1 GJ of heat production is 606–1125 Ft. We can substitute the fuel with vineyard pruning and it means approximately 115 000 Ft saving for a family household per year.
Today, c for agricultural use are of ever increasing significance. These provide an opportunity for more accurate planning, and favourably influence the efficiency and economic performance of given enterprise. The relevant literature divides models according to various criteria. The most common is the division between optimising and non-optimis...ing models. Non-optimising models generally endeavour to make the best use of technological lines, machine capacity, while optimising models are used to optimise revenue returns from sales or, occasionally, production costs. In our case, revenue and returns from sales were optimised. The models examined consist of several modules. Which include the following: plant cultivation modules, evaluations (assessment of situation, conception plan, complex corporate evaluation), supplementary sheets (sheets and charts for ancillary plant production, general costs of operation, summary and crops structure optimisation). With the help of the model, annual a particular can be made for an optimal crop structure the resources of the enterprise. This it becomes possible to define the largest net revenue on a corporate level.
The article discusses the marketing effectivity of a communication service at a Hungarian telecommunication company. The main target is to establish economic effectivity of the enchanced promotion of the service. The basic metholodogy was the comparison of a new marketing plan and real figures of the planned period. The results of 2005 and 2006... show a very
positive financial effectivity of the surplus communication. Based on the results a further promotion is suggested.
Due to the exhaustion of the fossile fuel reserves of the Earth, the increase of fossile fuel prices and the difficulties concerning stable fuel supply, the increase of electricity production from renewable energy sources has a special strategic importance. In this study, I am going to evaluate the circumstances of the production and use of ren...ewable energy sources in Hungary and in the European Union. I present the Hungarian economic, energy policy-related and social circumstances which make it necessary to support renewable energy production. I am going to give an overview on the related EU strategies concerning the sector and the Hungarian development plan in this field. I pay particular attention to the examination of development opportunities and the R&D activities going on in this area in Hungary, as well as the efficiency of the means used to improve renewable energy use.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In my study titled “Regional strategies serving competitiveness”, I examine the regional strategies whose development and implementation in practice play a determinant role in the medium- and long run economic and social development of the given region. The study primarily focuses on the infrastructural basic investments that are essential from the aspect of creating a knowledge-based information society. The study also deals with a stakeholder analysis used by investors in order to focus on the quality of state administration and institution system.
The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of K, P and N supplies on the yield of winter barley in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment with clearly distinct soil nutrient supply levels in order to develop fertilisation guidelines for winter barley growers. The experiment was set up in 1989 on a chernozem meadow soil calcareous in t...he deeper layers, applying all possible combinations of 4 levels each of N, P and K fertiliser, giving a total of 64 treatments.
The results of analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 can be summarised as follows:
- In 2011, when rainfall supplies were deficient in the shooting phase, improved K supplies (324 mg kg-1 AL-K2O) increased the grain yield, but in 2012, when rainfall supplies were more evenly distributed, K supply levels in the range 210–335 mg kg-1 AL-K2O had no significant influence on the yield of winter barley.
- An analysis of the P treatments revealed that, compared to the 119–133 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 level (P0), better P supplies (186–251 mg kg-1) led to a significant increase in the grain yield.
- In both years rising N rates significantly increased the yield up to an annual N rate of 160 kg ha-1.
4. A K×N interaction could only be detected in the nutrient supplies of winter barley in 2011. The yield-increasing effect of N fertiliser was more pronounced at better K supply levels, while K fertiliser led to higher yields in the case of better N supplies.
Nitrogen fertilizer represents major economic burden. For this reason, although the efficiency of nitrogen utilization varies highly, its actual use generally remains at low levels; these averaging between 25 and 50%. We set up an experiment at the Oradea Research Station, using 15N labeled fertilizers, in order to investigate the possibility o...f increasing N fertilizer efficiency in winter wheat under irrigation conditions.
Fertilizers labeled with 15N allows us to individually determine its effect on yield formation, as well as the use efficiency of N from fertilizer following application rate and time. The amount of N derived from fertilizer as determined in straw and grain yield is high. When the labeled fertilizer is applied at tillering time, the values of this indicator rise when higher N levels we applied.
In separate experiments, we investigated a series of aspects connected to chemical fertilizer regarding the determination of the type of fertilizer, optimum time and rates of application; all these as a function of the special pedoclimatic conditions.
The results obtained in the field show that the effectiveness of N utilization in wheat is most variable and generally low, often ranging between 25 and 33%, owing to N loss within the system through leaching and NH3 volatilization.
A readily achievable increase in efficiency of 5 percentage points would result in considerable savings, and can be brought about by reducing nitrogen losses. The added benefits to the environment in terms of reduced ground/water contamination and lowered nitrous oxide (N20) emissions would also be substantial.
The figures for N fertilizer use efficiency (% N range from 35.5 to 72.6, the highest value being recorded with an N application of 120 kg/ha at tillering, when the previous crop was sunflower).
Maize production is of primary importance in Hungary, especially considering that its cultivation takes up one of the greatest ratios of land used for agricultural production. As a result, the number of farms where maize is not cultivated for either food production or foraging purposes is insignificant. For this reason, establishing economic pr...oduction is of decisive importance when it comes to determining the efficiency of farms. Profitable maize production depends on a number of conditions, including the professional suitability of farmers, while some aspects of production are independent from these. Heat-sum calculations form a transition from this aspect, since temperatures ocuring during the growing season cannot be influenced by man. However, the method of calculation and evaluation and thus the tool to improve production is in the hands of the farmer. This scientific paper aims to give a general description of heat-sum calculation methods.
When preserving genetic resources, one of the most important tasks is to conserve as much of the given gene pool for the future generations as we can. Therefore, traits that have no economic value at the moment should also be conserved. The great variety of coat colours seen in the Hungarian Grey cattle form part of the world’s genetic herita...ge. In order to maintain the world’s genetic diversity, we have to maintain these varieties, as well. The different coat colour varieties were determined – in both sexes and in several age groups – with a Minolta Chromameter CR-410 in an objective way. We found that the rate of the three main coat colour varieties of calves: the light reddish, the reddish and the dark reddish were 26%, 52% and 22%, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between the L*a*b* values of the reddish coat colour of the Hungarian Grey and the red coat colour of the Limousin calves. The rate of the crane, the grey and the light grey coat colour varieties were determined in the measured female groups. The L*a*b* values of the Hungarian Grey and Maremman bulls’ coat were compared and evaluated.
The effect of extended drought conditions on soil, the unfavourable cultivation technologies and the application of chemicals have been enhancing the processes of physical and biological soil degradation, so the fertility of soil is gradually declining.
The effects of two cultivation methods – traditional ploughing (TP) and conservat
chernozem soil were examined in a long term experiment. Different parameters of the biological activity of soil were determined. These are
the numbers of total bacteria, microscopic fungi, aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria, as well as the activities of some important soil
enzymes and CO2 production.
Conservation tillage seemed to be a more favourable cultivation method for the majority of microorganisms, the activities of urease and
dehydrogenase enzymes and CO2 production, compared to the traditional ploughing system. These parameters increased significantly,
especially in the upper layer of conservation tillage plots. Concerning the plant cultures, the majority of microbiological parameters were
higher in the soil of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) depending on the cultivation methods, so involving the pulses to the crop-rotation seems to be
very important in this soil type.
According to the ninth year’s results, the importance of conservation tillage as a means of protecting the soil biological activity in meadow
chernozem (Vertisols) can be established; it was proven by microbiological investigations.
Proper plant nutrition that takes into consideration both the requirements of plants and ecological conditions is one of the most important precondition of successful plant production. An important element of the N-fertilization of wheat is that the optimum zone of nitrogen supply is significantly narrower than that of other plant species, ther...efore it can easily happen that we apply higher or lower nitrogen doses than the optimal one. A possible solution to this problem can be precision agriculture. Applying the methods of precision agriculture we can take into consideration the heterogeneity of fields. By applying precision methods either online or offline we can intervene faster than if we would rely only on regular soil and plant analysis procedures. The determination of the doses of nitrogen and the timing of application are influenced also environmental and
economic aspects. The chlorophyll content of the leaves indicates the nitrogen status of plants, since there is a relationship between the nitrogen content and the amount of chlorophyll in the leaves. According to plant analysis results there was a strong and significant relationship between the values of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)and the total nitrogen content measured in the leaves.
Bioenergy and biofuels are very important in today’s energy policy. These kinds of energy resources have several advantages against fossil fuels. Environmental protection is a cardinal point of widespreading these technologies but the economic considerations are important as well. In order to improve the rate of the renewable energy in the en...ergy consumption, the European Union settled down a program which determines a minimum ratio of renewable energy in the energy consumption for each member country of the EU. To fulfil the requirements bioenergy and biofuels should be produced. This production procedure needs adequate stocks which are commonly agricultural products.
One of the promising stocks is sorghum. This plant fits for bioethanol production due to its juice content being rich in sugar. In this study six sweet sorghum hybrids, two sudangrass hybrids and a sudangrass variety have been evaluated to determine their theorical ethanol production capacity.
On the score of the results of the year 2009 it can be set that sudangrasses have a lower theorical ethanol capacity than sweet sorghums have. In the case of sweet sorghums 1860.29–2615.47 l ha-1 ethanol yields had been calculated, while the sudangrasses had only 622.96–801.03 l ha-1. After that throughout three years (2011–2013) the sweet sorghum hybrids have been evaluated in order to determine the fluctuations of the ethanol production capacity caused by the impact of the years. As a result 2425.44–4043.6 l ha-1 theorical ethanol capacities have been calculated, which means that sweet sorghums can be an adequate stock to produce bioethanol.
In my paper I examined the institutional and market connections warehouses use emphasising the role of financial institutions. I stressed that for the proper functioning of a warehouse the mutual trust of the economic participants is required. This presupposes a tight relationship between warehouses and banks, as banks have to accept warehouse...warrants in such a manner that the credit suppliant can more readily access current assets credit.
Today, we can say that the moneylender bank is strongly confident about deals involving warehouse credit. The amount of goods stored in warehouses is increasing. Warehouse deals offer better conditions to depositors, which can be explained by the fact that the creditor does not examine the management and credit standing of the depositor. Most important for them is that the goods provide enough collateral to ensure marketability, and that the warehouse storage conditions are proper. On the other hand, with the support of an interest subsidy system credit is obtainable at very auspicious conditions. To top it all off, and this is the most important aspect participants can receive access to funds unavailable to them in any other case.