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Identification of Hucul mare families by mtDNA markers
Published March 20, 2014

Hundred animal species have disappeared during the last century. By this time, approximately one-third of domestic animals have been in the endangered category. Hucul horses are also in this category; furthermore saving the genetic diversity beside the race preservation is an important challenge as well. The number of mares and stallions is onl...y one of the expressive elements of genetic diversity; together with their quality determine the genetic variability of this breed. Beyond that, if an exact breed can originates from more founders, it can be more renewed genetically. Stud book documents these data by registering the mare families and stallions’ genealogical lineage. Molecular genetics, especially mitochondrial DNA analysis can make the precise identification of mare families possible. As a result of these molecular based methods, protection of genetic diversity, as well as breed preservation became more reliable. After the primer designing, the optimal primer pair was chosen which targets a 1092 bp length DNA sequence in the cytochrome b region. After the successful PCR optimalisation, we determined 170 Hucul mares’ sequences. According to our results, the samples compose ten haplotypes, which are much less, than the registered number of mare families in the stud book. Further investigations are needed to reach more representative results, and drawn the further consequences.

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The change of the inner content parameters of table beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta Gurke var. rubra L.) as a result of storage
Published February 17, 2015

The stored vegetables play a key role in the vegetable consumption. After harvesting, the storage conditions greatly affect nutritional parameters of the crop. The red beet is a root vegetable, which is manufactured mainly fresh in our county, therefore we do not have enough information about the storage. In our experiment, 5 varieties (Rubin, ...Akela, Larka, Libero, Mona Lisa) were examined in prismatic structure (0–5 °C and 95–97% RH) through 5 mounths.

Our measurements proved that under the appropriate storage conditions water loss was also occurs, which increased the dry matter content (average of 0.5 g 100 g-1). The bioactive compounds, like pigments (betanine and vulgaxanthin) and the quantity of flavonoids, were significantly increased during the experiment.

The results showed that the nutritional parameters of the 5 types was positive during the prismatic structure. However, this storage method negatively affected the bioactive compounds of the Akela genotype. Further studies are recommended for proper storage parameter adjustment, which is justified by the need of the different varieties. The optimal conditions enable us to preserve and to increase the best nutritional index.

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Selenium-speciation experiments from soil samples by accept of ionchromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) method
Published May 23, 2006

In these days, selenium is one of the most investigated microelements. It has an important proven role in many vital processes. Selenium deficiency can play a role in the contraction of many diseases (e.g. cancer, heart diseases, etc.) and in the aggravation of their clinical aspect directly or indirectly. In this paper, we study the soil of an outdoor experiment for the conversion of the inorganic selenium salt that was spread out in different doses. The danger of the wash-out effect was also investigated. Our experiments showed, that most of the inorganic selenite transforms to selenate form during the years, and in this selenate form it moves to the deeper layers of soil.

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Public finance resources and regional distribution of rural development
Published September 18, 2014

...x; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: normal; orphans: 2; widows: 2; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Rural development, more specifically the economic development of counties have three public finance resources: the municipality, the central budgetary and the labour market fund resources. Based on the provisions of public finance, there are currently five provisions of the municipality resources of rural development: supporting settlements struggling with employment problems, supporting multi-purpose small regions, supporting settlements which are in a difficult position through no fault of their own, supporting public utility development and supporting holiday resorts. The opportunity of increasing investments is using EU funds. The structural change has a favourable direction, the proportion of the economic development program and regional developments increased in the recent years, but their share is still low. The proportion of agricultural and rural development programs which are important from the aspect of rural development is a less favourable phenomenon. Furthermore, the share of human and social development somewhat decreased, but it is still high. Apart from the regional programs, the Budget Act does not specify the regional distribution of budgets, only the professional purposes of uses, of which it is possible to conclude to which county development can be requested resources for.

Between 2008 and 2011, the 13–15% share of the North Great Plain region was close to the population share of 14.7%. In 2012, there was a turn of events in which the necessity of developing the region was shown. In this year, not only the proportion, but also the absolute extent of development resources increased. Therefore, the region could use resources of 16.9 billion HUF in 2010, 31.4 billion HUF in 2011 and 56.3 billion HUF in 2012. In order to properly use these resources, determined utilisation structure is necessary to be performed. The distribution of development purposes provides an explanation for the backward position of the economic performance of Hajdú-Bihar county.

Of the development resources available for four years, the region spent only 12.2% on economic development.

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Methane emission from Matsuo rice paddy field in light of different fertilizers, costs, profit and carbon credit
Published March 23, 2016

Nowadays global warming is a major issue to our environment. This issue is generated by the modern human activities like industry and intensive agriculture. This research is about methane emission from rice paddy fields. The aim of the study is to lower the methane emission from the field with the help of using different type of fertilizers, wh...ilst we keep in focus the efficient economic operation. The main experimental field is Matsuo paddy field, (Matsuo town, Sanbu city, Chiba prefecture) which is analyzed by the Chiba University’s soil science laboratory, they provided the data for this study. During the study three type of fertilizer was analyzed which are all organic and the control was a regular chemical fertilizer. For all fertilizers the cost and income of the production were calculated and the profit was weighted with the methane emission what a specific fertilizer produced during the cultivation. In the future if the organic fertilizers are in focus than it is necessary to find a new material what can be competitive with the chemical fertilizers in focus of GHG emission or find an alternative way of the usage of methane in biogas production.

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A Critical Review of Selected Computer Assisted Language Testing Instruments
Published May 12, 2002

Over the past few decades, a fairly large literature examining the effectiveness of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has been developed. The findings indicate that language learners have generally positive attitudes toward using computers in the classroom. Less is known, however, about the more specific areas of computers in language ...testing. The purpose of this article is to examine recent developments in language testing that directly involve computer use. After a brief overview of computer-based testing (CBT) in general, web-based testing (WBT) is defined and certain issues reviewed.

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Lambing Frequency in the Ile de France, Suffolk and Babolna TETRA Stocks of Babolna c.o., Szendrő
Published May 4, 2004

Lambing frequency of three different genotypes was evaluated in the breeding stock of Babolna c.o. Szendrő. Ile de France, Suffolk and Babolna TETRA breeding ewes gave the data for the further evaluation. The main aim of this research was to find out if there is any significant effect of selected parameters (registration class, lambing season,... lambing type and the years) on the lambing frequency, the period between consecutive lambings. Production parameters of 9,471 Ile de France, 1,244 Suffolk and 7,618 Babolna TETRA ewes were collected and processed. The analysis covered the period between the years 1989-1999. It was concluded that not all of the evaluated parameters had a significant effect on lambing frequency. Not all of the genotypes showed significant differences, according to the examined parameters.

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Comparative analysis of sample preparation methods to determine the concentration of arsenic in soil- and plant-samples
Published March 23, 2016

Arsenic contamination of the fields and groundwater is a global problem. Alföld is the most affected area in Hungary. Irrigation witharsenic contaminated water, and crop production on the contaminated soil can cause a food safety problem, because arsenic is easy taken up by the cell of the plant roots. To prevent this, very important to monito...ring the arsenic content of soils and plants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a fast, easy method to determined the concentration of minerals in the case of plant and soil samples The analytical methods can give reliable, results if the analytical process, including the sample preparation method, is the best. The objective of this study was to compare 3 type of sample preparation method which was dry ashing, wet digestion in open system, and microwave digestion. As a result of our experiement shows the microwave digestion is the appropriate method to determined the arsenic content of soil samples. In the case of plant samples we can use wet digestion in open system or microwave digestion as a samle preparation method.

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The effect Benefit PZ biostimulant on the fruit size and yield production of apricot varieties (Prunus Armeniaca)
Published May 23, 2006

Fruit size is determined by the genetic makings of varieties the pomology and enviromental factors. The climate and the previous year’s harvested yield have a great effect on yield volume. It is not easy to harmonize the qualitative and quantitave parameters of the fruit. High yield usually causes smaller fruits.
The aim of our trials was evalaute the effect of Benefit PZ biostimulant on fruit size. We examined two apricot varieties (Bergeron, Magyarkajszi C235) for the efficacy of the product. The three applications were made with 400 l/ha water with 2500 ppm. The optimal interval of application with Benefit PZ is during in the early phases of development. The size of the final fruits depends on the number of cells making up the fruits. The later application could not increase fruit size growth, there are no significant differences between the Benefit PZ sprayed and the control plots. The totally harvested fruit weight was 13.5% more on the trees of cv. Bergeron, it was caused by the higher fruit set. On the sprayed trees were 12.2% more fruit. Therefore were no differences between the average fruit weight. Fruit weights of the treated trees were 44.37 g on cv. Bergeron, 44.15 g on cv. Magyarkajszi C235 and on the no treated trees were 43.83 g as well as 45.33 g.

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Product orientated sewage sludge composting technologies in the practice of AKSD Ltd.
Published October 10, 2008

In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used for biogas production or composting. The direct use of sewage sludge in agriculture is limited by its hazardous microelement content, but it can be used effectively in composting. The limitation parameters can be extinguished with corr...ect compost-mixture and technology variants. The exact determination of the technologies and mixtures result a stable, constant quality product. The compost, as a classified product, is friable structured. The end-product is a
homogeneous mould with good water capacity, does not contain any weed seeds and pathogenic organisms. The compost does not have a acidify effect on the soil. It is an effective fertilizer thanks to its macro and microelement content.

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Impact of environmental changes resulting from different sowing dates on maize yield
Published February 25, 2014

Three Debrecen maize hybrids of different genotypes (Debreceni 285, Debreceni 377 and Debreceni 382) were examined on chernozem soil in a field experiment. During the two years of the experiment (2009–2010), we wanted to get to know how the examined hybrids reach to different sowing dates and what impact early, optimal and late sowing has on ...yield.

In 2009, balanced soil and air temperature resulted in steady emergence. However, the low temperature in early April and the cooling down in mid-May 2010 caused a delayed emergence.

The grain moisture content at harvesting and the high yield showed a strong crop year effect. In 2010, yield was much lower (1.664 t ha-1) and grain moisture was significantly higher (34%)than in 2009.

In 2009, early sowing resulted in yield decrease (P<0.05), but it also significantly reduced grain moisture at harvesting (P<0.05). Although late sowing slightly increased yield (not significantly), but grain moisture at harvesting increased by 9.2%. In 2010, optimal sowing date was shown to be the best alternative from the aspect of yield, but there was no significant difference in comparison with early and late sowing. Grain moisture at harvesting greatly increased (13.3%).

The Debreceni 382 maize hybrid reacted to sowing dates flexibly, neither early, nor late sowing affected its yield significantly and the grain moisture at harvesting showed 12% increase in the case of the late sowing date. In 2009, maize hybrids Debreceni 285 and Debreceni 377 reached their highest yield in the case of the sowing date which was shown to be optimal (23rd April), while the different sowing dates had no effect on yield in 2010.

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Effect of supplemental pig milk replacer on piglet weight gain and sow backfat thickness
Published March 24, 2015

Sow milk production is the major factor limiting pig growth to weaning. Although the milk production of the sows incremental many environmental factors affect the actual performances. The supplemental milk replacer can be an appropriate solution to ward off disparities and try to equalize the available milk quantity to the piglets according to ...their appetite, to enlarge the weight of pigs at weaning, ultimately. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of liquid milk supplement on weight development and litter performance of the piglets during the suckling period. Data were collected from 60 farrowings, the weight of 649 piglets in a total were measured at birth, 14 days old and at weaning (28 days), respectively. In the control group (n=319) the piglets were suckled and got prestarter feed from day 10. In the experimental group (n= 330) the piglets had got liquid milk replacer in 10.71% solution, from day 10 after birth together with suckling and prestarter feed, as well. Based on the Duncan's multiple range tests, there were no significant differences in birth weight between the control and experimental group but we found significant differences between the 14 days weight and the weaning weight, subsequently. Based on the CV% of weight the experimental group became more homogenous, in contrary to the weight of the control group at the end of suckling period. The milk supplementation can be an appropriate solution to ward off disparities and to equalize the available milk quantity to the piglets according to their appetite, to enlarge and uniform the weight of pigs at weaning, ultimately.

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Folic acid content of beetroot leaf and root by different growing stages and genotypes
Published November 6, 2019

An increasing interest has been observed of beetroot leaf as a salad component due to recent studies focusing on their nutritional value. The randomized field experiment was carried out on lowland chernozem soil with 6 varieties, 3 replications and 2 sowing dates. Sampling was performed on 23 of August 2018 at the stage of 30 and 50 days of veg...etation, where leaf (30 and 50 days) and root (50 days) were collected. Total dry matter, folic acid and nitrate content were evaluated.

The results of this investigation show that higher total dry matter content was measured in the root (8.47–10.30%) compared to the leaf in both developmental stages (6.47–9.20%). Nevertheless, higher folic acid content was found in the young leaves of 30 and 50 days of development (58.77–113.86 µg 100g-1). Among the examined varieties, Bonel has presented great amount of folic acid not only in the leaves (99.35–113.61 µg 100g-1), but also in the root (89.99 µg 100g-1). Finally, lower nitrate content was found in Libero (316.16 mg kg-1) at 30 days and in Akela (340.41 mg kg-1) at 50 days of development. Thereby, fresh consumption of beetroot leaves are highly recommended.

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SIM Samples Investigation by Statistical Methods
Published May 11, 2003

The assessment of the present condition of the soil is very important, because the accession of the number of the European Union members is in the near future. This can be the base of the modern agrarian environmental management programme. The assessment must be objective, detailed and analyse the processes in the soil.
Respecting the above ...causes was decided to create an Environmental Information Monitoring System. This system consists of more parts. One of them is the Soil Information Monitoring System (SIM). This system started to work in 1992.
This system has two functions. Creating and actuation is obligatory from the international contracts, on the other hand the public SIM has very important role in the conservation of the soil.
The SIM territorial measuring grid consists of 1236 measuring points. These points are representatives. The distributions of the points by the types of soil attend the variety of the types of soil of the country.
The investigated elements in 6 types of soil were in our experiment (the group of scandium and the lanthanide series elements). There are 6 elements above the detection limit (Gadolinium, Neodymium, Praseodymium, Scandium, Samarium, Yttrium).
The Neodymium concentration is 2 times higher than the content of Gadolinium and Yttrium.
The Neodymium concentration is 4 times higher than the content of Praseodymium, Scandium and Samarium.
In the case of Dysprosium, Europium, Lutetium, Terbium, Ytterbium the concentrations were below 1 mg/kg.

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Bacteria in the milk of sheep with or without mastitis- mini Review
Published May 23, 2019

From a nutritional point of view, sheep milk is more valuable than cow and goat milk and the interest for sheep milk is increasing in many countries. However, sheep milk is easily contaminated during milking, handling, and transport and it is an ideal medium for bacterial propagation. Consequently, sheep milk spoils quite quickly. The proper, c...lean handling of milk is not only of sanitarian interest, but it also serves the farmers’ interests, because contaminated milk may not be distributed, and is unsuitable for producing good quality products. Following this technological trend, this review addresses the bacterial composition of sheep milk with and without mastitis. Even though sheep milk contains a lot of bacteria, this review article highlighted total plate count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Salmonella spp. and Streptococcus spp. Mastitis in sheep is a vital cause of mortality, reduction in milk production and early culling. The reported risk factors for mastitis in sheep were age, a case of mastitis, breed, husbandry systems, and location. The main priority should be implementation of programs to minimize human pathogenic bacteria and mastitis in raw ewe milk.

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The impact of fertilisation on a few microbiological parameters of the carbon cycle
Published March 5, 2015

The 30 years old long-term experiment of Látókép is continued in our experiments. The long-term fertilization experiment was set in 1983, and our sample was taken in spring 2014. The examinations of soil respiration processes and factors that influence soil respiration are required in optimal management. In our study, we interested to know h...ow the growing levels of fertilization influence the microbial processes under nonirrigated and irrigated conditions in maize mono, bi, and triculture. The experimental results and those statistics suggest that the bi and triculture influenced higher microbial activity which was reflected in number of fungus, soil respiration, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC).

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Evaluation of population parameters and biometric data of an Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto Friv.) population in the Great Plain of Hungary
Published December 28, 2018

The Eurasian Collared Dove shows different patterns in density all over Hungary. In some cases, the population has decreased to a lower level, but there are habitats where the population remained stable. Several factors were taken into consideration during the evaluation of this phenomenon. These publications state that the increased urbanizati...on of corvids, the lack of food sources, and the changes in nesting sites caused the decrease in numbers. During our research, we intend to contrast the differences in population structure of Collared Doves that differ from each other in the density of predators presented at nesting sites. As a first step, in this paper, numerous samples (n=118) were taken from a population that is less influenced by corvid species’ nest predation. Our prediction was that the population parameters remained at the level of 1980’s, in which the population of Eurasian Collared Dove has reached its maximum, according to further publications.

During the evaluation process, our data were collected from hunting bags near Nyíregyháza. Results were compared with former publications. We stated that the population structure, such as age and gender distribution remained stable in the evaluated population. In addition, morphometric factors of the collected individuals were also measured, such as weight, wing length, 3rd primary feather, and tail length, which were compared with former surveys. During statistical tests no significant difference was revealed among population parameters, but there were significant differences between most of the morphometric data, (p>0.05).

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Responses of pea (Pisum sativum L.) to the rising atmospheric concentration of carbon-dioxide
Published May 16, 2017

The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide increases from decade to decade in increasing pace. In 1957, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were around 315 ppm, while in 2012 it amounted to 394.49 ppm concentration. In parallel, the global temperature is rising,which is projected to average 1.5–4.5 °C. The carbon dioxide concentration is ...a key factor – in interaction with the light – affects the plant's photosynthesis. Among the various factors significant interactions prevail: environmental factors affect - the growth and the development of plants, leaf area size and composition, the function of the photosynthetic apparatus, the duration of growing season.

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Data on the bumblebee assemblages (Apidae: Bombus spp.) lives in lands under agri-environment commitment
Published December 15, 2019

The goal of agri-environmental schemes (AES) and greening programs are protecting and increasing biodiversity in agricultural lands. The evaluation of effectiveness of AES needs further investigations. For the purpose of investigations, species and species groups should be selected which can indicate the effects of changes in landscape use on b...iodiversity. Bumblebees are good indicators for this purpose.

The role of bumblebees in pollination is well studied but in the case of different crops, much less detailed data are available. In 2018, bumblebee assemblages of 44 sites belonged to 8 different agricultural and semi-natural habitat types were studied in the surroundings of Sajószöged, Tiszaújváros and Derecske.

This study provides new distribution data of 8 bumblebee species in three 10×10 km UTM cells covering the sampling area. According to our results, the alfalfa and red clover fields and semi-natural grasslands has more species rich and abundant bumblebee assemblages than different crop fields (sunflower, oilseed radish and vegetable morrow) and can help protect bumblebee assemblages of agricultural lands. Based on the collected distribution and abundance data, the role of the bumblebees in pollination of the studied crops should be re-evaluated.


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Basic Research for the Development of Fertiliser Spreaders
Published October 11, 2006

The knowledge of the physical characteristics of fertiliser particles is essential for the constructors and operators of fertiliser distributors. Among physical characteristics, the most important are the frictional and aerodynamic properties for the description of particle movement. Adjustable angled slopes, shearing boxes and various rotating... disks are used to identify frictional properties. We have developed a high precision shearing box with digital force measuring cells and a distance signaller (incremental transducer) that we use for slide tests efficiently. We measured the frictional characteristics of 6 different fertilisers: the inner coefficient of friction and the coefficient of friction on ten test surfaces most commonly used in machinery, and we specified the relationship between displacement, loading and the coefficient of friction. We can conclude that the material of the frictional surface significantly influences the force of friction.
However, our experience tells us that the shearing box is not suitable for the measurement of the inner friction, since the examined particles slide on the metal surface of the shearing box in a growing extent in the course of displacement, so it does not measure the real inner friction. Therefore, in our experiment we have developed rotating shearing equipment with a constant shearing surface to identify the inner friction. We tested the equipment with fertilisers and we identified the inner frictional characteristics of 6 different fertilisers. With the developed rotating shearing apparatus we could measure the real inner friction of the particles.
To identify the aerodynamic characteristics of granules, wind tunnels and free-fall tests are used. An elutriator have been developed for our investigation. We have used fertilisers for testing the measuring equipment and we have identified the aerodynamic characteristics of 6 different fertilisers.

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The effect of lead and copper heavy metal salts on soil microorganisms under laboratory circumstances
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">he population dynamics of calcareous chernozem soils polluted with different concentrations of lead and copper heavy metal saline solutions was examined.

The experiment was carried out in the soil biological laboratory of the Institute of Agricultiral Chemistry and Soil Science at DE AGTC MÉK in 2012. For the determination of the concentration of the undiluted stock solutions we multiplied the smallest toxic concentration values of the MSZ 08-1721/1-86 Hungarian standard by forty. The intermediary concentrations of the treatments were produced with adequate dilution of the stock solutions until a dilution level equal to the values of the standard. The statistical evaluation of the data was performed with ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) including the determination of the standard deviation and significant difference. Investigating the effects of the different treatments on the soil microbes we established that both heavy metal saline solutions had a negative effect on the population dynamics of bacteria and microscopic fungi living in the soils. The negative effect of copper – as a potential toxic micro nutrient – turned out to be less strong than the negative effect of the toxic lead. According to our results the correction of the treatment levels is recommended in order to further tolerance examinations and the determination of the tolerance levels.

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Leaf and root evaluation of bioactive compounds of different beetroot varieties
Published June 30, 2018
The importance of beetroot lies in the numerous health benefits, attributed to its wide-ranging array of minerals, vitamins and bioactive compounds which play a key role in the human diet. Generally, beetroot is consumed for its root, however, its leaves also contain a good amount of bioactive compounds. The exper...iment was carried out with four beetroot varieties in order to compare the amount of bioactive compounds in the root and the leaf. The analyzed data were total dry matter content, total polyphenol, flavonoid and vitamin C.
Results have shown that roots contain the highest amount of bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, leaves can be also considered a significant source. Therefore, consumption of the young leaves is highly recommended due to their availability after thinning or at maturity stage (60 days after the germination). Of the examined varieties, ‘Libero’ demonstrated the highest total polyphenol, flavonoid and vitamin C values, although it was found to be statistically insignificant.
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The Natural, Social and Economic Conditions and Opportunities for Development of Balmazujvaros, Especially in the Case of the Co-operative Kvaliko
Published May 12, 2002

Balmazujvaros as a settlement near Hortobagy has to cope with both advantages and disadvantages. Its natural and social conditions are mainly given, the agricultural characteristic is dominant, and the number of the employed is the highest in the agricultural firms and processing industry. Developing the third sector, including hosting, tourism..., eco-tourism, thermal-tourism, may be an opportunity for the city. The subsidy for rural development relating to the SAPARD-programme may contribute to this, as the city is the member of the Association of Hajdu Towns.
The agriculture plays an important part in Balmazujvaros in which production and marketing of vegetables and fruits excel. Several farmers realised this opportunity and founded the Marketing Co-operative of Vegetable Producers in Eastern Hungary, that is the Kvaliko. This PO works in a Corporation form and is constantly developing, spreading and expanding its choice making use of the local natural, social and economic conditions and applications for realising its investments. This PO may set an example for the other entrepreneurs and farmers of Balmazujvaros to co-operate and it may be considered as an already realised opportunity.

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Penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein (PAF) production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plant
Published December 22, 2010

Under the „Molecular farming” research program (product vaccines and substances for medical use with gene manipulated plant) in 2007 in UD Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering Faculty of Agricultural Science Institute of Horticulture Department of Plant Biotechnology experiments were launched to transform tobacco plant by PAF an...tifungal protein. Our aim was to learn the transformation technics. We chose the
Nicotiana tabacum and PAF as model systems.
Our work was to express several different paf constructions in plants with nuclear and plastid transformation too. After that we confirmed the presence of paf gene in the level of DNA and RNA.

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Opportunities for improving the nutritional value of cereal-based products
Published November 13, 2012

We set up experiments for improving the nutritional value of cerealbased products. Our aims were to decrease the energy content of bakery products with the mixing of plant originated raw materials and byproducts with high fibre contents, and we have evaluated the effect of sodium-chloride on the physical properties of bakery products. We found ...that the apple pomace, the byproduct of juice production, is excellent for increasing of fibre content of bakery products and the further aim of investigation is to develop economical ways of hygienic byproduct handling and purification. Our experiments, evaluate the bakery use of triticale, have significant achievements and the breads made from triticale flour and whole-grain are commercially available nowadays. Our investigations included the possibilities of decrease of toxin contamination of cereals and our results can form a part of risk estimation systems after further experiments .

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