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Energy use – in terms of efficiency
Published February 3, 2016

In the recent decades it has become apparent that the human race can lead to a polluting and energy- wasting lifestyle and the depletion of natural resources and an ecological disaster as well.

Energy efficiency is the realization of the chance to see a wider use of renewable energy. Renewable energy sources can be found in large quanti...ties in Europe. A proper exploitation of these would be important because of the "traditional" energy sources’s sate is very critical in many ways.

The utilization of renewable energy sources depends on many factors. The local natural conditions significantly determine each country's different renewable energy potentials. I find to be important the natural conditions, such as, solar radiation intensity , the number of sunny days per year, the wind conditions , the volume and their energy characteristics of the geothermal power resources , land features , soil and rock quality, the supply of fossil fuels or the nuclear possibilities of energy production. The economic environment is also a major influencing factor for the utilization of renewables. The conditions of price of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil and coal), the price of nuclear fuel production and other energy costs significantly influence the demand for renewables, as well as the level of subsidy and government tax policy. In addition, the international and national programs, objectives, strategies, subsidies and regulatory measures as well as technological factors can have a significant impact.

In my paper I point out the opportunities of renewable energy should be given to live. Nowadays the positive effects of their use is undisputed. In addition to the environmentally friendly produced energy, we should strive for energy conservation and energy efficiency as well. These expectations appear in practice, which can be directly perceived by citizens, in fact we should live accordingly. Furthermore, the environmentally relevant regulations of living conditions should appear as environmental demands.

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Wheat cleaning and milling technologies to reduce DON toxin contamination
Published December 15, 2019

Mycotoxicosis caused by Fusarium fungi holds a huge risk considering economic and food safety issues worldwide. By applying milling technologies, we attempted to reduce the concentrates of DON toxin, as it is the most often found toxin in wheat.

The processes of sieving, aspiration and combination had been used on wheat with high DON concentration. As a next step, grains were sorted using a horizontal cylinder separator, assorted by an optical and a gravity separator, and finally, the products were scoured and ground. The contamination level of the wheat and flour samples were defined by the HPLC-MS method.

Regarding the results, it can be stated that toxin concentration was most effectively reduced by optical separation and scouring, and by applying these milling techniques, food safety can be increased significantly.

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Applied EDI technologies in food traceability
Published July 28, 2008

Due to globalisation, the new technological developments and the complexity of food supply processes, the European food sector is increasingly becoming more complex. The consumers’ trust in food, triggered and affected by a number of food crises, is low. Today, consumers increasingly expect safe and high quality food and demand information ab...out the origin of their food. Also, economic health of food industry can be greatly affected by food crises; therefore efficient and effective mechanisms are required to assist food industry in tracking and tracing products along the food chain. In this paper we discuss the criteria for efficient and effective traceability system from an IT perspective (mainly data exchange) and we identify key requirements for ICT enabled traceability.

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Challenges in the mangalitsa sector – present and future
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The Hungarian mangalitza pig sector has experienced numerous structural changes in the past few decades. The increased demand in the foreign markets for the mangalitza pork, changes in the domestic consumer perceptions have increase the number of sows and breeders. After the European Union’s accession started a significant growth in the sector, which was due to the target programme from the year of 2005 for the keeping of animals representing high genetic value, as the breed is indigenous. From 2008 continuous decline can be observed. The main reason for the decrease was the drastic growth of feed costs because of the drought damage in 2007, and the global economic crisis. Since 2010, a further period of supports has been in place, it extands the willingness to keep mangalitza pigs and the number of sows continuously increasing. On the basis of the average farm size (58 sows/farm) in 2011 it can be stated, that after our EU’s accession the medium-sized farms became stronger. To evaluate the geographic concentration of the mangalitza livestock it was analysed the data of sow number among the years of 2000 and 2011. The geographic concentration of mangalitza stock has a medium value over each year under the survey period, except the years of 2004–2007, when the values of Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) have low degrees. Due to the subvention period of indigenous breeds it was established more mangalitza farms in different parts of Hungary. Despite of the growth since 2000, numerous problems are in the segment. The aim of the study is to find out the sectoral problems, which are completed with the objectives tree and draw up the main activities to solve the problems. After estimating the SWOT-matrix according to the methodology of the strategic analysis and the discussions with the secretary of National Association of Mangalitza Breeders is prepared the sectoral problem- and objectives tree. The core problem of the mangalitza sector is that the origin of mangalitza products are not certified in the domestic markets. The reason of it is that the breeders don’t request the certificates of fattening pigs, so it can appear not real mangalitza product on the markets as mangalitza. To solve the problems it is drawn up different suggestions in the objectives tree. This analysis is an useful tool for the decision makers in the mangalitza sector to evolve strategic plans on behalf of the efficient cooperations among chain actors.

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Aflatoxin production on agricultural products
Published March 11, 2014

Aflatoxins due to their toxicity pose significant economic and human health threat; therefore, it is important to avoid this type of contamination in agricultural products. Until now significant aflatoxin contamination occurred mainly in foods of tropical and subtropical origin because the optimal growth of the producer Aspergillus species is b...etween 32–38 ºC. Nowadays the aflatoxin contamination is becoming higher threat in Hungary, due to the imported products, the rising average temperature and the climatic changes. There is a significant knowledge on the genetic and environmental effectors of the aflatoxin production; however, it is remained a great problem to control mold contamination and toxin production in farming and stock-raising. Here we attempted to summarize the knowledge on aflatoxin production and attempts of the elimination.

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Integration of Transformation Technology and Conventional Plant Breeding of Cereal Plants
Published December 10, 2002

The integration of plant breeding and plant transformation is needed because we have to create a homozygous genotype of great agronomic value by conventional breeding before the application of genetic technology with which we modify it by using a gene or genome sequence. The aim of integrated plant breeding is to trigger such advantegous change...s by genetic technology which can not be achieved via conventional breeding or just with considerably weaker efficacy. By transformation, the plant’s agronomic performance, the efficiency and security of its production will improve and it will enable more versatile uses of the plant. Genetic technology is one sequence of a new plant variety’ breeding. To create a transgenic variety, the isolation of a gene or a sequence of a gene from the donor genome for tranformation, a homozygous plant or target genome that is suitable for transformation and is created via conventional breeding methods, an effective transformation technique and the establishment of the new variety from the transformed, fertile plant are needed. The transgenic plant should be made suitable for establishing a variety by conventional breeding so that it could be produced securely, its growing could contribute to the development of modern, sustainable agriculture, its seed could be produced profitably, it could meet the reqiurements of DUS and that the changes indicated by the transgene could provide such economic advantages compared to the original variety, which have real commercial value.

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Development and Economic Benefits of Open Source Software
Published September 2, 2009

This paper discusses open source software which became one of the most important trends in the software industry recently. The most often asked questions in this area are those related to intellectual property rights. The author used a more general approach and tried to give a survey of the advantages and disadvantages that the market players (...developers, government and last but not least users) have to face.
After sketching the history of open source software and discussing some of the prevailing definitions, we turn out attention to the starting point: what motivates the developers? Then we give a general overview of the advantages and disadvantages of open source software. In the next part, the author analyses the software policies of the EU partially based on the abovementioned advantages and disadvantages. Finally the paper concludes with the discussion of user benefits and costs.

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Innovation Potential and Regional Competitiveness studies in the Northern Great Plain region
Published December 16, 2012

1.5 million people live in the large region containing 3 counties, which makes it the second most populated region after Central Hungary. Its economy and land use are still defined by agriculture and it has been the least developed region in the country for a long time. In the country this region has the second lowest GDP per capita and employm...ent rate. In contrast to the low values of the economic indicators the region has high potential for innovation. The University of Debrecen is located in the region having one of the widest range of education and intensive research and development is also a characteristic of the region.

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Interpretation of rurality and the situation of land use in Hungary
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The summarizing data collection of our study has been carried out in the scope of the FP7-REGPOT-2010-1 ’UD_AGR_REPO’ project as a part of the cooperation with the University of Lincoln. The University of Lincoln is an important partner of the project, the knowledge transfer activities that have been carried jointly with them are multilateral. One of the most important cooperation areas is the analysis of rural areas, rurality itself, determination of breakout points, exploration of alternative income sources, diversification possibilities. Some part of the work of the University of Lincoln on the field of rural development is based on the assessment and documentation global similarities and differences of rural areas. Present study also contributes to that work, it has been prepared on the request of the University of Lincoln with the aim of providing insight into the special political and economic changes/processes that took place in Hungary, and through them into the structure and operation of the unique Hungarian rural areas.

The study first positions the definition of rurality and rural areas into context on the basis of official EU and Hungarian legal classification. Then it covers the important agricultural nature of Hungary, which significantly determines the possibilities and properties of Hungarian rural areas. The further description of rural areas is completed by some historical summary, the introduction of ownership changes, detailed description of employment and income conditions and finally by the listing of breakout points of rural areas as a conclusion.

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Examination the stresseffect of litter’s let-together system (“kindergarten”) by measuring faecal cortisol metabolites of sows and piglets
Published March 23, 2016

Piglets in commercial intensive pig husbandry are often abruptly weaned between 3 and 4 weeks for economic reasons. The process of weaning is a multifactorial stressor, in which nutritional, social, physical and psychologic stressors are combined. Piglets are often exposed to unfamiliar piglets around weaning which results in a period of fighting. Stress plays an important part in welfare research. Traditionally glucocorticoids are measured in blood samples but their use is often limited as the act of sample collection may stress an animal. Measurement of faecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites is a non-invasive method for evaluation adrenocortical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of litter’s let-together system (“kindergarten”) in the farrowing house by measuring faecal cortisol metabolites. According to our results the “kindergarten” system has no stress effect on sows and piglets, respectively.

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Cross-Sectional Examination of Agricultural Firms in Relation to the Leaders’ Attitude
Published May 11, 2003

As a PhD student at the Management Department of Debrecen University my project was to find examine circumstances of agricultural business entities in connection with structural, social and economic changes. This topic is integral part of the research program „Functional Study of Business-Management”, specified the topic „Structural Manag...ement Researches”.
My setting of objectives were to find any connection between changes and attitude of leaders. I tried to explore the direction, tightness and tendencies of these relations, to choose some special management-method, which ones are much more succesfull than the other ones during the change-managing process. The base of my experiences are the results of special questionnaires, which were sent to several member of different type of enterprises relating to agricultural activity.

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Farms in the system of European supportpolicy
Published October 10, 2008

Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has been having a great past, it is over numerous direction and structure changes in the last half century. After the Treaty of Rome, the harmonization of he agricultural structure and the production of Member States has been launched, during which the economic changes in the world and in Europe were continuousl...y being kept track of. By using common experience, they strived to develop an agricultural sector that supplies the Member States of the Community with food, while the competitiveness and living circumstances of family farms are being improved. The general directions outlined in Stresa in 1958 were significantly redrawn owing to the transformed market conditions and EU accessions. The subsidization of family farms and the improvement of their profitability are having a stressed importance nowadays, too. Our country, as the fully qualified member of the European Union tries to meet its obligations undertaken in the accession treaty and therefore to develop an agricultural sector carrying out diversified agricultural production with a healthy age structure. The aim of the study is to specifically overview the issue of common agricultural policy by stressing the main development points and to introduce the Hungarian conditions of family farms. Besides, there will be an evaluation of the research works examining the income conditions of family farms in the North Great Plain region.

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Changes in weed flora of basket willow (Salix viminalis L.) under different soil nutrient supply
Published November 10, 2010

The world is in a continuous progress, as a result of which energy consumption and with this the release of gases with adverse impact show rapid increase. As a result of the survey conducted by the International Energy Agency, if the major economic powers do not initiate a change in their energy policy, the increase of energy consumption may as... well reach 40 % by 2030. This increased energy demand is getting more and more difficult to fulfill with the fossil energy resources, which is to lead to an increasing significance of renewable energy resources. In Hungary, these energy resources are the best to provide with biomass growth. Biomass growth for energetic purpose can mostly be provided by energy plants, out of which “energy willow” (Salix viminalis L.) is outstanding with its high yield and with its excellent burning technology characteristics of its timber. The willow’s cropping technology is being established in our country. One of our tasks is to work out an adequate weed control plan. The professional and safe use of herbicides can increase the success of production. In our paper, we discuss the weed flora data collected on  treatments applied in the different fertilizer and compost. We started our survey in 2010. We examined twelve different fertilizer and compost treated areas. The dominant weeds were: Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli among annuals; Cirsium arvense and Agropyron repens among the perennials. 

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Element content analyses in the Institute for Food Sciences, Quality Assurance and Microbiology
Published November 13, 2012

The role of chemical elements to ensure and promote our health is undisputed. Some of them are essential for plants, animals and human, others can cause diseases. The major source of mineral constituents is food, drinking water has a minor contribution to it, so the knowledge of elemental intake through food is crucial and needs continuous moni...toring and by this way it promotes the food quality assurance and dietetics.
With the evolution of spectroscopic methods increasingly lower concentrations could be determined, so the elemental composition of a sample could be more precisely and fully described. Due to the results the gathered knowledge up to the present is supported and new observations can be done helping us to understand such complex systems as biological organisms are.
The quality of a food is determined by the full process of its production, consequently it starts with agricultural production so elemental-analysis usually cover the whole soil – plant – (animal) – food chain, by this way the „Fork-to-Farm” precept is true in elemental analysis field also.
The history of elemental analysis in the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Food Processing, Quality Assurance and Microbiology goes back to 1980s when the so called Regional Measurement Central gave the background for research. The continuous deployment resulted in an obtain of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) in 1988, which extended the scope of examinations due to its excellent performance characteristics
compared to flame atom absorption (FAAS) and flame emission spectrometers (FES). The instrumental park retain up to date correlate to the developing analytical techniques due to acquiring a newer ICPAES in 1998 and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in 2004 – which sensitivity is three order of magnitude better compared to ICP-AES. The Institute supports the work with its own ICP-AES and ICP-MS since 2011. 

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Production and economic risk analysis of pig fattening
Published April 8, 2014

I prepared a “model farm” producing fattening pigs in order to examine the main risk of production and market factors affecting the profitability of fattening pig production. Values of body weight (at the beginning of fattening and at the end of fattening), mortality rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fattening pig as well as the main cos...t and price data were recorded as the input data of the model. Production value per unit, production cost per unit and income per unit were used as output. The Monte-Carlo simulation was used in the model for risk assessment. Based on the results of the analysis, it was concluded that the production value per unit was most affected by the selling price of fattening pig (ß=0.972), the production cost per unit were most influenced by the body weight at the beginning of fattening (ß=0.567) and the feed conversion ratio (ß=0.537), in addition, the change of the income per unit was most determined by the previously factors.

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Economic impacts of applying EU animal protection regulations in hog breeding farms
Published May 27, 2001

Hungary’s intention to join the EU makes it necessary to adopt, introduce and use the EU system of law. In Hungary, the legal control of animal welfare has improved (XXVIIIth law in 1998); however, most of our pig farms do not meet the EU animal welfare law requirements for some reason. We examined 9 pig farms in Hajdú-Bihar, Borsod-Abaúj-Z...emplén and Heves counties. We chose those farms which use the combined breeding
technology most frequently used in Hungary. The most important part of the welfare directive is the definition of the minimum space per animal. We analysed the data in comparison with EU laws. On the basis of the analysis, it can be said that there is a narrow cross-section: the breeding of piglets. During the cost analysis, we analysed cost and highlighted the permanent cost. We studied how these costs would change if EU animal welfare laws were observed. We also examined the specific data per 1 sow and per 1 kilogram of slaughter pig. We compared the present data (1999) with those we get if EU animal welfare laws concerning minimal space per pig were now followed. It can be stated that after decreasing the sow live-stock in accordance with EU directives, the permanent cost would increase by 17,7% per sow. If the required space per sow were provided, the total cost per sow would increase by 1,9% from 421,1 thousand forints to 429 thousand forints, on average. This would mean a decrease of 7,9
thousand forints profit per sow. As with the decrease of the number of sows, the number of slaughter pigs also decreases. Total cost per 1 kg of slaughter pig would increase from 214,7 forints to 218,2 on average. 

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Verifying the farm size – environment interaction
Published May 23, 2006

With this study, based on experience gained in the United States of America, the author intends to draw attention to the fact that farm size related questions in Hungary, which form an integrant part of farm policies all around the world, cannot and should not be discussed without taking environmental relations into account. In the United State...s, where the excessive use of agrochemicals poses a great threat to the environment, many researchers claim that the conventional large farm model is now getting outdated. These experts question the social and economic benefits of a large farm oriented farm structure and try to convince researchers arriving from Middle- and Eastern-European countries to reform their thought on optimum farm structure. In their opinion, it is essential to let countries in the region understand that they are not required to follow the US course of large farms, which many experts in the States also would prefer to leave. From the facts presented in this study, it can be concluded that large farms by nature can protect the environment less efficiently than small farms. It is also pointed out that the excessive use of fertilizers, which is a trait often attributed to large farms by researchers throughout the world, do not yet apply to large farms in Hungary. As regards the use of pesticides in Hungary, the unfavorable tendency portrayed in foreign literature is identified in this analysis, according to which the larger the farm involved in field cropping the larger per hectare doses they use to protect their crops.

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Relationships of the sport and the life quality in the University of Debrecen
Published June 5, 2009

In the sport- life of the University of Debrecen there has been a demand formulated on the making of a comprehensive, long-term development plan, which obviously incorporates all
fields of sport. This document guides the way for people in the sport- life of the university how they could organise their activities connected with sport on a cal...culable, predictable level.
Necessarily, the preliminary collection of professional informations has been a basic requirement for the establishment of this document.
The program provides foreseeable instructions to the organisation of sport pursuits both for sport people in the university, and members of the sport spehere in a wider sense. It
offers a cohesive solution for all kinds of tasks defined with the sport life, and also gives a guidance for the various ways of realisations of these challenges. Thus it can answer such questions as for example how the university can conduce the initation of conditions for the healthy living through spare time sporting, how it can participate in the financing of contest sport with the contributing project of reinforcement training and how the university can support the sport life of handicapped people. The project also contributes to the cultivation of the sport traditions of the university by bankrolling not only the official university sport
life but also the leisure time sporting of the students.
On the basis of rethinking the situation of sport at the university with its future possibilities the program paraphrases the tasks of the university in the sport life, the long term aims of
university sport politics with its operative aims that should be performed and also the possible steps which lead to these purposes.
The target of the project is to turn the University of Debrcen in every field into a “Sporting University”. It means, that beyond the development of quality sport and outstanding contest sport a much wider range of university people should be included in sporting in order to utilize all the advantages of sport. With this the physical culture could become not only a substantial form of spending our free time, but with getting one of our natural everyday activities it can also become our lifestyle.
Sporting prominently contributes to both the university students’s and the whole society’s mental and physical wellfare, and it also helps to improve our helthstate on various fields of life:
with its special functions it is a means for establishing a healthy nation, for promoting common relationships, for nourishing the economic activity of people and also for strengthening the national values and one’s self-esteem through providing equal opportunities.
The prosperousity of contest sport at the university and the maintaining and protesing of its efficiency fortifies our selfregard, as it is able to hold appropriate sportsmen up as examples
to both present and future universtity students, and also offers exacting ways of entertainment. Besides all these the advataged purpose of the project is to find and delibaretaly include those
necessary mechanisms which are needed for the working of the sport market.

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Evaluation of the interaction between environmental factors, cultivation and fertilisation
Published July 18, 2012

The effect of production factors on maize yield was examined in the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre of Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil between 2001 and 2003. The impact of environmental factors (precipitation, temperature, number of sunny hours), cultivation methods ...(autumn ploughing, spring shallow cultivation) and fertilisation (non-fertilised, 120 kg N + 90 kg P2O5 + 106 kg K2O, and 240 kg N + 180 kg P2O5 + 212 kg K2O) on maize yield was examined. During the three years, autumin ploughing significantly increased yield by 2.91 t ha-1 in comparison with spring shallow cultivation. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was observed in each year, although its extent depended on the given crop year and the applied cultivation method. The higher fertiliser dose (240 kg N ha-1) did not cause significantly higher yield in either year. After the evaluation of the observed correlations, it can be established that the yield increasing
effect of fertilisation was higher in the case of autumn ploughing in comparison with spring shallow cultivation. The environmental factors (especially the extent of precipitation) significantly affected the maize yield. 

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A study of social and economic influences of universities in the Derecske-Létavértes subregion
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Businesses operating in the region – adopting to local conditions – mostly pursue agricultural activities. Their R+D activity is rather moderate and largely focuses on development, moreover, the range of innovative businesses is relatively significant, which businesses – before long – will become potential partners for institutions of higher education (especially for Debrecen University).

Social impacts of universities are notable on the person’s status in the labour market. Our study of the Derecske-Létavértes region shows that those with a university degree have an advantageous position in the labour market, compared to the sample of youth aged between 16 and 35. Knowledge obtained at college and other skills greatly help the young to find employment.

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European Funds and the Evaluation of Their Application in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005

Presently, the process of regionalization is slowly progressing in Hungary. The regional institutional system is young and the institutional experiences are limited. The Hungarian regional development agencies are operated with a limited number of personnel and their budget is only a fraction of EU regional agencies of similar size. There is no... unequivocal cooperation between regional development agencies and county development agencies. In the absence of these, the strategical objectives of the region cannot be aligned and the application of consistent development policies cannot be achieved. In the past five-six years the supports from EU Pre-Accession Funds, along with the new tools of regional development policies, have all contributed to the development of the North Great Plain Region. Phare projects – beside supporting development – have played a significant role in forming the approach of individuals who are actively involved in regional development, in promoting cooperation among cross-border and other regions, as well as in preparing the regions to accept EU structural funds. Prior to the May 1st, 2004 EU accession of Hungary, the North Great Plain Region received 24-25% in direct regional development funds in the Nineties. The support per capita in the case of TFC, TEKI and CÉDE has exceeded the national average. The North Great Plain Region has received support from investment type agricultural supports, the Employment Fund and the Touristical Directives that well exceeded the national average, from the sectoral resource funds. However, the applicants of the North Great Plain Region have received little support in the case of environmental, water management and especially road development supports. About 200 applications have been submitted for the SAPARD calls nationally, 32 of these were from the North Great Plain Region. The significance of cooperation among sub-regions is demonstrated by the fact that, except for 15 settlements in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, all have submitted an application. The efforts of inhabitants is highlighted by the high number of submitted applications, as well as by the significant degree of own contribution. Still, the GDP of the North Great Plain Region has not increased, the rate and tendency of unemployment does not sufficiently reflect the positive effect of supports. The Regional Development Directive has provided support for the development of many small- and medium size enterprises, but their effect did not ensure a sustained economic growth.
The greatest difficulty is that the number of dedicated professionals who are skilled in regional politics and regional development is few. However, advantages of our EU accession can only be exploited if a group of highly skilled professionals is provided on local, county, regional and national level as well. Thus, we need a group of professionals who are informed about the European Union, the EU support forms and most of all about the operation of Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds to establish the suitable institutional background for professionally handling the funds obtained from the EU, to prepare the professional documents to access the funds and to generate development projects to efficiently use the funds as well as establishing connections with the institutions of the EU. Appropriate share from funds coming from the EU is only possible if the country, certain regions, counties and sub-regions can achieve rapid results in the areas listed above.

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The correlation of foreign language proficiency, employment and regional competitiveness in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary
Published July 16, 2007

Employment is one of the basic factors when evaluating a region’s competitiveness. Boosting employment figures will also increase individual income. However, the creation of jobs alone will not solve the problems of unemployment, as labour force with skills matched to labour market demands should also be available. Continuous development of t...he labour force, adjusted to recent needs in the labour market, can contribute to a region’s competitiveness. Mismatches between education and labour market requirements would be too expensive, especially for backward regions like the North Great Plain Region of Hungary. Foreign language education should also be adapted to the changing economy when selecting target languages and language skills. A workforce equipped with contemporary and needed second language skills can be an element in making a region attractive for investors. Although current trends show signs of improvement, Hungary and especially the North Great Plain Region still does not have much to offer in this respect. The paper examines the reasons for the low level of second language acquisition among Hungarians and the population of the North Great Plain Region and explores the ways foreign language knowledge could promote economic development.

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Examination the effects of different herbicides on the soil microorganisms of a calcareous chernozem
Published November 3, 2010

Pesticides play a key role in fighting weeds, pests and parasitic fungi. According to surveys, pests reduce the yield of agricultural crops by 35% worldwide. Pests, fungi and weeds account for 14%, 12% and 9% yield loss, respectively (Gáborjányi et al., 1995). Chemicals have contributed to increasing and maintaining the yields of crop product...ion for decades. Today, agricultural production (in spite of many efforts) is unthinkable without the use of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). On the other hand, these chemicals contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere, surface and underground waters, and agricultural soils, especially if they are applied improperly.
The sustainable agricultural production pays attention to environment-friendly cultivation-technologies; but at the same time it makes an effort to produce good quality and economical products. The examination of the herbicides’ secondary effects, fits into this chain of idas namely, how the herbicides affect – stimulating or inhibiting – the soil microbiological processes, prevention of soil fertility.
In the course of the experimental work the effect of herbicides on soil biological properties were examined in different maize (Zea mays) cultures. We wanted wished to know that how the herbicides affect the quantity change of soil microorganisms, the life of different physiological groups of bacteria and the activity of microorganisms. A small pot experiment was set up in 2008 with the application of two herbicides - Acenit A 880 EC and Merlin 480 SC – in the breeding house of the Department. The moisture content and nutrient supply were at optimal level in the experiment.
On the basis of results the following can be stated: 
1. It can be stated that the two herbicides and all their doses affected negatively the number of total soil bacteria, the
inhibiting effects were significant. The quantity of microscopical fungi increased by the effect of Merlin 480 SC and decreased in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
2. The Acenit A 880 EC had stimulating effect on the nitrate mobilization. The CO2-production was stimulated by the basic doses of herbicides; the other treatments did not influence the CO2-production significantly.
3. The quantity of microbial biomass-carbon –except for only one treatment- decreased significantly by the effect of herbicides. Besides it, the quantity of microbial biomass-nitrogen increased significantly in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
4. The biomass of test plant decreased in the treatments of herbicides, their quantities were smaller than in the control. In the pots treated by Merlin 480 SC, parallel with the increase of doses decreased the quantity of plant-biomass.

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Using the principles of precision animal husbandry in fishbreeding
Published November 13, 2012

Aquaculture species such as fish, crayfish, molluscs and plats are a wide range of products, with continuously growing demand worldwide. The reasons for this is that they are cheap and easy-toraise protein sources, thus having significance in food supply especially in developing countries in tropic regions, moreover, the premium category foodst...uffs in developed high income countries are also belonging to this category. World annual total production of 164 million tons (2009) are made up of two sources: 1) marine and inland fisheries landings that are stagnating for several years and 2) aquaculture which is growing dynamically with annual 6% rate between 2000–2009. The latter is accounting for nearly 45% of the total supply due to the depleting marine stocks caused by overfishing. Aquaculture is growing continuously also because the production is safe and can
be planned well. 
Intensive fish production systems are the representatives of precision animal production, several types exist and widespread worldwide. The modern computerized temperate water recirculation plants with several thousand m3 capacity are widespread also in Europe because they make it possible to produce even the most valuable species whole year round. A key issue in the technical/feeding outlay is to meet the demands of the cultured species the best and the operation of the system is to be safe and cost-effective. One condition for this is intensification: enable to produce more product per unit resource input or effort. The facilities need significant amount of energy, thus renewable energy sources are to be favoured for which Hungary has comparative advantages.

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Growth and clorophyll content dynamics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in different cropyear
Published May 6, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment in the season of 2011 and 2012 in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at three fertilisation levels (control, N50+P35K40, N150+P105K120). Two different cropyears were compared (2011 and 2012).

The research focused on the effects of forecrop and fertilisation on the Leaf Area Index, SPAD values and the amount of yield in two different cropyears. We wanted to find out how the examined parameters were affected by the cropyear and what the relationship was between these two parameters and the changes of the amount of yield.

Examining the effects of growing doses of fertilizers applied, results showed that yields increased significantly in both rotations until the N150+PK level in 2011 and 2012. By comparing the two years, results show that in 2011 there was a greater difference in yields between the rotations (7742 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the biculture and 9830 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the triculture). Though wheat yields following peas were greater in 2012, results equalized later on at N150+PK levels (8109–8203 kg ha-1).

Due to the favorable agrotechnical factors, the leaf and the effects of the treatments grown to a great extent in 2011, while in 2012 the differences between treatments were moderate. Until the N150+PK level, nitrogen fertilisation had a notable effect on the maximum amount of SPAD values (59.1 in the case of the biculture and 54.0 in the triculture). The highest SPAD values were measured at the end of May (during the time of flowering and grain filling) in the biculture. In the triculture, showed high SPAD values from the beginning. The same tendency could be observed in the 2012 cropyear, although increasing doses of fertilizers resulted in higher SPAD values until N150+PK level only from the second measurement. Maximum SPAD values were reached at the end of May in both crop rotation system

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