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Evaluation of critical factors determining the profitability of sweet maize
Published March 23, 2016
97-102

The main goal of this analysis was to determine, whether the production of sweet corn competitive is from the point of view of profitability and identify the main factors determining profitability. The hypothesis of this research was that sweet corn production is profitable and output factors (yields, selling prices) affect most significantly t...he profitability. The total costs of production with irrigation are 560 000 HUF ha-1. Average yield is 18 t ha-1, while selling prices on average of the last 5 years were about 38 000 HUF t-1. The realisable profit in the sector was 248 828 HUF ha-1. Direct cost-related profitability was 48.6% and profit level 26%. Elasticity analysis pointed out that the changes of selling prices and yields affect profitability. The critical value shows the turning point of profitability, which was at the yield of 13.82 t ha-1. It can be concluded, the hypothesis was true, because sweet corn production was profitable compared to other field crops.

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Spatially Discrete GIS Analysis of Sampling Points Based on Yield and Quality Analysis of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published March 4, 2006
32-37

Fulfilment of the increasing quality requirements of sugar beet production can be analysed with sampling of plants and soil at the cultivated area. Analyses of the spatial characteristics of samples require exact geodetic positioning. This is applied in practice using GPS in precision agriculture. The examinations were made in a sample area loc...ated in north-western Hungary with sugar beet test plant. According to the traditional sample taking procedure N=60 samples were taken in regular 20 x 20 m grid, where besides the plant micro and macro elements, the sugar industrial quality parameters (Equations 1-2) and the agro-chemical parameters of soils were analysed. Till now, to gain values of mean, weighted mean and standard variance values, geometric analogues used in geography were adapted, which correspond to the mean centre (Equation 3), the spatially weighted mean centre (Equation 4), the standard distance (Equation 5), and the standard distance circle values. Robust spatial statistical values provide abstractions, which can be visually estimated immediately, and applied to analyse several parameters in parallel or in time series (Figure 1). This interpretation technique considers the spatial position of each point to another individually (distance and direction), and the value of the plant and soil parameters. Mapping the sample area in GIS environment, the coordinates of the spatially weighted mean centre values of the measured plant and soil parameters correlated to the mean centre values showed a northwest direction. Exceptions were the total salt and calcium-carbonate contents, and the molybdenum concentration of the soil samples (Table 1). As a new visual analysis, the spatially weighted mean centre values of the parameters as eigenvectors were projected to the mean centre values as origin. To characterize the production yield, the raw and digested sugar contents of the sample area, the absolute rotation angles of the generated vectors were determined, which indicate numerically the inhomogenity of the area (Figure 2). The generated spatial analogues are applicable to characterise visually and quantitatively the spatial positions of sampling points and the measured parameters in a quick way. However, their disadvantage is that they do not provide information on the tightness and direction of the spatial correlation similarly to the original statistical parameters.

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Stability analysis of different winter wheat genotypes in long-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012
135-141

Nowadays, due to the climate change, it is becoming increasingly important in the occasionally extreme years that the yield and the quality
parameters of a given winter wheat variety should not fluctuate at all or only slightly under similar agrotechnical conditions as a result of the year effect. In four years (2005–2008) we studied the c...hanges in the wet gluten content, gluten speading and protein content of five wheat genotypes at six fertilization levels.
In the control, it can be observed that the year had a significant effect on the wet gluten content, the protein content of the flour and gluten speading, therefore, a great fluctuation was detected in these qualities of the varieties in the four studied years. At the optimum fertilization levels (N120-150+PK), the varieties Sixtus, Saturus and Lupus showed a much lower fluctuation and more stable values were measured. The most stable variety in the control treatment was Mv Mazurka for all the three quality parameters, while at the optimum fertilization level (N120+PK), the most stable results were obtained for the variety Sixtus as an average of the four years.
When studying the results using Kang’s method for stability analysis, it can be stated that the most stable values of wet gluten content were obtained at the fertilization level of N120+PK under a variable year effect, the varieties gave also the best gluten content values at this level. The most stable protein content values of flour were obtained at the fertilization level of N60+PK. The results showed that the fluctuation of quality parameters as a result of the changing years differed between the different winter wheat varieties due to their differing genotypes, but this fluctuation could be reduced or minimized by a proper fertilization. 

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Changes in Managerial Functions in Agriculture
Published September 15, 2003
64-71

Managerial activity is a process constituted by well separable functions, tasks. The functions and the content of managerial activity are influenced by several factors.
This multi-sided affectedness focused our attention on the analysis of management tasks. We aimed to formulate responses for the questions how and to what extent the activiti...es and tasks of organizations define the tasks and functions at the given organization. On the basis of interview surveys, we analyzed the following managerial tasks: functions concerning information, communication, planning, decision-making, organization, control. The interviewed had to rank the factors influencing management tasks on a scale ranging from one to five. On the basis of the activities and tasks of organizations, we defined three types. The scope of this study does not allow us to publish all the results related to the above-mentioned managerial functions, so we can only present some, which are of interest.
Our findings suggest that the realization of certain management functions is influenced by several factors. Without striving for completeness, we could only evaluate 9-11 factors per function. The evaluation of information sources is considerably differentiated in terms of the activities, tasks of organizations. In the assessment of plans, the potentials for realization and repetition were judged differently, whereas non-organization changes and individual planning similarly. The findings of impact factors in decision making are largely different, as well in terms of organizational activities, but all the interviewed ranked the interests of the organization high. Analysis on control indicated that managers attributed higher importance to issues of content than to methodological ones.
Our investigations follow Fayol’s classical groups based on managerial tasks. We studied the following five tasks in the process of management: information tasks, planning, decision-making, instructions and control. We performed our studies with the inclusion of agricultural organization managers, with questionnaire surveys. The interviewed were asked to qualify the impact factors on the five investigated management tasks on a scale ranging from 1-5. We identified the following company groups: small company, medium company and large company.
We performed our analysis on the basis of company sizes as well, seeking to formulate responses on how size influences the qualification of the investigated factors.
Our findings suggest that the interviewed company managers attribute higher than average roles to the tasks of the management process. The qualification, ranking of management tasks are considerably influenced by company sizes. Relationships and venues are important in the implementation of information tasks, whereas the viability of plans is essential in the process of planning. Usefulness and company interests are highlighted in decision-making. In the case of instructions and decision-making, we stressed the significance of content elements as opposed to formal ones.

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Using phenotypic correlations in the breeding evaluation of Hungarian Sport Horse mares
Published May 23, 2006
38-43

The aim of this paper is to analyse phenotypic relationships between self performance test (SPT) parameters of Hungarian Sport Horse mares. Establishing these relationships may contribute to develop a breeding value estimation model. Data were given by the Association of Hungarian Sport Horse Breeders.
The analysis is based on the SPT result...s of 3 and 4 year old mares from 1993 to 2004. Our aim is to determine practically explainable correlations among conformational traits (type, head, neck, saddle region, frame, forelegs, hind legs, regularity of movement, impulsion and elasticity of movement, overall impression); free jumping performance (jumping style, jumping ability, observation during training) and movement analysis traits (walk, trot, canter, overall impression, test rider’s score). A further aim is to determine correlations between free jumping performance and movement analysis traits.

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Genetic analysis of selected body measurements of Hungarian Sport Horse mares
Published July 16, 2007
40-43

The authors made their analysis based on the body measurements of 3080 Hungarian Sport Horse mares listed in the Hungarian Sport Horse Studbook. Height at withers by stick, height at withers by tape, heart girth and cannon-bone circumference were measured in Hungarian Sport Horse mare performance tests.
Phenotypic correlations among height a...t the withers and heart girth and cannon-bone circumference varied within a range of 0.45-0.55. There was close genetic correlation (r=0.63-0.82) between the body measurement traits. Heritability values were moderate for height at withers by stick, height at withers by tape and heart girth (h2=0.31-0.49). There were high heritability values (h2=0.51) for cannon-bone circumference.
There were low phenotypic correlations between frame (as conformational trait) and height at the withers (measured by tape and stick) and heart girth.

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Near infrared spectroscopy (NIT) analysis of maize hybrids starch content
Published February 10, 2013
119-122

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The purpose of my research is to find the most favourable maize hybrids for bioethanol-production feedstock, using the so called „NIT”, near infrared spectroscopy method in the analysis of the inner contents especially of starch content. The other goal of my analysis is to reflect on how the effects of the most important growing factors – such as irrigation and the use of different dose fertilizers – contribute to the maize hybrids starch content.

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Application of advanced environmental assessment methods in orchard management
Published November 13, 2012
221-225

Our reseaches were carried out in apple and pear orchards at Farm and Regional Research Institute in Pallag of the University of Debrecen and Pear Gene Reservoir in Újfehértó. Aim of this study is to interpret and analyse field studies with the aim of a GIS based database. Furthermore, beside field measurements, airborne and field hyperspect...raldatacollection and analysis were also made to facilitate special watermanagement and irrigation related surveys. The integration of unified, geoinformatics systems with high spatial resolution and calibrated airborne hyperspectral data are appropriate tool for decision support systems, which support the continuous update and actualization of the changing cropping data, the analysis of cropping results in a unified complex data system, the acquiring of agro environmental subsidies, the establishment of monitoring system, and the optimization of irrigated fruit production.

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Examination of the Effect of Transaction Costs in the Hungarian Beef Sector
Published May 4, 2004
212-223

technical and economic characteristics, which give rise to high levels of uncertainty and greater control in the supply chain. In order to investigate the role of different transaction costs in marketing behavior, we carried out research in the central region of Hungary among beef retailers and wholesalers. This research is based on primary dat...a collection and examines the motivation of choices in the beef sector on distinction among different marketing channels and the role of transaction costs in procurement. Since this case can be regarded as a qualitative choice situation the hypothesis that transaction cost’s variables are significant is judged by the application of multinomial logit model in order come up with the variables that can influence the supply chain structure and the choice of different marketing channels. This analysis enabled us to explore the structure in data and confirm or reject the expected interrelations of causative variables. Our
1 A szerző témavezetője Dr. Fertő Imre.
2 A kutatás az OTKA F038082 sz. „Vertikális koordinációs és integrációs modellek az élelmiszer-gazdaságban” c. programja keretében valósult meg.
3 A szerző köszöni Dr. Fertő Imrének és Dr. Szabó G. Gábornak, a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Közgazdaságtudományi Kutatóközpont tudományos főmunkatársainak a kutatás során nyújtott nagy értékű segítséget. results partly support and contradict the basic predictions of transaction cost economics.

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Evaluation of IT-Investments
Published December 6, 2005
378-386

An informatical innovation is essentially a private business in the life of a venture but the ability of evolution and adaptability of ventures is remarkable for the national economy too. This is why it is important to observe the economical effects of IT investments. The introduction of an information system – as in the cases of other invest...ments – requires pre- and post-calculations for payback of fixed assest, thrift and profitability. The operation of an information system means not only one-off acquisition of instruments and intangible assets, but requires continuous development, version control and improvement of hardware in the sake of conservation. There is a high rate of depreciation of IT investments in Hungary, because such goods change too quickly, together with the economic environment. If the conservation of IT instrument value wanted one has to make new expansions continually. IT specialists have determined some indices, one of which is Total cost of Ownership, which is an important indicator for investment analysis. In practice, there are some other models and methods we can adopt in our analysis. In this paper, I collected several relevant and usable methods for pre analysis of IT projects. Management can adopt these models in his investment process to make sound decisions.

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Selenium speciation analysis of selenium-enriched food sprouts
Published March 11, 2014
23-28

In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched pea and wheat sprouts. During our research we aimed not only to measure the total selenium content of the sprouts but to identify different selenium species.

Scientifical researches show why the analytical examination of different selenium (Se) species is necessary: consumption of all... kind of Se-species is useful for a person who suffers in selenium deficit, while there is significant difference between effects of different Se-species on person, in whose body the Se-level is just satisfactory. Biological availability, capitalization, accumulation, toxicity of Se-species are different, but the main difference was manifested in the anti-cancer effect of selenium.

During our research selenium was used in form of sodium selenite and sodium selenate, the concentration of the solutions used for germination was 10 mg dm-3. Control treatment meant germination in distilled water. Total selenium content of sprout samples was measured after microwave digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different extraction solvents were applied during sample preparation in order to separate different Se-species (0.1 M and 0.2 M HCl or 10 mM citric acid buffer). We wanted the following question to be answered: Which extraction solvent resulted the best extraction efficiency? Selenium speciation analysis of sprout sample extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with anion exchange column, detection of selenium species was performed by ICP-MS.

Evaluating our experimental results we have been found that significant amount of selenium of inorganic forms used during germination transformed into organic selenium compounds. There was difference between the amount of Se-species in pea and wheat sprouts and selenium uptake and repartition of selenium species were depended on Se-form used during germination. In addition the chromatogram analysis made us clear as well, that the citric acid solvent proved to be the most effective extraction solvent during sample preparation int he view of organic Se species.

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Determining the antioxidant compounds of beer
Published June 30, 2018
5-10

The increasing consumption of beer indicates the necessity of the thorough analysis of its composition. In this study, the total phenolic content, flavonoid content and colour intensity of 24 beer samples have been determined. The samples contained pale barley, dark barley, pale wheat and dark wheat beers. The aim of the study was to determine ...the amount of the antioxidant compounds in beer, as well as to find correlation between different beer types and the above mentioned parameters.

Dark barley samples contained phenolic compounds in the highest concentrations, and it can also be concluded that dark beers contain phenolic compounds and flavonoids in higher concentrations than pale beers in the case of barley and wheat samples.

According to the performed statistical analysis, these beer types cannot be differentiated based on the analysed parameters. The highest percentage of correctly classified samples could be observed in case of dark barley samples, but this value has only been 75%, and the total result of correctly classified cases was only 41.7%. The analysis of more samples and parameters is required to carry out a successful differentiation.

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Challenges in the mangalitsa sector – present and future
Published March 20, 2013
147-153

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The Hungarian mangalitza pig sector has experienced numerous structural changes in the past few decades. The increased demand in the foreign markets for the mangalitza pork, changes in the domestic consumer perceptions have increase the number of sows and breeders. After the European Union’s accession started a significant growth in the sector, which was due to the target programme from the year of 2005 for the keeping of animals representing high genetic value, as the breed is indigenous. From 2008 continuous decline can be observed. The main reason for the decrease was the drastic growth of feed costs because of the drought damage in 2007, and the global economic crisis. Since 2010, a further period of supports has been in place, it extands the willingness to keep mangalitza pigs and the number of sows continuously increasing. On the basis of the average farm size (58 sows/farm) in 2011 it can be stated, that after our EU’s accession the medium-sized farms became stronger. To evaluate the geographic concentration of the mangalitza livestock it was analysed the data of sow number among the years of 2000 and 2011. The geographic concentration of mangalitza stock has a medium value over each year under the survey period, except the years of 2004–2007, when the values of Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) have low degrees. Due to the subvention period of indigenous breeds it was established more mangalitza farms in different parts of Hungary. Despite of the growth since 2000, numerous problems are in the segment. The aim of the study is to find out the sectoral problems, which are completed with the objectives tree and draw up the main activities to solve the problems. After estimating the SWOT-matrix according to the methodology of the strategic analysis and the discussions with the secretary of National Association of Mangalitza Breeders is prepared the sectoral problem- and objectives tree. The core problem of the mangalitza sector is that the origin of mangalitza products are not certified in the domestic markets. The reason of it is that the breeders don’t request the certificates of fattening pigs, so it can appear not real mangalitza product on the markets as mangalitza. To solve the problems it is drawn up different suggestions in the objectives tree. This analysis is an useful tool for the decision makers in the mangalitza sector to evolve strategic plans on behalf of the efficient cooperations among chain actors.

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Comparative analysis in residential property price level and price dynamics in urban and rural areas of Hajdú-Bihar County
Published April 8, 2014
85-90

In modern market economies residential real estate prices, price shifts and their correlations with macroeconomic factors are surveyed quite frequently. However, in contrast with the wide scope of foreign examples, so far existing analyses in Hungary have ignored examining relation and extensity of macroeconomic indicators and failed to examine... their effect on real estate pricing. The scope of this survey is to highlight these potential correlations and thus develop new aspects of analysis. Although the examination needs further extension both in time and space, the results of this survey may help to understand the importance of the responsible management of the most precious element of national wealth from the perspective of sustainable rural development.

Based on my preliminary results, there exists a strong correlation between the number of inhabitants of a settlement and the average real estate prices. Nevertheless, the correlation seems to be significant only for cities. In the case of smaller settlements the correlation still exists but at a lower level. As opposed to the results of former publications and my own expectations, no direct link could be tackled between the amount of income tax paid by private individuals and real estate prices either in the cities or in the villages within the territory and time span examined in my analysis. Although this correlation is measurable on a macro-economic level, my micro-regional analyses revealed the complexity of asset pricing and price volatility. Continuing this survey, my goal is to identify the hidden factors influencing real estate prices, whose thorough mapping may promote conscious rural development.

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Clusteranalysis as a swine farm qualifying method
Published November 15, 2007
165-174

Cluster Analysis is one of the most favorite multivariable statistical methods, which is actually a special type of aggregating method. Observations are clustered by variables belonged to the observations. Our purpose is to create such clusters, in which the elements are the most similar, and between the clusters they are the most variant. For ...example these clusters could be the qualitative classifications of farms.
There have been several methods in Cluster Analysis as well as numerous distance measures, which could be used. In this article, we study all of these methods and measures. After we show the theoretical background, we apply the method in a given casestudy to control the qualitative classifications of experts. In this study, we use both the hierarchical and the non-hierarchical method, and also compare them. We would like to attract the attention that the most important problem of the analysis is to determine the optimal of clusters.

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Analysis methods of quality and traceability for honey
Published December 21, 2008
25-32

Honey is our essential food since ancient times. Thanks to the excellent dietetic and medical features, it has an important function in our nourishment. In Hungary about 25.000 tons of honey are produced each year. Most of the produce, about 80% is exported to different countries of the world. Hungarian types of honey have excellent quality. Th...rough exporting, the prestige and demand of Hungarian honey can be increased. In recent years the adulteration of honey caused many damages to producers and traders. The adulteration of honey is not easy to prove. Thereinafter, we represent several methods, such as oligosaccharide analysis or 13C/12C isotopic ratio analysis, which can identify the artificial substances of honey (for example: corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup) or can help to determine the ratio by which original honey can be identified. 

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The effect of bentonite on the quantity change of soil microorganisms, the CO2-production and the activity of saccharase enzyme
Published July 16, 2007
287-293

We examined the impact of bentonite – the perspective improving material of sandy soils – and treatments of livestock manure composted with bentonite on sandy soils, within the framework of a small-plot experiment.
The adjustment of the experiment was made on the Experiment Site of the Nyíregyháza Research Centre of the University of D...ebrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences (UD CAS). We collected soil samples from parcels treated with increasing bentonite doses (5, 10, 15, 20 t/ha) on the one hand, and from the parcels treated with livestock manure composted with increasing doses of bentonite, on the other.
We performed laboratory research in the soil microbiology laboratory of the Soil Science Faculty of UD CAS DAS, during which we determined the total number of bacteria, the quantity of microscopic fungi, the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, the CO2-production of the soil and the activity of saccharase enzyme.
During the evaluation of the examinations, we made a statistical analysis using SPSS 9.0. We determined the average of measurements, the standard deviation of controls, the standard deviation, the significance value and we also performed a correlation analysis.
Concerning the impacts of bentonite treatment and the treatment of livestock manure composted with bentonite on the examined microbiological features of sandy soil, we can summarize the following:
• Our results prove that the microbiologic activity of the soil has increased owing to the impact of bentonite treatments regarding total number of bacteria and the quantity of microscopic fungi. ”Pure bentonite” treatments – although not significantly in every case – increased these values, but larger doses decreased them. The treatments of livestock manure composted with bentonite resulted in a larger increase regarding both parameters.
• The number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria was increased by the low doses of both series, and was decreased by the higher doses. Higher bentonite doses decreased it in a higher – significant – degree than those of treatments of livestock manure composted with bentonite, whose low dose caused salient number of bacteria.
• Regarding the carbon-dioxide formation, we have experienced an increase even in the case of low dose treatments (nevertheless, the increase did not prove to be significant), but – similarly to the quantitative changes in the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria – the large doses of both series of treatment decreased the CO2-production of the soil.
• Bentonite also increased the activity of saccharase enzyme significantly. We learned that”pure bentonite” treatments increased the activity of the enzyme to a higher degree than composted treatments. Moreover, it can be stated that the treatments of larger doses of both bentonite and livestock manure composted with bentonite have decreased the enzyme activity – not significantly, though.
• Based on the correlation analysis, it can be stated that as an impact of the treatments, the microbiological activity of the soil has also increased with the increase of the number of soil microbes, as in both treatment series we have experienced a tight positive correlation (r=0.81-0.82) between the change of total number of bacteria and the CO2-production of soil. In both treatments, there was a medium correlation between the total number of fungi and soil respiration (r=0.63-0.63). Furthermore, it can be stated that the usage of organic manure had a positive effect on the activity of cellulose-decomposing bacteria, as in this treatment series there was a positive correlation (r=0.65) between this physiological group and CO2-production. Both treatments prosperously impacted the activity of saccharase enzyme, because there was a medium correlation (r=0.62-0.64) between the activity of the enzyme and soil respiration.

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Post-control of agricultural subsidies provided by EU
Published February 23, 2008
31-35

The greatest part of the incomes (nearly fifty percent) of the European Union is spend on the agriculture and the agricultural policy is the most complex field among the common policies. In Hungary the payments from Guarantee Section of EAGGF are carried out by one Paying Agency (Agricultural and Rural Development Agency), the post audit of pay...ments are carried out by Investigation Network of Hungarian Customs and Finance Guard on the base of Council Regulation No. 4045/89. A full co-operation of the business operators is expected during the audit, which means the presentation of the complete accounting file related to subsidies. To avoid declarations on irregularities during the audit and the following order on repayment of the subsidy, all requirements of gaining subsidies have to be kept. The state authorities, in present case the customs authority should pay special attention to the risk analysis activity, and its harmonising with the proposals and guidelines of the Commission. Getting acquainted and using in practice the actual requirements and proposals of the Commission’s guidelines is expected at all levels of the control service of the HCFG, but primarily the Special Service has to continue its present practice in this field. The measures mentioned above, respectively the effective period taken under analysis teens from the date of accession until June 2005.

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Biomethane production monitoring and data analysis based on the practical operation experiences of an innovative power-to-gas benchscale prototype
Published September 5, 2018
399-410

Power-to-gas (P2G) is referred to technologies that convert carbon dioxide into methane. Both bio- and chemical catalysts may be used for conversion purposes. One of the most disruptive biotechnologies was developed by the University of Chicago (IL) (publication number: EP2661511B1), using a robust, highly selective, patented strain of Archaea.... Electrochaea GmbH has developed an innovative bench-scale P2G prototype unit, which uses this highly efficient Archaea strain, specialized components and specifically developed control strategies. The structure and the components of the prototype are equivalent with the functional parts of the currently largest commercial scale biomethanation BioCat plant located in Avedøre, Denmark (www.biocat-project.com). Power-to-Gas Hungary Kft. has committed to further develop this innovative technology. The first steps of this development have been taken by operating the benchscale unit and analyzing the data of the operating periods.

The prototype is operated based on weekly campaigns. During continuous operation, H2O is generated as a by-product of methane. Therefore, approximately 200 ml of biocatalyst is discharged each day and concentrated media containing macro and micronutrients are injected into the reactor to maintain media composition. The laboratory staff records all gas composition data each morning. The gas composition is measured every 12 minutes by an Awite AwiFlex Cool+ gas analyzer. Within this article, we analyze the collected datasets containing more than 12 000 records and present the first practical experiences of the operations of the innovative power-to-gas bench-scale prototype.

The analysis of the collected gas composition data of the product gas already provides important data for modelling the commercial-scaled processes. The average value of VVD was about 40 l/l/d in the period under review. Further increase of the methane content can be achieved by introduction of higher mixing energy and by increasing pressure levels in the bioreactor (as demonstrated in the BioCat plant – data not shown here) – both of which are strategies envisioned for the commercial plant. In routine activities (turn on, shut down, continuous operation) we could verify the high robustness of the biocatalyst and the base connection between the registered datasets and performed test results.

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The toxic effects of aflatoxin microorganisms in plants used as spices
Published October 5, 2010
59-62

As an extension of the analysis of black, white and capsicum peppers for aflatoxins , we have examined an additional 11 types of spices and
4 herbs for these mycotoxins. The investigations consisted of assessment of the applicability of available methods of analysis and modifications of
these, where necessary together, with a limited surv...ey of each spice and herb for aflatoxins. The analysis of 13 types of ground spices reported
the presence of low concentrations of aflatoxins in some samples of black pepper, celery seed, and nutmeg. We decided to include in our study 5
of the spices examined by these workers (cinnamon, celery seed, coriander, nutmeg, and turmeric) for a comparison purpose. In addition we
examined ginger, mace, cumin seed, dill seed, garlic powder, onion powder, and the herbs marjoram, rosemary, thyme, and sage.

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Element content analyses in the Institute for Food Sciences, Quality Assurance and Microbiology
Published November 13, 2012
203-207

The role of chemical elements to ensure and promote our health is undisputed. Some of them are essential for plants, animals and human, others can cause diseases. The major source of mineral constituents is food, drinking water has a minor contribution to it, so the knowledge of elemental intake through food is crucial and needs continuous moni...toring and by this way it promotes the food quality assurance and dietetics.
With the evolution of spectroscopic methods increasingly lower concentrations could be determined, so the elemental composition of a sample could be more precisely and fully described. Due to the results the gathered knowledge up to the present is supported and new observations can be done helping us to understand such complex systems as biological organisms are.
The quality of a food is determined by the full process of its production, consequently it starts with agricultural production so elemental-analysis usually cover the whole soil – plant – (animal) – food chain, by this way the „Fork-to-Farm” precept is true in elemental analysis field also.
The history of elemental analysis in the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Food Processing, Quality Assurance and Microbiology goes back to 1980s when the so called Regional Measurement Central gave the background for research. The continuous deployment resulted in an obtain of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) in 1988, which extended the scope of examinations due to its excellent performance characteristics
compared to flame atom absorption (FAAS) and flame emission spectrometers (FES). The instrumental park retain up to date correlate to the developing analytical techniques due to acquiring a newer ICPAES in 1998 and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in 2004 – which sensitivity is three order of magnitude better compared to ICP-AES. The Institute supports the work with its own ICP-AES and ICP-MS since 2011. 

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Survival analysis of sow longevity and lifetime reproductive performance – Review
Published October 24, 2016
75-80

Sow longevity plays an important role in economically efficient piglet production. Improving sow longevity results increase in the productivity and profitability of a sow herd. Longevity is a complex trait with many factors that can contribute to a sow having a long and productive life. Not only the sow’s genetics, but also nutrition, environ...ment and the management policies are important. In addition, the removal of non-productive sows along with the introduction of replacement gilts is an essential part of maintaining herd productivity at a constantly high level. The objective of this paper was to summarize the current knowledge about the sow longevity and lifetime performance values, as well as, discusses the survival analysis methods for sow longevity traits. This method can estimate the hazard rate indicating proportional risk of sows being culled at any given time, in addition, it is able to investigate the effects of different factors on longevity. Identifying factors that influence the longevity could assist many commercial pig producers in becoming more efficient.

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Comparative analysis of soil analysing datas on different sempling-plots
Published May 23, 2006
85-90

Hibrid maize is cultivated on larger plots, therefore the sown areas of hibrid maize are heterogeneous from a pedology aspect. Heterogenity causes problems during tasseling, chemical plant protection and harvest. The heterogenity of sown areas can be compensated by fertilization which is based on soil analysis. We carried out research into chan...ge of the soil on four soil types from 1987 to 2005.
There were no significant changes in pH, hydroiodic acidity, CaCO3-content, humus-content on meadow chernozem soil. We detected equalization of salin content in the examined soil layers. There were no significant changes in the measured values on chernozem meadow soil and solonetz meadow soil in 2005. We discoverd equalization of saline content on chernozem meadow soil, but the changes were not as obvious as the changes on meadow chernozem soil. We found salinization in the 30-60 cm soil layer on type meadow soil that may be due to water movement.

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Phylogenetic analysis of Phoma species
Published July 16, 2007
100-107

The cosmopolitan Phoma genus contains mainly phytopathogenic, opportunistic parasites, and saprophyte fungal species. Up to now, the characterization of Phoma species and other taxa of Phoma has been determined on the basis of morphology on standardized media, and gene sequence analysis was only used as a confirmative or distinctive complement....
In this study, we tried to find molecular markers which can be used as phylogenetics markers in the molecular based classification in the Phoma genus.
We employed a part of the translation elongation factor 1 subunit alpha (EF-1α=tef1) containing both introns and exons and ITS region containing the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rDNA, as potential genetic markers to infer phylogenetic relationships among different Phoma taxa. Twelve different Phoma species sequences were analysed together with the closely related Ascochyta ones. The constructed phylogenetic trees, based on tef1 and ITS sequences, do not support the traditional Phoma sections based on morphological characterization. However, we managed to distinguish between the Phoma strains and Ascochyta species by comparing their tef1 sequences through parsimony analysis. We proved that a tef1 can be a useful phylogenetic marker to resolve phylogenetic relationships at species level in Phoma genus.
Both parsimony sequence analyses confirmed that the Phyllosticta sojicola species is identical to the Phoma exigua var. exigua species as Kövics et al. (1999) claimed. However, the evolutionary distance by ITS sequences within Phoma species is too small to get well based consequences for the phylogenetic relationships of Phoma genus.
Further investigations would be necessary to clarify whether the tef1 and ITS sequences as phylogenetic molecular markers are well suited for the classification of Phoma species.

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Study of alternative oxidase as possible molecular marker for phylogenetic analysis of the Botrytis cinerea
Published March 11, 2014
127-132

Botrytis cinerea (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) is able to attack several economically important plants causing gray rot. Botrytis cinerea species complex includes two cryptic species (B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea) that tolerate fungicides differently. On the basis of classical taxonomic markers, the two related specie...s are very difficult to be distinguished; therefore, their separation is usually performed using molecular methods based on the time-consuming molecular analysis of several markers. Our goal was to find markers, which are suitable for the differentiation. Testing the nucleotide sequences of the alternative oxidase encoding gene, B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea strains were clearly differentiated. Moreover, the analysis of the protein sequences of the enzyme with the maximum likelihood method reflected well the taxonomic relationships of the different fungi.

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