The economic condition of an area is fundamentally determined by the extent of employement, as well as the size and composition of its active population. No sustainable economic growth is possible without the necessary amount of employees with the proper skills.
As regards the proportion of employees, i.e. economically active people is...significanlty lower in Hungary than not only in Western Europe, but also countries which joined the EU recently. One of the reasons for this fact is the low amount of part-time employment and the other is the phenomenon that the number of agricultural employees – who had a significant role – greatly decreased in the county.
The employment level of the population in the county is nearly identical as that of the North Great Plain region and it is lower than the country average. The activity proportion, i.e. the joint proportion of employees and unemployed people in the population between 15–74 years of age is 3 percentages lower than the country average. The proportion of unemployed people greatly varies depending on the small regions of the county. The proportion of registered unemployed people in the population of active age is the lowest in Debrecen and the highest in the Hajdúhadház small region. The unemployment of career-starters is a further problem to deal with.
The composition of employees in the county is different than the country average. When compared in terms of different economic sectors, it can be observed that agriculture, game management, forestry and fishery are more significant than the country average. Of the provider sectors, the proportion of financial activity, real estate matters and economic services is lower, while that of accommodation services and hospitality is higher than the country average.
There are regional differences similar to unemployment in terms of the income size which is the basis of personal income tax per taxpayer.
The income level in the North Great Plain region is lower than the country average mainly in terms of income paid for work, where this difference is 23%, while it is only 5% in the case of social income. Altogether, the income and expenditure data of the North Great Plain region are not favourable.
According to Kay et al. (2004, in Shockley et al., 2017), there are seven steps to the decision-making process: 1) Identify the problem or opportunity, 2) Identify the alternative solution, 3) Collect all data and information, 4) Analyse the alternatives and make a decision, 5) Implement the decision, 6) Monitor the results of the decision, 7)...Accept responsibility for the decision. The basic question is what kind of tasks we can perform in the decision-making process and what to leave for Artificial Intelligence (AI).
The aim of the study was to examine the achievement of Hungarian agricultural companies and partnerships, particularly agricultural co-operatives based on the aggregated database of National Tax and Customs Administration (NAV)1. From the methodological aspect, descriptive statistical methods and time series analysis were used. One of the most...important conclusions is that the socio-economic weight of the agricultural co-operatives was strongly decreased in the period after the EU accession. The other important statement is that apart from the general examination of economic actors on aggregated level the comparative analysis of the single organizations forms would be needed. In the case of co-operatives, separated examination of the former type producer co-operatives and the so-called new type ones (e.g. marketing co-operatives etc.) would be necessary.
Since the Convention on Biological Diversity a lot of papers have been published how to measure and value biodiversity. In the last decades publications on agro-ecosystems become more frequent and play a significant role in the provision of ecosystem services. There is a uniform definition for biodiversity in general, however, in terms of agro-...ecosystems and their services (including biodiversity) many weaknesses can be identified. The objective of this paper is to explore some of these problems with special regard to different definitions and terms and to the farmland ecosystem services. One solution could be to adopt a more complex system which has some ecological and environmental components (air, water and soil pollution) and also takes in to consideration the efficiency of agricultural production.
Our research work was carried out in the Westsik crop rotation field experiment in 2018. The main research purpose was to analyse the effect of the different organic and chemical fertilizers on parameters of rye. Our results revealed some differences between the different fertilization methods. One spike weight, grain weight of one spike, r...ye plant height, rye plant weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight in crop rotations VII, XV and VIII were different from the data of all crop rotations. This finding can be explained by the fact that crop rotations VII and XV were non-fertilized, only 23.3 t ha-1 straw manure (VII) or green lupine manure was applied as a second crop (XV). In addition, crop rotation VIII consists of four parts where we apply chemical fertilization with green lupine manure as a main and second crop. There is a positive close correlation between rye plant height and other studied characters (rye plant weight per m2, spike length, weight of one spike, grain weight per spike, spike weight per m2, grain weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight).
close relation. This means that policies related to the economy and the environment cannot be handled without each other. The United Nations Conference (Stockholm, 1972) was the first global conference to signal that environment concerns have increasingly become subject of mainstream socio-economic policies. The process started in the Seventies..., laying emphasis on environment protection, plays an important role in the policy of international agencies. The use of environmental indicators is essential for monitoring the effects of environmental measures. The best way of evaluating sustainability if the results can be compared on a global level. International efforts are being made by the United Nations (UN), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Statistical Office of the European Commission (Eurostat) and other international agencies to develop a framework for environment statistics. This study deals with these frameworks, paying attention to agri-environment indicators. Hungary became a member of the UN in 1955, of the OECD in 1996, and will become a member of the European Union in 2004. The first summary in connection with environmental indicators of Hungary, taking the OECD Pressure – State – Response framework as a basis, was published in 1994. As a result, comparability of environmental indicators for Hungary with those used international are given.
We wish to present a method to quantify the value modifying effects when comparing animal farms. To achieve our objective, multi-variable statistical methods were needed. We used a principal component analysis to originate three separate principal components from nine variables that determine the value of farms. A cluster analysis was carried o...ut in order to classify farms as poor, average and excellent. The question may arise as to which principal components and which variables determine this classification.
After pointing out the significance of variables and principal components in determining the quality of farms, we analysed the relationships between principal components and market prices. Some farms did not show the expected results by the discriminant analysis, so we supposed that the third principal component plays a great role in calculating prices. To prove this supposition, we applied the logistic regression method. This method shows how great a role the principal components play in classifying farms on the basis of price categories.
Soils provide the most indispensable function of supporting the production of food and feed for a growing human population. At the same time they provide a range of regulating and supporting functions related to climate change and removal of greenhouse gases. The majority of the soil functions are closely linked to the flows and stocks of soil...organic carbon (SOC); low levels of both flows and stocks may seriously interfere with several of the essential soil functions and thus affect the ecosystem services that soils deliver. Soil degradation is considered a serious problem in Europe and a large part of the degradation is caused by intensive cultivation practices in agriculture. The aim of the SmartSOIL project is to link the results of different scientific fields through a holistic and multidisciplinary approach and as a result develop a decision making tool contributing to sustainable development.
High-resolution proximal and remote sensing applications can consolidate sustainable, prevention- and precision-oriented crop management strategies to decrease production risks. This paper shows significant perspectives, own developments and technical aspects of high resolution remote sensing in the context of field applications. Moreover, we p...rovide an overview of snapshot hyperspectral imaging and potential field video sensors to identify areas of interest for their future development. One of the main conclusions of our paper is that non-scanning snapshot hyperspectral imaging technology may enable researchers to overcome the gap in the “point to image” transition of field sensing, while providing a flexible solution for regular variable-rate applications.
prearrangement, Hungary will be ready to join the EU by the 1st of January 2003. In the course of negotiations, the Government places special emphasis on agriculture, because Hungary is an agrarian country. Agricultural production is an important economic factor in Hungary: larger a factor in its economic structure than in those of the present...EU member-states. In order to preserve competitiveness, Hungarian farmers and its
processing industry require information on the EU's CAP and other market influences.
In Hajdú-Bihar county the quality of agricultural products fall behind the standards of the European Union. There is no real solidarity among farmers, so they are left alone and are unable to meet higher, those standards, which were introduced by the structural changes of the market. Unfortunately, there is only one fruit and vegetable marketing organization (PO) in the county, although its necessity and effectiveness has been proved several times.
Within the framework of Rural Development, agricultural marketing is vital, because together with the local FVM institutes, it can help the farmers by providing consultation, information, and by marketing their products. Since fruit and vegetable growing has a considerable history in Hajdú-Bihar county, marketing activities can be effective in assisting both the farmers and the processing industry in preparation for EU integration.
An investigation of different grey coat colours and a connection between colour and age of horses was carried out with two Hungarian State Studs: Bábolna and Szilvásvárad. For objective measurement of coat colour Minolta Chromameter (Model CR-210) was used. The average value of L (lightness) level by Shagya and Pure Bred Arabian horses was 6...3.83 ± 2.23, for Lipizzan horses was x=71.00 ± 2.29 respectively. In each stud older horses (over 10 years of age) have a flea-bitten colour stage, which decreased the L value considerably. Changes in coat colour in connection with the greying process did not show an evident tendency in the three breeds.
ITS (internal tanscribed spacer) profiles of the aDNA (ancient DNA) of seed remains extracted from an extinct sample recovered from the 15th century (Budapest, Hungary) were compared to 31 modern melon cultivars and landraces. An aseptic incubation followed by ITS analysis was used to exclude the exogenously and endogenously contaminated (Asper...gillus) medieval seeds and to detect SNPs in ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA (ribosomal DNA). SNPs were observed at the 94–95 bp (GC to either RC, RS or AG) of ITS1; and at 414 bp (A-to-T substitution), 470 bp (T to Y or C), 610 bp (A to R or G) of ITS2. The results facilitate the final aim of molecular and morphological reconstructions of ancient melon tpyes.
Composting of sewage sludges makes easier the utilization of sewage sludge in the agriculture and the composts in good quality could increase the nutrient content of soil. Due to the composting process, the sewage sludge composts with high organic matter content can be utilized in the same way as other composts or farmyard manure.
Composting of agricultural waste is considered particularly important from the point-of-view of environmental protection. Degradation of organic substance results in a significant reduction of waste volume.
The end product of the composting process, mature compost, can be used as soil coverage against excess loss of wastes, for mulching, for
The quality of the mature compost is determined by physical, chemical and biological parameters of the composting process which, in turn, depend on initial composition of the raw materials, the technology, e.g. regular mixing and moistening and on environmental factors. Quality is the key question in compost use.
We studied the composting process in compost windrows of different raw material composition. We measured temperature, humidity content, pH, organic substance content, nitrogen and carbon content.
We counted the number of bacteria, microscopic fungy, ammonifying and cellulose decomposing microorganisms. We directed the composting process with turning weekly (to provide oxygen) and watering (to provide humidity content 40-60%).
We set up windrows of 1 m3 volume from dry plant substances (cornstalk, pea straw, tomato stalk and crop, weeds) and cow manure not older than 1 week. The cow manure was used at ratios of 0%, 35%, 50%, 65% and 100%, respectively.
We measured changes in compost temperature relationship with outside temperature until they were almoust the same. Humidity was 40-60% in most cases.
At the beginning of the process, pH was slightly acidic-neutral; it later becomes neutral-slightly alkaline (pH: 6.93-8.02) as ammonia is liberated from proteins.
At the end of the process, pH decreased again, due to humification.
Organic substance content decreased as microorganisms mineralized them. Organic carbon content decreased gradually due to microorganisms used it as an energy.
Total nitrogen content increased until middle of july and decreased gradually until than.
The carbon/nitrogen rate were higher in the beginning, it decreased until july-august and increased by smaller degree until end of the process.
The number of bacteria was higher in the first three weeks and between june-september. The number of cellulose degrading bacteria was the highest in the first three month, the number of ammonifying bacteria was the highest from the end of may until sepember.
The number of microscopic fungy was significant in the second part of process, after july.
biological methods, one among them is AFLP that is well applicable for taxonomic research. Bluegrass species, that are important components of meadow associations, thus their thorough knowledge is necessary in maintaining biodiversity, were examined with bringing this method to perfection.
Taxonomic relationship of the members of Poa pratens
In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used for biogas production or composting. The direct use of sewage sludge in agriculture is limited by its hazardous microelement content, but it can be used effectively in composting. The limitation parameters can be extinguished with corr...ect compost-mixture and technology variants. The exact determination of the technologies and mixtures result a stable, constant quality product. The compost, as a classified product, is friable structured. The end-product is a
homogeneous mould with good water capacity, does not contain any weed seeds and pathogenic organisms. The compost does not have a acidify effect on the soil. It is an effective fertilizer thanks to its macro and microelement content.
Nowadays the climate change has an increasing effect on the animals. The warming climate brings up several problems on the area of the animal husbandry, which ones are really important. From the first time the living beings have defensive mechanisms against the heat shock. In current examination we use– from Hungary and from other countries c...ollected –samples of sheep breeds, which are living on different climate. Our fundamental assumption was, that the animals living on other climate adapted to the changes of the environment and there are differeces in their genetic background. These fixed mutations we are looking for in the HSP70 heat shock gene, but we haven’t found any polymorphism yet. We are going to involve further breeds and more individuals in the investigations.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">I studied the variations of kidney fat indexes (KFI) in two game management units of the Great Hungarian Plain between 2002 and 2004 in the autumn and winter months. I was looking for correlation between the autumn and winter KFI as well as between the autumn KFI and reproductive parameters (number of corpora lutea, recruitment rate).
The findings below are based on a questionnaire survey carried out in order to establish an internet-based service at the Center of Agricultural Sciences of Debrecen University:
• The typical target group of the service in the short run with a weekly average of 5.9 hours on the web is more active than that for average Hungarian, adult Inte
• A professional webportal with a searchable database, primarily incorporating an archive of organized agricultural news, articles, publications, fits well into the internet habits of the target group, which mainly consists of keyword-based information searces and browsing of the latest news.
• The group prefers a short, easily recognizable domain name that refers to agriculture. Accents and foreign sounding words are not taken into account during selection.
• As result of the choice from 43 eligible domains, the order would be the following: agrarunio, agroland, farmvilag, infoagro, farmland.
• The names of magyargazda.hu, agrotrend.hu, agromester.hu, agronomus.hu are acceptable from the individual ideas.
In Ukraine’s Steppe zone the extraction of minerals is important. To eliminate the consequences of coal mining the agricultural recultivation of the disturbed soil is used. Thus toxic compounds for human beings and the majority of plants and soil biota representatives, which can be found mining rock, get into plants and invertebrates by troph...y chains. When remediating soil, it is necessary to create tropic conditions in order to provide the life of soil biota. Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are the primary decomposers of the organic material. They are numerous in soil and facilitate the improvement of natural and artificially created soil. This paper studies the possible influence of different variants of substrates, which are used in re-cultivation, the leaf litter from leaves of different wood species, as well as different levels of humidity on the representatives of soil saprophages. Optimal variants of artificial mixed-soil providing the stable existence of animals have been shown, which are recommended for the implementation of rehabilitation measures.
Although the model described here was developed from research in controlled environments, there is now considerable evidence that in can be applied to a very wide range of natural environments in several species. Multi-locational trials augmented by successional sowing and, if considered necessary, supplementary illumination in the field to inc...rease daylength, can be used to estimate the values of the model coefficients: (1) to characterize germplasm collections and so predict flowering behaviour elsewhere; (2) for interpreting and understanding crop adaptation; and (3) for genetic analysis of photoperiod sensitivity. We do not yet know whether the model has any contribution to make to the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of photoperiod and temperature responses, but at the very least, it should provide the basis for indicating the most appropriate environmental conditions, genotypes and physiological stage of the plants most suitable for such investigations.
Farming methods supporting the ecological function of agriculture will play an even more dominant role in the near future than they do now, as much in Hungary as in the rest of the EU.
Several farming techniques supporting sustainable development have already evolved, and in this essay, I deal with integrated production i.e. integrated fruit
It is obvious that in the orchards of Europe, integrated production is gaining ground. We can expect the increased spread of this western trend to Hungary, too, because one of the conditions for remaining on the market will be a product from integrated production. However, we cannot expect any rapid increase in the future. In my opinion, there are three ways to propagate integrated production:
− changes in the approach of farmers;
− vocational training of farmers because of the greater „knowledge-demand”; improving the consultant network;
− strict monitoring of the production process.
Agroforestry systems are part of the history of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase of size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century, thereby it has radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. However, this cause conflicts between interest of agricu...ltural and forestry sectors. The agroforestry land uses could be a solution of this conflict management. One real – ecological – problem with the remnant forests and new forest plantation is the partly missing of network function without connecting ecological green corridors, the other problem is verifiability for the agroforestry payment system, monitoring the arable lands and plantations.
Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise European Union payments. Nowadays, next to use satellite imagery the airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technologies are becoming more widespread use for nature, environmental, forest, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring and it is an effective tool for monitoring biomass production.
In this Hungarian case study we made a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to create agroforestry site selection model. The aim of model building was to ensure the continuity of ecological green corridors, maintain the appropriate land use of regional endowments. The investigation tool was the more widely used hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR remote sensing technologies which can provide appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build a decision support system.