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The social basis of regional development in the North Great Plain Region
Published September 18, 2014
57-65

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">It is a widely accepted practice in the European Union to break down countries into regions according to their stage of development, their cultural and economic characteristics. The basis of this methodology is the EU-conform MOTS system, which distinguishes territorial units on five levels. Besides the MOTS system, Hungary uses another system, too, which is the basis of our public administration, and whose roots go back to the times of King Saint Stephen: the county system. In Hungary, developmental decisions are taken by a county’s general assembly; at the same time, from an economic point of view the characteristics and competitive advantages of a county can be defined more precisely than those of a region.

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County and Hajdu-Bihaur County may be described with completely different characteristics, albeit both of them are part of the North Great Plain Region. On a county level economically important and justified developmental areas may be mapped more precisely.

Hajdu-Bihar County is the 4th most populous county in Hungary. With 80.2% of the population living in cities, the county is significantly urbanized. 2010 statistics show that the birth rate per 1,000 people in the county is practically the same as the birth rate of the country and that of the North Great Plain Region. Following the trends in developed countries, mothers now tend to give birth in an older age. Almost half (44.5%) of the children in Hajdu-Bihar County are born after their mother’s 30th birthday.

The general health condition of the population of Hajdu-Bihar County can be described with various indicators. In terms of medical and hospital care no difference can be observed between regional and national data, the county’s health care does not straggle behind. In sum, with the health care system of the county, estimated life expectancy of men is higher than the regional average, and in case of women it is higher than both the regional and national average, according to the given year’s mortality.

Children’s ratio among the county’s population is 15.9%, which is more than 1% over the national average. The ratio is higher in case of girls and boys alike. The income of the county’s population depends not only on labour income but also on social benefits. According to the analysis, the proportion of old-age pensioners and those receiving pension-like allowances within the whole population is somewhat lower in the county than the national average. The number of children receiving child-welfare and daytime care is prominent in the county.

The number of families and children receiving child-care allowance has not changed significantly in recent years. All important elements of social benefits have increased in the last decade. The quality of life of the county’s population is largely affected by the presence (or absence) of basic infrastructure in their environment. Research conducted at the settlements of the county shows that currently the greater part of the population has access to basic public utility services which form part of everyday services. Although they affect the general quality of life, the network of roads and passenger traffic have their real significance in terms of economic development. The county’s modern, paved road-system had already been built earlier.

Roads and pavements in inner-city areas have been paved up to 70%. The technical condition of roads and pavements can seriously impede the population’s mobility and it may hinder the development of certain settlements and districts.

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Evaluation of water balance in apple and pear trees
Published October 5, 2010
193-198

A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant constitutes the foliage. The canopy is an important factor
of plant growth. On one hand the canopy absorbs the solar energy, which is necessary for the photosynthesis, on the other hand accumulates
the absorbed nutrients by the roots, and the most of the water-l...oss happens through the foliages. The determination of the full canopy is not
an easy target. In our research we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree
(leaf length and maximum width) and the data of ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and
fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of
fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees.

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Case study based analyses of economic viability of Hungarian beef farms
Published July 16, 2007
184-193

Our country has great traditions in the field of beef production. As early as the Middle Ages, Hungary was known as Europe’s beef exporter. In this decade, production of the Hungarian Grey has increased, due to the popular method of keeping these animals extensively. These animals were even exported to the European markets on foot.
After j...oining the European Union, this sector of agriculture has been receiving attention due to the major subsidies which were given. Accordingly, numerous farmers have tried to enter this sector of production. However, the power relations have been changed lately, as have the technology used in production, which has undergone several developments. The integrative connections in the sector had been split and also the size of optimal and sustainable production has arisen.
The economic activities must be judged by their effectiveness and profitability, but in most cases their effectiveness can only be seen through such outstanding facts which are independent from the farmer.
I would like to model the economy of a certain enterprise, and the size and the level of its production, through my research under the actual economic circumstances. In my research, I pay special attention to the circumstances which are important in the Hungarian agricultural sector and rural development.

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System of relations between competitiveness and social cohesion in the European Union (2007–2020)
Published May 16, 2017
39-45

I my current essay I tried to prove that the European Union modified its economic policy due to the financial and economic crisis and the fierce global competitiveness requirements. The main emphasis was laid on the increase of competitiveness. Competitiveness became preferred
to cohesion and the economic and social closing up of the newly j...oined Middle-Eastern European countries. The funds for competitiveness for growth and employment increase by 6–7% yearly during the financial perspective between 2007–2013. On the contrary the funds for agriculture and rural development decrease by 3% yearly in this period. The tendency remains unchanged during the financial perspective 2014–2020.
This tendency strengthens the establishment of the two speed Europe concept and causes tensions between the core regions and the peripheries.

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Information and Communication Technologies in tourism
Published November 20, 2011
49-53

Technological progress and tourism have gone hand in hand for years. Information communication technology (ICT) and tourism are two of the most dynamic motivators of the emerging global economy. Tourism can be considered as one of the most profitable sectors of the Hungarian economy, and in rural areas it is often the only successful economic a...ctivity.
Development of ICTs and the expansion of the Internet have changed dramatically in the past few decades. This process is noticeable in
Hungary, as well. Platform of tourism increasingly get to the Internet nowadays, which is vitally important because tourism is an information-intense industry. Therefore, it is critical to understand changes in technologies in order to maintain the crucial role of this sector in the Hungarian economy.
The aim of my study is to support the significance of tourism in Hungary and especially in the North Plain Region with the help of statistical data. Then, I try to show how ICTs appear in this sector and emphasize the role of these tools with some concrete examples.

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Creating potential agricultural clusters in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published July 18, 2012
63-67

The crisis of the hungarian agricultre is continuous since the ’80s. The compensation is made a dual farm system, which has created barriers to efficient agricultural production. It is confirmed by the economic indexes as well. But the most important natural resources of our country is still the land. Over the past 20 years, the government wa...s not able to work out strategic aims and adequate system for the hungarian agriculture. In the past three decades the clusters has become the most common tool in economic development worldwide. Clusters always base on some local knowledge, and a country can be competitive on the industry in which the resources are concentrated. So the question is, is it possible to „clusterize” the
agriculture and through this develop the rural economic.

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Evaluation of Hungarian show-jumping results using different measurement variables
Published May 6, 2013
81-85

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of the study was to compare different fitted models for show-jumping results of sporthorses and to estimate heritability and repeatability value. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2011 were analyzed. The database contained 358 342 starts of 10 199 horses. Identity number, name and gender of the horse, rider, competition year, the level and location of the competition and placing were recorded in the database. To measure performance of horses, placing, number of starters and competition level were used. Competitions were categorized into five groups based on their difficulty level. The used repeatability animal model included fixed effects for age, gender, competition place, year of competition (and competition level in case of non-weighted measurement variables), and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment effect. Variance components were estimated with VCE-6 software package. The goodness-of-fit of the models was low and moderate. Heritability and repeatability values were low for each measurement variables. The best goodness-of-fit model the weighted square root of placing resulted the highest heritability and repeatability value h2=0.074 and R=0.296.

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The ain impacts of the Lisbon Strategy on tobacco growing
Published May 23, 2006
80-87

The Lisbon Strategy of the EU promises a more competitive Europe with more and better workplaces, in addition to sustainability.
Tobacco production is one of the most controversial industries of the agricultural sphere in the European Union. This crop is a „leader” of the world’s economic growth, a promoter of globalisation and has bee...n an economic channel between America and Europe for more than 500 years. It is also a motor of technical development, due to its inducing effect on profitability and work efficiency. The tax competition of the states and the increase in consumption have become such a self-inducing system in which the increase of production created an increasing number of jobs, especially in tobacco growing, where the replacement of manual labour was much slower than the increase of the demand for raw material. The fact that smoking is becoming general should be handled as a social demand, though its health risks cannot be denied. However, the extreme objection to smoking cannot be accepted, especially not when it evokes social strains and concludes that people smoke because of tobacco production, al though the real situation is the opposite: People smoke in Europe, so the tobacco should be grown here, as is in our economic interest.
There is a contradiction between the strategic objectives and the roles of the industry which should be ceased urgently. Al thong aim is the creation of jobs, stopping tobacco growing could result in unexpected agro-social disadvantages. Rejection of the industry’s sustainability questions the realization of the keystones of the strategy. Competitiveness, sustainability and social cohesion should be implemented as a unit of the strategy also in tobacco growing.

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Nyelvi kompetencia-elvárások a multikulturális munkaerő piacon
Published November 13, 2012
11-14

Proficiency in a foreign language, especially when combined with knowledge of and skills in another professional area, is highly desirable in the multicultural marketplace. Just as business and media have experienced global changes over the last few decades, so, too, has grown the acceptence of English around the world as the lingua franca for ...economic and scientific exchange. Second language speakers increasingly turn to English as a requirement of international communication. It is more than understandable that in many European companies, proficiency in English may even be a hiring criterion (Inman, 1983). The spread of English thus privileges certain groups of people and may harm others who have less opportunity to learn it.
One can rightly conclude that we are in an age when communicative language skills in English are an indispensible component of literacy. Many claim that this may well entail significant changes in the social and individual values of nations and people.
This paper investigates some of those underlying social and economic processes that have over the past few decades brought English language literacy into the focus of the attention of many researchers and educators. In the framework of the paper, certain issues of the conceptual impact that these changes have (or are presumed to have) on English language education are also discussed.

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Innovation activity of the agricultural enterprises in the North great Plain region
Published November 13, 2012
237-240

Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector an...d agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural  nnovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on public databases and case studies.

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001
47-54

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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Agronomical and Economic Evaluation of Different Soil Cultivation Systems
Published December 6, 2005
255-258

In the interest of profitable plant production and environmental protection we have to make an effort to protect and improve the productivity of our soils while moderating production limiting factors. Due to different soil cultivation methods, the quantity of yield and required expenses also differ.
We examined the production costs in four d...ifferent production technology systems. Overall, it can be said that farming standards are good, since cost prices were low (2001: 14-15 HUF/kg, 2002: 15-21 HUF/kg, 2003: 39-49 HUF/kg) in the case of all main products per 1 kg. Cost prices were lowest in the case of direct sowing, probably due to low machinery costs.
All economic indicators have to be compared when choosing the most suitable production technology in a specific farming environment.

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Relationship of the employment policy with rural development in the European Union
Published September 2, 2009
27-36

Employment policy has won primary attention both at national and EU levels for the past decade. Managing its problems has become one of the major social economic and political challenges. One of the problems is the aging of the continent’s population, which is in close relation with the slow increasing or decreasing economic trends.
Compar...ing the EU’s unemployment, employment and labour productivity rates to those of ten years earlier a positive tendency can be traced. On of the other hand compared with the USA, Japan or the average of OECD countries the Community has still not been able to reduce its several decades lasting leeway. Difficulties of labour management are much more striking in rural territories than in urban districts. Not even the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy: the rural development has been successful in managing the employment of the labour superseded
from the primer sector so far, which is significantly reflected in the unfavourable indicators of labour management and unemployment.

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The Role of transformal leadership in local governments’ efficiency
Published August 12, 2013
33-41

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Local governments had to respond to the challenges of the dynamically changing environment. A key element of the rapid adaptation lies in the right leadership. The local governments also recognized that the traditional management principles are found not to be effective in today's economic, political and social challenges.

The employees of the organizations are successful in the attainment of leadership, which are planning the next year, performance-based, as well as the leading is diplomatic, charismatic-development, group integrators. The investigated local governments’ middle level leaders believe that in the current economic and political situation only those organizations able to keep up, which emphasize the trans-formal leadership.

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Estabilishing Plant Production Systems by Optimising the Crop Structure
Published May 11, 2003
82-84

In our days, ecologiacal and economic models of agricultural application are of ever increasing significance. These provide an opportunity for more accurate planning, and thus can favourably influence the efficiency and the economic situation of the given enterprise. The relevant literature divides models according to various criteria. The most... common is the division between optimising and non-optimising models. Non-olptimising models generally endeavour to make the best use of technological lines, of machine capacity, while optimising models are used to optimise revenues returns from sales; or occasionally, production costs. In our case revenue and returns from sales were optimised. The models examined consists of several modules. These are the following: plant cultivation modules, evaluations (assessment of situation, conception plan, complex corporate evaluation), supplementary sheets (sheets and charts for ancillary plant production, general costs of operation, summary and crops structure optimisation). With the help of the model annual plans of plant cultivation can be made an optimal crop structure may be planned with the resources of the enterprise taken into consideration, and thereby it becomes possible to define the largest net revenue on a corporate level.

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Agronomical and economic evaluation of different soil cultivation systems
Published May 23, 2006
47-52

In the interest of profitable plant production and environmental protection, we have to make an effort to protect and improve the productivity of our soils while moderating production limiting factors. Due to different soil cultivation methods, the quantity of yield and required expenses also differ.
We examined the production costs in four ...different production technology systems. Overall, it can be said that farming standards are good, since cost prices were low (2001: 14-15 HUF/kg, 2002:15-21 HUF/kg, 2003: 39-49 HUF/kg) in the case of all main products per 1 kg. Cost prices were lowest in the case of direct sowing, probably due to low machinery costs.
All economic indicators have to be compared when choosing the most suitable production technology in a specific farming environment.

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Economic policy strategy of UNITAB
Published July 28, 2008
83-90

Under the leadership of the International Association of Tobacco Producers – UNITAB – there is a struggle going on for stabilizing the situation of European tobacco growers. UNITAB unites the tobacco associations and tobacco growers of all EU countries.
Tobacco production ensures economic stability for more than 100 thousand small- and m...edium-sized farms in the rural areas of 10 EU countries. In addition, its social importance in the survival of rural communities is emphasized by the 400 thousand direct or related seasonal jobs.
Within the framework of the CAP reform, the European Union is gradually changing the regulations of production. This is based on the decoupling of subsidies, which will be implemented in two phases. Between 2006 and 2009. the decoupling will be 40% and then after 2010, 50% (the other 50% will be used for restructuring within the second pillar). The question is raised, how will the second 50% be restructured to the second pillar. Between regions and how it can be ensured that this support would go to tobacco production.
With its participation in the principles of the European Tobacco Charta, UNITAB targets for production under economically-balanced conditions, the production of products meeting the customer requirements, consideration of the working conditions (especially for seasonal workers) and adherence to the health regulations related to the consumption of the end product already in the production and environmental protection. They aim to ensure the survival of the sector via tobacco growing with sustainable development and high quality. To maintain the continuity, there is a need for the support of regional, national and EU authorities. Future of the sector is dependent upon adaptation of tobacco growers and upon meeting the social expectations.
According to UNITAB, efforts should be made to modify the decisions so that the majority of the funding could be used by the grower. The tobacco industry has been able to effectively fight for its survival.

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Agriculture production and rural development
Published November 13, 2012
129-133

In a national economy, the considerable part of its available territory consists of the so called rural area which is mainly used by the agricultural sector. In our days, the rural areas are characterized by the loss of their economic, administrative etc. functions. The agricultural sector is able to utilize the rural areas, though other econom...ic activities play important role as well. To evaluate the agricultural sector in terms of the agribusiness, it is clear that the situation of the agricultural sector is not only decisive for the rural areas, but also for the whole national economy, and therefore, it is part of its balanced development.

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The role of mediation resources in the operation and development of knowledgeintensive small and medium enterprises
Published March 23, 2016
109-113

Address social and economic processes of social capital system between universities and the business sector – because of their special and similar characteristics – major emphasis will be displayed. Knowledge-intensive companies would be hard to imagine functioning without established links with tertiary education institutions and universit...ies can now functions would be unthinkable without displaying the corporate sector sectoral specificities of knowledge and strategies of the university.

Because of the development of knowledge-intensive business activities based on innovation-oriented economic development which are specific to innovative SMEs, funding sources and opportunities. In a typical operating environment of innovation, with sectoral, spatial and temporal factors are constantly changing. These factors are decisive elements in the innovation opportunities, and through this indirectly the success of these enterprises. The resources involved in mediating the markets perceive a high risk to price this innovation activities and their funding. Under the study to try to answer that by optimizing the functions of universities, how and in what form they may have a role in mitigating financial risks.

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Financial Analysis of Agricultural Enterprises’ Economic Results
Published May 11, 2003
270-279

The main objective of this paper is to give an overview about the economic results and financial status of agricultural enterprises in Hajdu-Bihar Count, as well as, froa methodology viewpoint,find the place of the used indexes in the system of effectivity indexes in farm management . From the complex database describing the enterprises, the fi...gures on the balance sheets and profit and loss accounts were used and analysed. As a result of the analysis the below statements can be made:
The owner’s equity ratio within the total equity is very different in corporations and in individual farms. The lower values in case of corporations show their indebtedness. At the same time, the figures indicate that it is more difficult for individual farms to receive loans.
The average of dynamic indebtedness indexes, in case of individuals are closer to 0 which generally derives from the low level of liabilities. The same indexes of corporations o the other hand show significant indebtedness. The figures indicate that the yearly cash flow can hardly cover the net liabilities.
The profitability proportional to the production value is generally low, mostly negative, independent from size and organisational form.
As a summary, it can be said, that individual as well as corporate farms suffer financing problems, the nature of these problems is different in the two groups. On the on hand, the operation and development of the individual, mostly the smaller, farms are hindered by the difficulties of acquiring external capital. On the other hand, the results of corporate, mostly the cooperative, farms is impeded by the burdens of liabilities accumulated in previous years.

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Education and language teaching in the light of recent social and economic needs
Published September 7, 2001
23-29

This paper attempts to describe several general educational potentials that are assumed to facilitate adequate pedagogical response to the recent economic and social paradigm shifts that have resulted in marked changes in the requirements for the labour force on the global job market.
The article describes the most powerful pedagogical trend...s of the 20th century, selectively concentrating on the assessment of their contribution to and share in the preparation of the inevitably forthcoming paradigm shift in education.
Topic related issues of language teaching in an academic setting are then discussed, focusing particularily on English for Specific Purposes, followed by a more thorough analysis of the major types of ESP syllabi. This analysis attempts to identify those properties that empower ESP teaching to give a more sophisticated answer (as compared to general language teaching) to issues raised by the appearance of new trends and needs in the
global job market. 
The paper offers conclusions for consideration as to the responsibility of language teachers and strategy makers in higher education, acting in an intercultural environment.

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The effect of different compost rates on the yield of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published November 20, 2011
95-98

Protection of natural resources and sustainable natural resources management are essential for the long-term survival of humanity. This makes necessary nowadays the development of environmentally conscious living and spread of that in the future. The amount of organic waste materials, produced during human activities, could be decreased by comp...osting instead of dispose them in landfills. Applying appropriate treatment technology and additives, the compost could be used as fertilizer for horticultural crops and it could increase the easily available nutrient content of soils. Compost utilization prevents nutrient deficiencies and by using the optimal rate, we could reach significant yield increases.

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The Natural, Social and Economic Conditions and Opportunities for Development of Balmazujvaros, Especially in the Case of the Co-operative Kvaliko
Published May 12, 2002
77-85

Balmazujvaros as a settlement near Hortobagy has to cope with both advantages and disadvantages. Its natural and social conditions are mainly given, the agricultural characteristic is dominant, and the number of the employed is the highest in the agricultural firms and processing industry. Developing the third sector, including hosting, tourism..., eco-tourism, thermal-tourism, may be an opportunity for the city. The subsidy for rural development relating to the SAPARD-programme may contribute to this, as the city is the member of the Association of Hajdu Towns.
The agriculture plays an important part in Balmazujvaros in which production and marketing of vegetables and fruits excel. Several farmers realised this opportunity and founded the Marketing Co-operative of Vegetable Producers in Eastern Hungary, that is the Kvaliko. This PO works in a Corporation form and is constantly developing, spreading and expanding its choice making use of the local natural, social and economic conditions and applications for realising its investments. This PO may set an example for the other entrepreneurs and farmers of Balmazujvaros to co-operate and it may be considered as an already realised opportunity.

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Examination of requirements of labour market, connected with competencies of agrienvironmental engineers and nature protection engineers
Published October 20, 2009
81-87

The most important goal of firms is to supply demand of their economic partners. To make it successfully, highly qualified human resource is needed. The quality of human resource is determined not only by qualification, command of a language, professional experience, practise, but extant competencies that can also be developped. To choose the e...xpectant employee, it is not enough to have intelligence and proficiency. It is also decesive to examine particular competencies. All of these will define the employee’s achievement that can be the right way to the success of
the enterprise. 
It is need to make the cooperation between higher education institutions and employers closer. As a result of this, employers can know theirs ways about possibilities of the new higher educational training system. They can use professional knowledge, competencies of the Bologna system’s graduates at different pointsof the economic life. The higher education institutions can revise their training systems considering requirements of labour market. According to these requirements, they can form syllabus in order to train auspicious experts.

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The European Union and competitiveness
Published August 12, 2013
15-19

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">I define first of all the competitiveness in my study „Analysing the competitiveness of the European Union”. After that I turn to the analysis of the competitiveness of the EU. The European competitiveness index and its concept were of great assistance during the analyses. The concept of the European competitiveness index has three main components: creative economy, economic performance, access to infrastructure. It is unambiguous that the European Union can only sustain and increase its position reached in the world economy, when its member states commit themselves for the completion of the knowledge based economic policy striving for competitiveness. The Europe 2020 strategy and the budget period 2007–2013 emphasize the outstanding role of competitiveness and urge to take the necessary measures.

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