The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. Rural development and the reduction of differences between the development levels of the regions have expressed roles among the programs of the European Union. Member States are even entitled to subsidisation, they just need to manage subsidies economica...lly. In Hungary, a relatively small amount of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The opposition between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially youngsters, as they have no opportunities to find any job. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties. Also from the aspect of the national economy, migration from the rural areas to the cities is a problem. The state budget will face significant excess costs if someone moves from a village to the city. It could cause unpredictable consequences if people leave the villages, as the maintenance and development of the village living space will face a hopeless situation.
Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presupposes the availabilty of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, solution that provide the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments. A locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off of agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.
Different methods for evaluating property have gained greater importance in agriculture since the change of regime. The open market evaluation could be the best method if the agricultural property had significant turnover, which could serve as a reliable comparison. However, there is no notable turnover, and selling is scarce. And, when there i...s some, the sales contracts are not available. On the other hand, the open market evaluation is almost the only one assessing method in Western Europe and in the United States. The matrix comparing market data in my methodological development helps to estimate the effects of the elements which determinate real estate value of farms.
Another method for evaluating farm property is the discounted future earnings. Enterprises are able to produce series of income continuously during their working periods, which can be considered as perpetuity. This is the base of the discounted future earning evaluation. Determination of income generating capacity is not an easy task. It is also difficult to choose the proper rate of capitalization. If this rate is higher than the usual level, the property will be underestimated. If it is lower, the property will be overrated. According to my calculations the profitability of certain farms of animal breeding may be evaluated under different operating conditions. Furthermore, the capitalisation interest rate may be determined in an objective way.
The problem of applying the depreciated replacement cost evaluation method is that there are big deviations among investment costs in tenders of contractors; moreover the estimations of special depreciation forms are rather subjective. One of the process’s greatest difficulties for reliability is that it is doubtful whether depreciated replacement cost could reach the real market value. The utilisation of this method may be spread further in the future by standardising average gross replacement cost of building as well as by measuring depreciation more objectively.
The agricultural subsidies play a crucial role in the policy of the European Union. Remarkable part of the EU budget is dedicated to agriculture and rural development. The enlargement of the EU, the global changes in the market and other challenges are raising the demand for a better and more efficient way of work in the organization, using inf...ormation and communication technologies, and especially the implementation of e-government
services. The article presents the Hungarian electronic claiming system (called eSAPS) for European founds in agriculture, and evaluates the first year of its operation.
This paper illustrates the efforts based on the results obtained in the funding of precision agriculture, during more than two decades of cooperation between University of Debrecen and University of Oradea, within the framework of joint, EU co-financed projects, and put into practice on both sides of the border. Common plant-health databases, i...nteractive Web pages, consultation activities, professional publications, professional training activities, laboratory infrastructure improvements, common research themes proves the progress made to date and create conditions for further development of joint research activities.
This study aimed to study the role of 2 mM salicylic acid and 0.2 mM methyl Jasmonic acid in reducing the chilling injuries on two different apricot varieties fruits (Bergarauge and Flavor cot). These treatments were applied for apricot fruit directly after harvest after measuring the zero time data. Then the fruit were stored at 1 oC for three... weeks and were examined 7 day periodically, other group of fruit was stored at 1 oC for 15 days then transport to room temperature and examined after 4 and 8 days. The fruit samples were collected at each examination time, and the measurements containing the fruit firmness (Kg cm-2), chilling and decay index, membrane electrolyte leakage, total phenol content and phenylalanine ammonia lyase mechanism (PAL) activity. The results showed that there are no obvious differences between the tested varieties and the differences may back to genetic variations and they took the same trend for most of measurement after treated with SA and MJ. SA and/or MJ treated fruit achieved low percentage of fruit softening in comparison to water treated fruit. At the same time the chilling and decay index showed that the SA and/or MJ reduced the decay or breakdown symptoms in either tested varieties. The treated fruit with those elicitor help the fruit to keep about stable phenol content while water treated fruit lose the phenol content sharply at early storage and this stable level of phenol my because of the ability of those chemical to raise PAL activity in treated fruit.
The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. In Hungary, a relatively small size of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The tension between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to... be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially young adults, as they have no opportunities to find a job in their hometowns. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties.
Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presuppose the availability of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, a solution that provides the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments: a locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.
The paper first negotiates the concept of multifunctionality, then the main steps of the development of the connection between agriculture and rural development are discussed. It presents the situation of a most disadvantageous sub-region that is aided by a complex program. The local rural resources are estimated by the multifunctional rural re...source analysis method considering threefold function of the rural areas. It is concluded, that the land use systems and labour-intensive cropping systems have specific missions in multifunctional agriculture and rural development in the sub-region.
The higher education of economics and agriculture in Debrecen started 150 years ago. The historical roots of our institution reach back to the middle of the 19th century. In the 1850s, the wise leaders of the city of Debrecen realised that the development of agriculture is the sole opportunity which can make the region of the Tisza River and th...e Trans- Tisza region the most valuable pantry of the nation. Due to the generous support of the citizens of Debrecen, as well as the enthusiastic work of scientist and teachers, the National Higher Education Institute of Farming was established on 22nd October 1868 as the first agricultural higher education institution of the Great Hungarian Plain.
Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector an...d agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural nnovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on public databases and case studies.
Currently, one of the most important objectives of agriculture is to maintain the principles of the sustainability. The use of precision technologies in agriculture belongs to this topic. The use of precision technologies is increasingly widespread in the cultivation of various agricultural crops, including maize. Sensing is an important part o...f these techniques. In our experiment we compared two methods: measuring relative chlorophyll content and the method of determine the extractable chlorophylls. The experimental plant was maize (Zea mays L.) and the measurements were performed at an early development stage (V8) of three genotypes. Three levels of nitrogen (0; 80; 160 kg ha-1) were applied during the experiment. The relative chlorophyll content was measured by SPAD-502 (Minolta, Japan) and a handheld GreenSeeker (Trimble, USA) device. The extractable total chlorophyll content decreased in parallel with the increased nitrogen level. The obtained SPAD values were diversified furthermore the NDVI values have not been changed for the effect of different nitrogen fertilization. In the early stages of development of maize, these parameters need to be complemented with other measurements to provide reliable information about the crops nitrogen status.
Hungarian agriculture may be characterized by the industry-like, conventional farming of the past decades. This form of management concentrated exclusively on functions aimed at production. We have to decrease this disproportion, especially when joining to the EU, by reducing the intensive agricultural regions and adjusting to the goals of the...2000-2006 NAEP programmes, forming such an agricultural system which integrates the advantages of both environmental protection and complex agricultural systems based on rational foundations. Nevertheless it’s a rational decision to make the soil information system with an exact spatial informatics background as a foundation of agricultural system, because this promotes easy handling as well the connection to possible subsequent modules.
Hungary has a rich history of soil analyses and soil mapping. Our main tasks today are the preservation of soil fertility as well as balancing the goals of production and environmental protection. The main requirement of agricultural production is to adapt to ecological and economic conditions.
In a series of consultative meetings in the pas
In Hungary, the use of inorganic fertilizers underwent a dynamic development, which manifested itself in an almost tenfold usage growth between 1960 and 1985. This growth slowed down somewhat between 1985 and 1990 and then reduced dramatically after 1990, reaching record lows at the usage levels of the 60s. The nutrient supply has had a negative balance for the last 15 years.
The increasing and then decreasing usage trends can equally be detected in the domestic yield averages of wheat and corn as well as in the nutrient supply of soils. Yields were the largest when usage levels were the highest, and decreased thereafter. Draughts have also contributed to smaller yields. The dramatic decrease in the use of inorganic fertilizers when adequate organic fertilizers are lacking endangers our soils’ fertility.
About 50% of soils in Hungary are acidic. Acidity is mostly determined by soil formation, but especially on soils with a low buffering capacity, this acidity may intensify due to inorganic fertilizers. Sustainable agriculture requires the chemical improvement of acidic soils. According to their y1 values, the majority of our acidic soils need to be improved. This chemical soil remediation is required in 15% of the acidic soils, while it’s recommended for another 20% of these soils.
Results of the analyses conducted in the framework of the soil-monitoring system set up in Hungary in 1992 show that in 95% of the analyzed samples, the toxic element content is below the allowable limit. Cultivated areas are not contaminated; toxicity above the legal level was found only in specific high-risk sampling areas: in the vicinity of industry, due to local overload. The basic principle of sustainable agriculture is to preserve soil fertility without undue strain on the environment. The intensity of the production needs to be considered according to the conditions of the site; i.e.; nutrient management needs to be site-specific. It is recommended to differentiate three types of cultivated land in terms of environmental sensitivity: areas with favorable conditions, endangered areas, and protected areas, and then to adopt nutrient management practices accordingly. To meet all the above-mentioned goals is impossible without systematic soil analysis. Tests conducted by the national monitoring system cannot replace regular field measurements.
In this paper we present the interim results and the methodology applied to create web GIS ready cartographic representations of agricultural performance related information and environmental parameters. The main aim of the research is to eventually create a web GIS based decision support system that can enable decsision makers and genera...l users to create useful and representative map layouts of certain environment and agriculture related phenomena that can be easily analyzed and interpreted to make strategic decisions on environmental issues. In this aim the initial steps are to evaluate the available data for cartographic representation, analyze the possibilities of visualization, create a GIS ready data structure and implement the database and revise additional possibilities to incorporate further environment related datasets of auxiliary sources. The main results of the study are a comprehensive set of visual layouts that could serve as guideline for mapping statistical information of agriculture and some steps towards the incorporation of environmental parameters to the system.
The plantation of willow varieties was established in 2009. The 40 different varieties and clones of Salix were planted at a research field in Kolíňany (Nitra district). The paper evaluates results from the first growing season in 2009. The survival rate of planted cuttings ranged from 55.56 % to 100.00 % after the first year. The lowest surv...ival rate was reached by Terra Nova variety. The stem numbers per plant ranged from 1.17 ±0.37 to 2.53 ±0.98. The average height of one-year old stem varied from 65.82 ±36.60 cm to 225.58 ±68.61 cm. The average stem diameter ranged from 6.90 ±2.63 mm to 14.34 ±3.39 mm. There were statistically very significant differences in parameters of stem height stem diameter and stem numbers per plant among studied varieties/clones. The statistic method used was analysis of variance ANOVA. The varieties were then divided into 6 groups according to their similarity in observed parameters after the first growing season by cluster analysis. The best results were reached by varieties/clones classified in the second group. The survival rate, stem diameter and stem height values of these varieties/clones were above average.
The concept of precision agriculture is straightforward at the scientific level but even basic goals are blurred at the level of everyday practice in the Hungarian crop production despite the fact that several elements of the new technology have already been applied. The industrial and the service sectors offer many products and services to the... farmers but crop producers do not get enough support to choose between different alternatives. Agricultural higher education must deliver this support directly to the farmers and via the released young graduates. The price of agricultural land must be higher if well-organized data underpin the production potential of the fields. Accumulated database is a form of capital. It must be owned by the farmers but in a data-driven economy its sharing will generate value for both farmers and the society as a whole.
We present a methodological approach in which simple models were applied to predict yield by using only those yield data which spatially coincide with the soil data and the remaining yield data and the models were used to test different sampling and interpolation approaches commonly applied in precision agriculture. Three strategies for composite sample collection and three interpolation methods were compared. Multiple regression models were developed to predict yields. R2 values were used to select among the applied methods.
The University Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences acts as the centre and co-ordinator of agrarian higher education and consultation in the eastern region of Hungary. New internet technologies afford new chances to accomplish the institute’s mission to develop agriculture, environment and countryside in the area. As the main framework of... integrated e-learning, e-business and research in the agrifood sector the development of an internet portal, the „Centre of Agri-knowledge” (CAK) has been started in the recent past.
To support our students and education, to stay continuous in touch with our agricultural engineers we consider very important to build internet communities, where students, farmers, traders and researchers can share their knowledge and experience.
In Europe same as in Hungary agriportals born and disappear continuously. Although CAK is still in its early stage of development, its comprehensiveness, professional backend and the experience of the Centre of Agricultural Sciences guarantee a new standard of online services in the Hungarian agrifood sector
The impacts of climate change on crop production are increasingly noticeable. Extreme weather conditions – such as devastating droughts, which occur more often – have serious effects on crop conditions, thus damaging their defence ability against pathogens and pests. Therefore, in order to achieve high-quality and high yielding crops, it is... urgent to elaborate new technologies that improve general condition of crops and prevent development of nutrient diseases. Those crops which suffer from the lack of certain nutrients are more sensitive and their tolerance against diseases are decreased. Nitrogen – as the most influencing macronutrient in yield – is also essential in maintaining crop health. Nevertheless, due to the complicated processes in soil (such as leaching, denitrification), the utilization of nitrogen is not nearly complete, therefore nitrogen stabilizers may be needed to maximize this factor. The use of these stabilizers can be promising where plants with high nitrogen content are grown, although further experiments are needed in which impacts of nitrogen stabilizers on crop protection aspects are examined as well, since there is a close correlation between exaggerated nitrogen fertilizing and sensitivity to pests. During my research I am going to examine the combined effect of foliar fertilizer and nitrogen stabilizer on crop health. Furthermore, my goal is to find clear correlation between pathogens and the different technological variants of nutrition.
I study new energy sources which can replace fossil fuels. As I deal with the burning processes, I have analyzed several kinds of wastes. I think one solution for replacing fossil fuels would be to burn regenerated energy sources in agriculture. For example, oil, industrial fat and meat meal from processing plants are treated as hazardous waste...s. There exist non-hazardous wastes for energy recovery, as by-products e.g. sawdust, wood shavings, vegetable oils, stems of plants or poultry manure.
We should produce energy from the outsides of vegetables and juices, and should produce bioethanol by fermenting vegetable wastes. We could treat the used vegetable oil to make bio-diesel fuel. Meat meal and fat are good alternative energy forms, if burnt in incineration plants. These materials are new renewable sources of energy.
There are some problems in the use of biomass for energy sources. We have to look for the best loading device and burning processes.
Main field crops in Croatia are maize, soybean, sunflower and sugar beet. By these crops are covered (status 2014) close to 50% (385 234 ha) of utilized arable land. Global warming, have often adverse influence on field crop yields. Aim of this study was testing precipitation and temperature regimes on spring crops yield in Croatia in 15-year p...eriod (1999–2013) and elaboration of the 2014 growing season with aspect of climatic change.
Four growing seasons (2000, 2003, 2007 and 2012) were less favorable for maize because annual yield was bellow 5 t ha-1 (average 4.38 t ha-1), while in four more favorable years (2005, 2008, 2009 and 2010) annual yield was above 6.8 t ha-1 (average 7.32 t ha-1). Average precipitation and temperature for the April-September period in Osijek were 226 mm and 496 mm, 19.6 oC and 18.6 oC, for less and more favorable years, respectively. Yields of soybeans and sugar beet have mainly similar trend as maize yields in function of weather conditions, while sunflower is more susceptible to extremely moist growing seasons (for example, 2001 and 2005: 650 mm and 697 mm precipitation and very low yields in level 1.7 and 1.6 t ha-1, respectively). On the other side, under drought conditions of 2003, 2007 and 2012, yields of sunflower were above average in range from 2.5 to 2.7 t ha-1), while at same period yields of maize, soybean and sugar beet were drastically reduced.
Average precipitation in the April-September period of 2014 for eight selected sites of Croatia was 756 mm or for 68% higher in comparison with the long-term average 1961–1990 with variation among the sites from 520 mm in Osijek to 910 mm in Varazdin. On the other side, average air-temperature in 2014 was 17.8 oC or for 0.7 oC higher with variations among the sites from 17.2 oC in Daruvar and Varazdin to 18.2 oC in Osijek and 18.3 oC in Gradiste. Under these favorable weather conditions, annual yields of maize (8.1 t ha-1), soybeans (2.8 t ha-1) , sunflower (2.9 t ha-1) and sugar beet 63.6 t ha-1) were considerable higher than usual.
Hungary’s accession to the European Union caused major changes in the country’s life. Rural development subsidies can be received through extensive application mechanisms. This is particularly challenging for lagging micro-regions. My study presents the lagging microregion of Ibrány-Nagyhalász, focusing on what types of organizations and...upon what grounds received subsidies in the framework of the Agriculture and Rural Development Operational Programme 2004–2006 (AVOP). I focus on the same parameters when examining the measures in the third axis of the New Hungary Rural Development Programme 2007–2013 (ÚMVP), followed by a comparison between the two programmes’ effectiveness. I conclude that due to the experience collected throughout the period of AVOP, both the number and the quality of applications have risen from the year 2007. Still, due to the lack of competence, cooperation and motivation, the region's planned improvements are not yet fully met and the capabilities of the region are not yet fully exploited. For the future, even more complex and more feasible projects are needed.
Due to the effects of economic and political transformations, privatization and accession to the EU, Hungarian agriculture has gone through significant changes in the last two decades. As a result of continuous changes in the economic and regulatory environment, producers have to plan and maintain cultivation and adapt to the changing market ne...eds within continuously changing circumstances. These effects have resulted in a significant decline or in some cases, certain sectors have disappeared. These exercise a negative social and economic effect on all over the country, causing irreversible damages on those regions where agriculture is the only source of living. This paper discusses the effects of breakdown or disappearance of a traditional agricultural sector, namely the tobacco sector.
To the effective control of invasive weeds are essential to prevent establish, if has already happened obstacle to massive accumulation, and promoting the efficient and rapid eradication, if it is possible. The Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) belongs to weeds which “hard to control” especially in corn. One of the difficul...ties of effective control is the prolonged emergence causing avoidance of several individuals the contact with pre-emergent herbicides. Another problem arises due to the intensive use of post-emergence herbicide products with short duration of action. To optimalize of timing of treatment is essential for successful control of later emerging weeds. The recently established Woolly cupgrass in Hungary shows resistance or reduced susceptibility to substantial portion of herbicides used in corn. The data collected from small-plot trials demonstrates that application of sulfonylurea or selective monoctyledonous herbicides can be effective against the Woolly cupgrass.
The paper presents a short review of the different types of farming systems:
Biofarming, Organic farming, Alternatíve farming, Biodynamic farming, Low input sustainable agriculture (LISA)
Mid-tech farming, Sustainable agriculture, Soil conservation farming, No till farming, Environmentally sound, Environmentally friendly, Diversity farmi
Crop production system, Integrated pest management (IPM), Integrated farming, High-tech farming
Site specific production (SSP), Site specific technology (SST), Spatial variable technology, Satellite farming.
It concludes that the various systems are applicable in different ratios and combinations depending on the natural and economic conditions.
The author predicts an increase in precision technologies , the first step being the construction of yield maps compared with soil maps and their agronomic analysis. Based on this information, it will be necessary to elaborate the variable technology within the field, especially for plant density, fertilization and weed control.
The changes in weed flora during the past fifty years based on 10.000 samples within the same fields using the weed cover method are presented.
The large number of pesticide applications in apple orchards creates serious problems with pesticide residues and their side effects on beneficial organisms, the environment and human health. This is the reason behind the search for new systems for apple protection.
The investigations were made in apple orchards of the Institute of Agricultu
The key disease during the experimental period was powdery mildew, which can be controlled only with pruning of infected clusters and shoots during the first three years after planting. The key pests in the orchard during the nonbearing period were the green apple aphid and San Jose scale. In the integrated plant protection system, it is possible to reduce the number of insecticide treatments depending on the density of the main pests.
To evaluate the interaction of year x variety, year x tillage method and year x fertilization on the grain yield and root system capacity (RSC) of spring barley, we ran polyfactorial field trials in agroecological conditions of a warm corn production area in Slovakia, at Malanta, in 2009 and 2010. The RSC measurements were done using LCR...- meter at a frequency of 1 kHz and they took place in four growth stages: at leaf development in the stage of four leaves (RSC1), in full tillering (RSC2), in the stage heading (RSC 3) and at the stage of ripening (RSC4). The values of grain yield, RSC1, RSC2, RSC3, RSC4 reached in 2009 comparison to 2010 were significantly lower. The highest yield in 2009 was reached by variety Marthe (4.49 t.ha-1) and by variety Bojos (7.19 t ha-1) in 2010. The highest values of RSC in observed growth stages were achieved by variety Bojos in 2009, and in 2010 also besides RSC1. Within both years, difference in yields between tillage methods was not observed. The values of RSC in growth stage of 4 leaves and tillering was higher at conventional tillage, butthe values of RSC3 and RSC4 were higher with minimized tillage. The highest grain yield and values of RSC in every growth stage were achieved on the fertilization variant “c“ in 2009 and on the fertilization variant “b“ in 2010. The correlation relationships between grain yield and RSC were significant and positive in every growth stage. The strongest relationship was found among grain yield and RSC (r=0.6047).