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Effect of Moringa leaf extract and set size on the bulb weight, diameter and yield of onions (Allium cepa L.)
Published December 1, 2020
127-131

 Studying the use of natural extracts or biostimulants in improving vegetable plants is the current needs as an alternative way to the use of chemical products. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) as a natural growth regulator on bulb diameter, weight and y...ield of onions ‘Texas Early White’ cultivar. Therefore, three concentrations (control, 2%, 4% and 6%) of MLE and three different onion set sizes [small (3±1 g/set), medium (6±1 g/set), and large (10±1 g/set)] were prepared in a randomized complete block design with three replications and plant spacing 20×15 cm. MLE was applied as a foliar spray directly onto the plants with the amount of 25 ml/plant every two weeks from sprouting to maturity. The achieved results indicate that the interaction of foliar spray with moringa leaf extract 4% and large set size of 10±1 g/set gave the highest value of the total yield 4802.7 g m-2, while the lowest yield 1531 g m-2 was recorded in the interaction of control and the smallest set size of 3±1 g/set. Also, a significant difference was recorded in bulb diameter separately. Thus, the largest bulb diameter 68.90 mm was obtained from the planting of the largest set size 10±1 g/set with 4% of MLE while the smallest bulb diameter 38.40 mm was recorded from the smallest set size 3 ±1 g/set with control treatment. Similarly, a significant effect was recorded in both set size and MLE separately. The highest bulb diameter 58.71 mm was achieved in the planting of the largest sets 10±1 g/set, while the lowest diameter was 42.12 mm in the planting of the smallest set size 3 ±1 g/set. Similar results were recorded for the bulb weight and total yield. The concentration of 4% MLE produced the highest bulb weight 99.74 g/bulb and yield 3324.5 g m-2, while the lowest bulb weight and yield was obtained in the control treatment 55.61 g/bulb, and 1869.3 g m-2. Consequently, the results indicate the positive effect of Moringa leaf extract which can be applied as a natural substance in the form of foliar spray at critical growth stages to improve the growth and yield of dry onions.

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Physiological traits and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes as affected by water deficiency
Published June 30, 2018
11-15

Soybean is a very important legume; it has the highest protein content, and it is a very important source of vegetable oil. Soybean is droughtsusceptible, and drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that has been increasing over the past decades as a result of the global climatic changes. To evaluate the influence of drought stress, three ...soybean genotypes were grown under rainfed conditions, and compared to irrigated controls. The obtained results showed that the chlorophyll content, leaf area index and plant height decreased under drought stress conditions, which led to noticeable and sometimes significant yield reduction. Our results suggest more specific studies on the physiological changes of the local soybean genotypes under drought stress to better select the adopted ones.

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Folic acid content of beetroot leaf and root by different growing stages and genotypes
Published November 6, 2019
115-119

An increasing interest has been observed of beetroot leaf as a salad component due to recent studies focusing on their nutritional value. The randomized field experiment was carried out on lowland chernozem soil with 6 varieties, 3 replications and 2 sowing dates. Sampling was performed on 23 of August 2018 at the stage of 30 and 50 days of veg...etation, where leaf (30 and 50 days) and root (50 days) were collected. Total dry matter, folic acid and nitrate content were evaluated.

The results of this investigation show that higher total dry matter content was measured in the root (8.47–10.30%) compared to the leaf in both developmental stages (6.47–9.20%). Nevertheless, higher folic acid content was found in the young leaves of 30 and 50 days of development (58.77–113.86 µg 100g-1). Among the examined varieties, Bonel has presented great amount of folic acid not only in the leaves (99.35–113.61 µg 100g-1), but also in the root (89.99 µg 100g-1). Finally, lower nitrate content was found in Libero (316.16 mg kg-1) at 30 days and in Akela (340.41 mg kg-1) at 50 days of development. Thereby, fresh consumption of beetroot leaves are highly recommended.

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The changes of the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) herb and radix drug yield under different fertilization conditions
Published May 23, 2019
79-83

In this research, the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) nutrient requirement was examined under different fertilization conditions in a small plot experiment. We measured the medicinal plant’s raw and dry herb and root drug mass and drying loss under different fertilization settings and meteorological factors.

From the dru...g’s raw and dry mass perspective, based on the results, in our opinion, the control setting exceeded all nutrient settings’ results in 2016. In 2017 and 2018, the N75P100K150 nutrient setting has the biggest herb yield. As for the root yield, it was also the N75P100K150 setting which produced the biggest yield.

The Pearson's correlation test was performed to investigate the connection between the quantity of the raw, the dried herbs, the different nutrient settings and meteorological factors.

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The effect of season on the microbiological status of raw milk
Published May 20, 2020
95-99

Many factors can influence the microbiological quality of raw cow’s milk. In this study, our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the microbiological statuses of milk produced in different seasons. Samples were collected and analysed from five dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County, from February to November in 2019. ...During our studies, total plate count (TPC), coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count of raw cow’s milk samples were determined.

There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the mean TPC values detected in the milk collected in winter and autumn, but that values were significantly (P<0.05) lower than in the milk samples collected in spring and summer. Similarly to the TPC, in the case of coliform bacteria the lowest mean colony count was detected in the samples collected in winter. The difference was significant (P<0.05), compared to the values observed in the samples collected in summer. S. aureus was detected in bulk milk of only two farms in excess of 1.0 log10 cfu/ml. Also in case of S. aureus, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the values observed in the samples collected in winter and in summer. Samples from spring and summer contained the highest amount of S. aureus.

Based on the results of our studies, in the case of almost all farms the mean TPC, coliform and S. aureus counts were lower in the samples collected in winter, than in the samples collected in summer. The fact that the samples collected in winter contained the lowest amount of colonies could be attributed to the inhibition of growth of mesophilic microorganisms below 8 °C. Furthermore, the fact that we observed the highest colony counts in samples collected in summer, can be related to the heat stress of cows during the summer due to unfavorable weather conditions (high temperature and humidity).

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The Carpathian lingonberry, raspberry and blackberry fruit extracts feature variable antimicrobial efficiency
Published May 23, 2019
27-32

Wild berry is an excellent source of phytonutrients and/or bioactive compounds associated with significant therapeutic properties, so that they have been utilized in folk medicine and traditional nutrition throughout centuries. Multiple health-promoting effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-heart and coronary disease propertie...s were attributed to such wild berries. It has also been proved that berries could feature antimicrobial effects that could be of a great importance for the prevention of food-feed poisoning and fighting back antibiotic resistance.

In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial properties of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) crude and ethanolic extracts prepared from fruits obtained from the spontaneous flora of Eastern Carpathian Mountains situated in Transylvania. The antimicrobial effect of crude and alcoholic extracts were assessed on four Gram-negative, five Gram-positive bacteria and one yeast species using the agar diffusion method. The studied bacteria can cause food or feed spoilage and foodborne diseases. Our results indicate the significant inhibitory effect of lingonberry extracts in the case of Gram-negative bacteria like Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella Hartford, while among Gram-positive bacteria the strongest inhibitory effect was observed for Bacillus species like B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. mojavensis and Micrococcus luteus. The raspberry and blackberry extracts featured milder inhibitory effects in the case of the studied bacteria species. Furthermore, we have studied the crude or ethanolic extract combinations associated antimicrobial effects synergistic/additive or antagonistic properties. Interestingly, the triple and double ethanolic extract mixes had stronger antimicrobial properties, whereas the crude extract mixes showed relatively reduced effects, if any. Our results indicate that the antimicrobial activity of studied fruit extracts obtained from wild berries can vary upon the applied extraction method and their combination formulae, so that all these considerations must be taken into account when such fruit extracts are considered for foodstuff development.

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Some strategic aspects of animal protein production
Published September 5, 2018
11-19

The access to food shaped human societies and dietary models throughout the history of mankind. Animal protein consumption became a part of human culture. Data are presented showing the relationship of daily calorie and animal protein consumption as affected by capita GDP changes. Examples are presented how genetic improvement of animal and fod...der plants influenced the resource efficiency and the overall environmental footprint per unit product. The two examples presented are: the dairy industry of the USA the 1944 and 2007 situation, and the Hungarian broiler chicken sector considering data relevant to 1930, 1960 and 2010. In both cases, dramatic improvements in resource efficiency could be demonstrated. The agricultural area required to animal feed production was reduced by more than 80% in both cases per unit product. Future possibilities are briefly discussed, referring to the still unutilized land reserves of the Globe, the new evolving technologies in progress inclusive the CASPR/Cas 9 genetic editing methods.

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The role of some elicitors in inducing chilling stress resistance in apricot fruit
Published April 23, 2014
27-32

This study aimed to study the role of 2 mM salicylic acid and 0.2 mM methyl Jasmonic acid in reducing the chilling injuries on two different apricot varieties fruits (Bergarauge and Flavor cot). These treatments were applied for apricot fruit directly after harvest after measuring the zero time data. Then the fruit were stored at 1 oC for three... weeks and were examined 7 day periodically, other group of fruit was stored at 1 oC for 15 days then transport to room temperature and examined after 4 and 8 days. The fruit samples were collected at each examination time, and the measurements containing the fruit firmness (Kg cm-2), chilling and decay index, membrane electrolyte leakage, total phenol content and phenylalanine ammonia lyase mechanism (PAL) activity. The results showed that there are no obvious differences between the tested varieties and the differences may back to genetic variations and they took the same trend for most of measurement after treated with SA and MJ. SA and/or MJ treated fruit achieved low percentage of fruit softening in comparison to water treated fruit. At the same time the chilling and decay index showed that the SA and/or MJ reduced the decay or breakdown symptoms in either tested varieties. The treated fruit with those elicitor help the fruit to keep about stable phenol content while water treated fruit lose the phenol content sharply at early storage and this stable level of phenol my because of the ability of those chemical to raise PAL activity in treated fruit.

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Variability examination of photosynthetic pigment content and specific leaf area in individual maize (Zea mays L.) plants
Published June 30, 2018
153-157

Currently, maize is one of the most important crops (Zea mays L.) both globally and in Hungary. We compared physiological parameters of a maize genotype – p9903 – at two different experimental sites in a field experiment. Furthermore, we examined these parameters’ variability in individual plants on the leaves with different ages. Absolut...e chlorophyll content of the leaves were analysed, separately that of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. We also measured the absolute carotenoid contents of leaves. Furthermore, we calculated these photosynthetic pigments’ content ratio. Specific leaf area (SLA) and dry matter weight were also measured in order to characterise plant production. The results obviously reflect the decreasing in the efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus on the low yield site. Otherwise, we identify significant differences only in certain cases of leaves.

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Application of different compost doses in Pinova and Golden Delicious apple orchards
Published May 6, 2013
91-94

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. The animal husbandry is getting decrease, thereby there is the lack of organic fertilizer and it is suggested to find alternative nutrient supply methods. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far, which is appropriate for the requirement of organic farming.

From the year of 2010 in each year, compost doses were applied in biological apple orchards in cooperation with the Institute of Horticultural Science. In the function of the years different changes were resulted by the compost treatments in the examined parameters in case of both apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova). It was concluded that the dry matter, ash, total acids, sugar content and the vitamin C changed versus time and species. It is supposed that the effect of compost treatments is getting visible.

According to the data higher dry matter, total acids and sugar content, (in some cases) ash were measured in case of the apple species Pinova, while the measurements showed higher vitamin C content in case of the species Golden Delicious.

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Spent mushroom compost (SMC) – retrieved added value product closing loop in agricultural production
Published September 5, 2018
185-202

Worldwide edible mushroom production on agro-industrial residues comprises of more than 11 million tons of fresh mushrooms per year. For 1 kg of mushrooms there is 5 kg of spent mushroom compost (SMC). This enormous amount of waste results in disposal problems. However, SMC is a waste product of the mushroom industry, which contains mycelium an...d high levels of remnant nutrients such as organic substances (N, P, K). The spent mushroom compost is usually intended for utilization, but there are increasing numbers of experiments focusing on its reuse in agricultural and horticultural production. Recently, the increase of the global environmental consciousness and stringent legislation have focused research towards the application of sustainable and circular processes. Innovative and environmentally friendly systems of utilisation of waste streams have increased interest of the scientific community. Circular economy implies that agricultural waste will be the source for retrieving high value-added compounds. The goal of the present work was to carry out a bibliographic review of the different scenarios, regarding the exploitation of this low cost feedstock with huge potential for valorisation.

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Development of a Decision Assisting Soil Information System in Agriculture
Published May 4, 2004
130-133

Hungarian agriculture may be characterized by the industry-like, conventional farming of the past decades. This form of management concentrated exclusively on functions aimed at production. We have to decrease this disproportion, especially when joining to the EU, by reducing the intensive agricultural regions and adjusting to the goals of the ...2000-2006 NAEP programmes, forming such an agricultural system which integrates the advantages of both environmental protection and complex agricultural systems based on rational foundations. Nevertheless it’s a rational decision to make the soil information system with an exact spatial informatics background as a foundation of agricultural system, because this promotes easy handling as well the connection to possible subsequent modules.

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Pre- and postharvest technologies to extend the shelf life of Prunus cerasus
Published May 23, 2019
85-89

Fresh tart cherry consumption cannot be increased without the development of an appropriate technology for its elongated storage. This requires the development and optimization of the pre- and postharvest treatments. Currently, we have only limited knowledge about tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) postharvest technology, however, related studies ...on sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) may be adopted. In this article, we have collected the most important research results in this topic.

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Interaction of yield stability and year in major agricultural crops
Published September 7, 2001
41-46

The effect of hydro-meteorological extremities on plant cultivation is the result of the correlation of many factors. These may increase or decrease the effects of hydro-meteorological extremes. The degree of this variance depends on the professionality of treatments, on the quality of the applied technique and technology and also on the soil...s water management characteristics.
The water management characteristics of Hungary’s arable land are mainly unfavorable or medium. In the past two decades the conditions of originally good soils, from a water management aspect, have significantly deteriorated in the critical 0-60 cm soil layer. This is mainly due to unprofessional land use, a lack of deepening cultivation and neglected organic cultivation. At the same time, hydro-meteorological extremities occur more frequently and the sensibility of plant cultivation has increased.
The sensibility of plant cultivation is type and location specific, yet, it also effects both the quality and quantity of the result.
The stability analysis, which covered the period of four decades and incorporated 6-7 agro-ecological areas proves and highlights the following:
• Winter wheat only reacted to extensive cultivation and unfavorable environmental conditions to a small degree. On the other hand, the effect of hydro-meteorological extremities increases.
• The stability analysis of maize, which is sensitive to cultivation technology and the location of cultivation, proved just the opposite. Good soil and adequate technology significantly reduces the effect of any particular year.
• From the years examined, the most favorable proved to be the one with average precipitation. Maize reacted to both extremities in a similar way. Winter wheat reacted to more precipitation with less yield.
• The yield quality of winter wheat was negatively effected by drought. The negative effect of precipitation is limited to the period of ripening and harvest, so the likelihood of such an effect is not significant.
• The yield of sunflower – due to pests – significantly reduces in years with high precipitation, while a difference between dry and average years cannot be pinpointed out. The oil content in both dry years and in years with high precipitation is evident, compared to years with average precipitation.
• The root yield of sugar beet is reduced by drought while the sugar content depends on soil characteristics and climatic extremities. A difference could also be noted by location, whether in Western Hungary and on the Great Plain. Great sugar content can be achieved in years with high precipitation in Western Hungary, while the same result occurred with average precipitation on the Great Plain. Drought did not have a positive effect on sugar content in either location.

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Amelioration and arable land-use possibilities of Solonetz soils in the Trans-Tisza region of Hungary
Published September 5, 2018
107-117

Salt affected soils cover about 1 million hectares in Hungary. This paper is based on the research results obtained at the Karcag-puszta long-term experimental site, where, depending on the catena, crusty (A horizon=0–7 cm), medium (A hor.=8– 20 cm) and deep (A hor.>20 cm) subtypes of the Meadow Solonetz soil could be found. The chemical... reclamation was made specifically for the given site. Lime was applied on the soils with neutral or slightly acidic top layer, while on the soils with alkaline top layer, gypsum was applied. As regards internal drainage, a tube system with an average depth of 1 m and 5, 10 and 15 m drain spacing was constructed. Decreasing salt and sodium content could be measured both in drained and non-drained soils. The advantage of drainage was that the leachingout extended to the whole layer above the drain pipes, while without drainage, the Na ions exchanged from the upper layers still accumulated at a depth of 60– 100 cm. In the first two decades, the groundwater level was deeper and leaching was the dominant process. Since 2004, due to the frequently high groundwater level, the leaching and deepening of the fertile top layer has been slower.

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Soil Fertility Management in Westsik’s Crop Rotation Experiment
Published December 4, 2001
34-39

The crop rotation experiment, established by Vilmos Westsik in 1929, is the best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary. It is still used to study the effects of organic manure treatment, develop models and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. Westsik’s cro...p rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of fertilisers, green, straw and farmyard manure. The experiment also provides a resource of yield, plant and soil data sets for scientific research into the soil and plant processes which control soil fertility, and into the sustainability of production without environmental deterioration. The maintenance of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment can be used to illustrate the value of long-term field experiments.

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Examination of the conditions of extreme water balance circumstances (water logging, drought) with environmental information technology tools
Published March 23, 2016
79-86

The Carpathian Basin is characterized by varying hydrological extremes, both in space and time. Hungary's natural endowments are more favourable than average, especially for agricultural production, with 5,3 million hectares of land we have which is suitable for agricultural production. These extreme water management are often occur in the same... year and mostly in the same region, which may become more frequent in the future, especially in the lowland regions. The negative impacts of extreme water management was influenced by the land use changes in recent years, which has modified the runoff processes of the affected regions.

The aim of the study was to research the formation of inland water and drought circumstances in two sample areas the Great Plain (Szolnok-Túri flat and Nyírség) by geoinformatic tools. During the investigation in the first step we determined that areas which are susceptible to inland water and drought, based on the AGROTOPO database. In addition, land-use categories of characteristics of the sample areas are evaluated according to the Corine Land Cover. Furthermore, after defining characteristic of NDVI values between the period of 2003–2013, we evaluated the effect of drought whether can be detected in crop failures in respective areas.

Based on our results, we concluded that the formation of inland water and drought circumstances can be investigated in a large spatial extension by geoinformatic tools and databases.

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The impacts of spring basal and side dressing on maize yield
Published April 23, 2014
83-86

The yield potential of maize is very high. According to Tollenaar (1983), maize yield potential is as high as 25 t ha-1 (absolute dry yield) which is the highest among all cereals. In order to fully utilise this high yield potential, proper nutrient replenishment is of chief importance among all agrotechnical factors.

The aim... of research was to examine the effect of nitrogen fertiliser applied as basal and side dressing on maize yield.

The measurements were performed at the Látókép experiment site (47° 33’ N, 21° 26’ E, 111 m asl) of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen on mid-heavy calcareous chernozem soil with deep humus layer in an established experiment in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The trial design was split-split-plot with two replications.

Based on the experiment results, it can be established that the nutrient uptake of maize is greatly dependent on the amount of water store in the soil. From the aspect of the development of the maize plant and water supply, the most determinant factor was the distribution of precipitation over the growing season and not the amount precipitation. This is shown by the fact there was only 276 mm precipitation – which was favourably distributed – in 2012 to increase the availability of nutrients and the main average was the highest in this year (14.394 t ha-1).

Spring basal dressing helped maize development in all three years even on chernozem soil which is well supplied with nutrients. Although the effect of side dressing did not result in any yield increase, it could still contribute to mitigating the stress effects caused by environmental factors. Altogether, nutrient supply adapted to the various development stages of maize can favourably affect the success of maize production.

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Site and hybrid-specific agrotechnical models in sweet corn production
Published November 20, 2011
105-108

The effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and two genotypes on the crop yield of sweet corn was examined on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region in two different crop years. Compared to the 30-year average, the climate was dry and warm in 2009 and humid in 2010. The experiments were conducted at th...e Látókép Research Site of the University of Debrecen. In the experiments we applied two sowing times (end of April, end of May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and two crop density levels (45 thousand ha-1, 65 thousand ha-1). The hybrids we used were Jumbo and Enterprise. As regards the requirements of sweet corn production, the crop year of 2009 was dry and warm. The effect of moisture deficiency was more adverse on the crop yields with the second sowing time. On the contrary, the other examined year (2010) was significantly humid; the precipitation was 184 mm above the 30-year average and the temperature was average.
In the dry and hot crop year, the best yields were obtained with the hybrid Jumbo (25677 kg-1) at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level on the average of the fertilization levels. The crop yields of Enterprise were also the highest at high plant density level (24444 kg ha-1). With the second sowing time the highest yields were obtained at the higher plant density level (65 thousand ha-1) with both hybrids (Jumbo 18978 kg ha-1, Enterprise 18991 kg ha-1), which confirmed the good adaptation capability of these hybrids at high plant density level. In humid crop year with early sowing time the highest yielding hybrid was Enterprise (at 45 thousand ha-1 crop density level 20757 kg-1), at the same time, Jumbo was best yielding at the higher plant density level (18781 kg-1). With the second sowing time the highest crop yield was obtained with Enterprise again (20628 kg ha-1 at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level). With this sowing time the average yields of Jumbo, was 18914 kg ha-1 respectively. We found that dry crop year and early sowing time provided the best conditions for sweet corn production; the highest yields were obtained under these circumstances, which might be the results of the outstanding water management of chernozem  soils.

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The importance of millet production in regional production, with special emphasis on climate change
Published June 30, 2018
141-146
Regional production is a traditional production structure developed adjusting to the geographical, climatic, biological and soil conditions in given production regions, a certain territorial specification of agricultural production, and a type of farming that best fits the natural conditions and takes the biologic...al needs of plant and animal species into account as fully as possible. The most probable element of risk in plant production is the changeable, extreme weather. That is the reason why the specific characteristics of the place of production and the characteristics of regional production should be considered to a greater extent. The establishment of the range of varieties appropriate for the place of production is the key issue in regional production. One of our historically grown cereal plants that perfectly fits regional production is millet. Due to its short growing season, favourable reproduction ratio and the fact that it is relatively undemanding, it used to be grown in larger quantities in the middle ages. Its good nutritional values made it an important food item, but over time, as a result of industrialisation and technological progress; it has been eclipsed by other cereal crops. In our country it is mainly used to cook porridge, but it is also used in the form of flour and as a base material in the spirit drinks sector. In the recent decades, millet has been applied only in a small area, mostly as a secondary crop in areas that dried out from drainage water in late spring, or as a replacement of extinct sowings due to its late sowing time. Water will be the most significant factor for the future of agriculture, especially considering climate change.
My examinations took place in the area of the Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm of University of Debrecen, in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, in a small-plot experiment with four replications in 2016.
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Element content analyses in the Institute for Food Sciences, Quality Assurance and Microbiology
Published November 13, 2012
203-207

The role of chemical elements to ensure and promote our health is undisputed. Some of them are essential for plants, animals and human, others can cause diseases. The major source of mineral constituents is food, drinking water has a minor contribution to it, so the knowledge of elemental intake through food is crucial and needs continuous moni...toring and by this way it promotes the food quality assurance and dietetics.
With the evolution of spectroscopic methods increasingly lower concentrations could be determined, so the elemental composition of a sample could be more precisely and fully described. Due to the results the gathered knowledge up to the present is supported and new observations can be done helping us to understand such complex systems as biological organisms are.
The quality of a food is determined by the full process of its production, consequently it starts with agricultural production so elemental-analysis usually cover the whole soil – plant – (animal) – food chain, by this way the „Fork-to-Farm” precept is true in elemental analysis field also.
The history of elemental analysis in the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Food Processing, Quality Assurance and Microbiology goes back to 1980s when the so called Regional Measurement Central gave the background for research. The continuous deployment resulted in an obtain of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) in 1988, which extended the scope of examinations due to its excellent performance characteristics
compared to flame atom absorption (FAAS) and flame emission spectrometers (FES). The instrumental park retain up to date correlate to the developing analytical techniques due to acquiring a newer ICPAES in 1998 and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in 2004 – which sensitivity is three order of magnitude better compared to ICP-AES. The Institute supports the work with its own ICP-AES and ICP-MS since 2011. 

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The effect of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the growth and nutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published June 30, 2018
65-70
Sulphur is an essential element for plants. Decreasing sulphur deposition from the air, and the use of more concentrated phosphate fertilizers, which contain no sulphur, has led to reports of sulphur deficiencies for wheat. Sulphur deficiency significantly affects yield and also the quality of wheat. The pot exper...iment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil at Látókép, Hungary, test plant was spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Seven treatments were used where nitrogen and sulphur were supplied as soil fertilizers in increasing rates (NS1, NS2, NS3) and in foliar fertilizer as well (NS1+fol., NS2+fol., NS3+fol.). Plant aboveground biomass production was determined in samples taken in the stages of development BBCH 29-30, 51-59, 61-69, 89. The nitrogen and sulphur content of straw and grain were measured. N/S ratios of grain and straw were calculated. The weights of grain were ranging between 8.6–16.1 g/pot. NS2 and NS2+fol. treatments produced the highest values. Foliar fertilizer had no further effect on grain. Analysing the values of the straw, it was observed that tendencies were similar to values of grain. The NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of straw and the NS3 rate already decreased that amount. The obtained results show the unfavourable effect of excessively high rate applied in NS3 treatment. The supplementary foliar fertilizer had no significant influence on the weight of straw. Both N and S-uptake of plant was very intensive at the stem elongation stage, then the N and S-content of plant continuously decreased in time in all treatments. The N-content of grain ranged between 2.215–2.838%.
The N-content of grain slightly increased with increasing of nitrogen doses. In the higher doses (NS2, NS3) foliar fertilization slightly increased the nitrogen content of grain, although this effect was not statistically proved. The N-content of straw varied from 0.361 to 0.605%. The growing dose of soil fertilizer also considerably increased the nitrogen content of straw. Foliar fertilization further increased the nitrogen content of straw. The S-content of grain ranged between 0.174–0.266%. The lowest fertilizer dose (NS1) significantly increased the sulphur content of grain. The further increasing fertilizer doses (NS2, NS3) did not cause additional enhance in sulphur content of grain.
The foliar fertilizer also did not change the sulphur value of plant. The increasing amount of soil fertilizer and the supplementary foliar fertilizer had no effect on the sulphur content of straw. The treatments influenced the N/S ratios of grain and straw. On the basis of experimental results it can be concluded that the examined nitrogen and sulphur containing soil fertilizer had positive effect on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown on the calcareous chernozem soil. The soil fertilizer application enhanced the grain nitrogen and sulphur content. The highest rate of fertilizer (600 kg ha-1) proved to have decreasing effect on the yield. The sulphur and nitrogen containing foliar fertilizer did not have significant effect on the yield parameters but slightly increased the nitrogen content of plant.
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Greenhouse gas emissions and Europe 2020 strategy
Published October 5, 2010
241-244

Common Agricultural Policy has identified three priority areas for action to protect and enhance rural heritage: (i) the preservation and development of natural farming and traditional agricultural landscapes; (ii) water management and sustainable use and (iii) dealing with climate change. Measures of Rural Development Plan in EU countries prom...ote the development of agricultural practices for preserving the environment and safeguarding the countryside. This is achieved by targeting rural development and promoting environmental friendly, sustainable practices, like agri-environment schemes. Farmers are encouraged to continue playing a positive role in the maintenance of the countryside and the environment. Changes in total emission between 1990
and 2007 do not show any correlation with the total GHG emission. GHG emission was reduced in Hungary, Slovakia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland, Estonia and Bulgaria, where GHG efficiency is low.

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The effect of increasing compost rates on the yield and nutrient content of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published December 16, 2012
127-134

Satisfaction of the increasing needs of humanity causes large environmental load. To provide a livable environment for future generations we have to satisfy our needs with the use of sustainable management. This is one of the biggest challenges of nowadays.
The amount of wastes emitted in increasing volume can be decreased by the recycling o...f them. The disposal of waste materials formed in the public spaces of cities and during the processing of agricultural row materials and by-products in landfills is inconceivable, so they must be recycled.
These materials mostly with organic compounds could be the primary substrates of composts. Completed with suitable additives, and applied appropriate treating technology, composts are capable to supply horticultural plants with nutrients. Composting wastes and byproducts not just decreases the amounts of deposited waste materials, but increases the nutrient (macro- and micronutrients) content of soils, so this is an  environmentally friendly and alternative way of nutrient management of plants.

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Effects of the development of production factors on productivity
Published February 17, 2015
13-18

In every economic sector, the enacted and expected quality of the products strongly affects its market entry and subsistence. The aim of management is success, competitiveness and subsistence that require adequate human and material resources and enough production stock. We must also notice that the quality of tools and instruments significantl...y influences work productivity. This applies to both plant production and animal husbandry.

The author researched milk production factors with methodical observation, document analysis and interviews. Data were collected with a ten-year interval, thus this assay can highlight the field, volume and sources of investments during this period and that the production stock increased in most farms and decreased in few. The data also shows the influence of investments on work productivity - there are differences between farms of equal size, so there are still ways of development.

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