In our researches, we examine the soil microbial parameters related to the carbon cycle. In this study, we compare the changes of microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and the soil CO2 production in soil samples which were taken in spring and autumn. The 30 years old long-term experiment of Debrecen-Látókép is continued in our experiment...s. The long-term fertilization experiment was set in 1983, and our sample was taken in spring 2014. The examinations of soil respiration processes and factors that influence soil respiration are required in optimal management. In our study, we interested to know how the growing levels of fertilization influence the soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions in maize mono, bi, and triculture.
Responsible leaders of more and more companies build legal, ethic, moral, environmental and social aspects in their goals and values beyond profit maximization. The number of companies whose activities in terms of social responsibility (CSR) has clear connections with promoting and putting forward sports shows an increasing tendency.
Th...e aim of this study is the conceptual clarification of corporate social responsibility, and emphasize the CSR’s significance in sport management, next the analysis of 3 top food and beverage companies’ (Coca-Cola, Nestle, Danone) CSR activity in special regard to sport management in Hungary and abroad.
This paper presents the total number and annual distribution of wild geese population on Puszta Hortobágy. Two migrating goose species, White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) and Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) contribute most to the total number of geese population. Feeding place selection of goose depend on the season. In autumn and winter, cropla...nds largely provided food for geese. Due to selections among fields and parts of the field, sometimes relatively high grazing pressure for the whole area may be severely multiplied in some cases resulting potentially 100% shoot defoliation on the frequented sites of a wheat field.
KCl-EDTA-, CaCl2-DTPA-, CaCl2-DTPA-TEA extraction
methods were compared to determine the plant available Cu
amounts in the soil samples. In the soil extracts, the amounts of
copper were measurable. In the buffered CaCl2-DTPA-TEA
extracts, data showed the lowest values.
On the applied soils, a corr
plant removal and soil Cu using extractants mentioned above. The
closest correlation appeared in the case of sandy soils.
From the results of statistical analysis, it appears that soil
properties may play role in the efficiency of the extraction using
either CaCl2-DTPA or KCl-EDTA solutions.
To establish more reliable relations, further studies with
different types of soils are needed.
The Debrecen International Airport has been undergoing a significant transformation regarding to the growth of traffic and its composition. Considering the dwelling zone location of the airport we cannot avoid the possible noise pollution that it may cause, since its permanency, and growth of intensity, could be the reason of durable health def...iciency. The airports’ noise pollution zones are determined, and classified by domestic, and international regulations, the measured data of the noise monitoring system, and the content of the air traffic regarding to the type of planes. Summoning all of these we recommend the D zone qualification of the airport, and the traffic daylight restriction referring to the S5 type of planes. We also advise to build up a more sophisticated and wider extended noise monitoring system.
Game damage is an important problem in home wildlife management, because game managers pay more and more money for game damage year by year. Crop fields can do an appreciable part in reduction of game damages. The aim of the research is to survey the situation of domestic game damage and wildlife forage ground management. (Which are the most us...ed plants on crop fields, how current are the using of seed mixtures, which are the most typical game damages, as well as which are the most applied game control methods?)
It can be stated that the number of plant species sown on crop fields is quite low. Mostly corn and alfalfa are raised, though besides those many other plants are suitable to grow on crop fields. Rising value of game damage and big proportion of the agricultural game damage are well traceable from the questionnaires, too.
In our experiments sour cherry kernels were investigated. The kernels of different sour cherry cultivars were originated from Újfehértói Gyümölcstermesztési Kutató és Szaktanácsadó Nonprofit Közhasznú Kft. Tocopherol profile, oil yields and nutritional value were stood in focus of examinations.
We started processes preparing... of sour cherry kernels. After the preparation recovered non-polar fraction was investigated. We worked with formerly developed chromathographic system, which is capable to separate different tocopherol isomers efficiently. We measured concentration of each tocopherol isomers and registered those and their relation in different oil samples.
According to received data, alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol appeared in samples, but beta-tocopherol could not be detected. It became clear that level of gamma-tocopherol is far higher than alfa- or gamma-isomer, it is concentration exceeded 1–1.5 mg ml-1.
The impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fert...ilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production.
Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.
The aim of our two year study is to research the effect of nutrient supply on apple fruit quality, and to explore the relationships between selected fruit quality parameters.
Observations were made in Kálmánháza (in the eastern part of Hungary), on a commercial apple orchard. In this experiment, we studied the nutrient supply reaction of
The research results showed that N fertilization has a great effect on fruit quality. This is shown in the cases of increase of fruit size (fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight). The increase is proportional with the N doses, accordingly the highest positive difference was observed by using 100 kg/ha N doses. It is important to note that moderate N doses (75 kg/ha) plus P and K additions also had positive effects. There approached the values of 100 kg/ha N, and even exceeded its values in the cultivar Golden Reinders. The increased N doses enlarged the standard deviation, on the other hand, this parameter was low in the cases of balanced NPK fertilization. The nutrient supply increased the vegetative area (density of foliage) in addition to the generative parts, in particular only N fertilizer. However the denser foliage hindered the growth of fruit weight and colour-coverage, and also decreased the fruit quality and the flesh firmness of cultivars, which have a negative effect on storageability.
A linear correlation was demonstrated between the fruit weight and colour-coverage, or between fruit weight and flesh firmness. The character of their relationship was similar, but the direction differed: high fruit weight was with high colour-coverage, but with low flesh firmness.
We analysed the crude protein content, amino acid content, amino acid composition of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) from their samples from five following years (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007). We found that quantity of essential and non-essential amino acids rose with increase in cru...de protein content. On examination of protein amino acid composition in relation to crude protein content we found that the crude protein content increased the quantities of the non-essential amino acids also rose, while those of the essential amino acids decreased as the lysine, the limiting amino acid of wheat. We also established that, as crude protein content increased, the biological value of the protein decreased.
The influence of honey on human health has been known since ancient times. Different components, like vitamins, amino-acids, enzymes, and the so called antioxidant activity of the honey play role in this effect, and also in the excellent quality. The aim of present study was to determine the total antioxidant activity and the flavonoid content...of some honey samples. These two parameters are widely studied, and a lot of data can be used to compare and analyse. On the basis of them we can state that our results are quite similar than those we can find in literature. Characteristic feature of the examined honey samples is, that the antioxidant activity increased with the darkening of the colour. The lowest antioxidant activity and flavonoid content was produced by the acacia honeys with greenish shade of colour. The highest values was found in the very dark honeys (forest, sage, golden rod). The only exception was the coriander honey, where despite of its lighter colour, very high antioxidant activity was
The Hooded Crow (CorvuscornixL.) have moved in several Hungarian cities in the last few decades. It is breeding in Debrecen since 1959, and nowdays it’s presence can be detected at all points of the city, it is an permanent breeding species of the bird fauna. Our knowledge about the nature of urban races, including motion patterns, area fidel...ity is sufficiently incomplete. The aim of our research is to answer these questions by using our colour-ring program. In this study we present in details the methodology of Hooded Crow’s colour-ring program in urban area, and we also report our previous
The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization. Our field trials were carried out in 2005 and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two sites. We studied the effect of sulphur (Cosavet DF), copper (Kelcare Cu) and two foliar nutrients with high active a...gents. Treatments were replicated four times.
We took root and leaf samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfaamino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were measured with ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments.
The aim of this research was the elaboration of the technological parameters of biological digestion and biogas production from poultry feather produced in large quantities by slaughterhouses. Feather protein was digested by Bacillus licheniformis, keratin desintegrator bacteria. Investigations focused on the optimalization of parameters influe...ncing poultry feather biodegradation. The optimal range of pH, temperature, feather size and bacillus:feather ratio were determined in the experiments as well as the analysis of relationship between the examined parameters. In order to be able to track the dinamics of the biodegradation, we determined the extintion level of the liquid phase of the biodegraded material in the different experimental treatments. The results showed that the rate of hydrolisis was significantly higher in the treatments with bacteria than in the treatments without it. The most extensive digestion were observed in case of 1:3 feather:water ratio. The highest intensity of feather digestion were detected in the treatment with 1% microbe ratio.
In this paper we present the interim results and the methodology applied to create web GIS ready cartographic representations of agricultural performance related information and environmental parameters. The main aim of the research is to eventually create a web GIS based decision support system that can enable decsision makers and genera...l users to create useful and representative map layouts of certain environment and agriculture related phenomena that can be easily analyzed and interpreted to make strategic decisions on environmental issues. In this aim the initial steps are to evaluate the available data for cartographic representation, analyze the possibilities of visualization, create a GIS ready data structure and implement the database and revise additional possibilities to incorporate further environment related datasets of auxiliary sources. The main results of the study are a comprehensive set of visual layouts that could serve as guideline for mapping statistical information of agriculture and some steps towards the incorporation of environmental parameters to the system.
From the precision agriculture point of view, by the rapid development of the investigated technological elements – global positioning system (GPS), remote sensing (RS), global information system (GIS) – the number of services, which were not available in the past, because of their speed, complexity or price are increasing. The high accurac...y high-tech instruments provide opportunity to elaborate several fruit production technologies, which aim is creating and operating water and energy safe quality fruit production systems. To evaluate these possibilities, experience was carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer, and a ScanStation C10 laser scanner by Leica. The results show the absolute applicability of these equipments in precision horticulture.
β-casein is the most abundant protein fraction in sheep milk, and has at least six different alleles (A, B, C, G, X, Y). The alleles of the β-casein gene may influence on the quality and quantity of milk. Knowing the gene polymorphism has an important role in the process of milk production. The properties of milk could be positively influence...d by themolecular genetic methods.
The effect of NPK-fertilization on the dynamics of nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Clarica) was examined on chernozem soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in a field experiment.
The following results were made:
• the element concentrations in the plant decreased over time,
• there is no difference between th
• the N doses not only significantly increase the nitrogen content in maize, but also have a noticable effect on Ca and Mg concentrations,
• because of the acidifying effect of N-fertilizers, increasing the amount of N-fertilizer increased the Mn, Zn, Cu content of the plants,
• the P doses have a significant effect on the maize P and N content and the Zn concentration of the plant via P-Zn antagonism in the soil,
• as the high K doses treatments alter the ion ratios in the soil, the Ca, Mg content of the plant decreased.
In Hungary, the growing area of potato area dropped dramatically in the last few decades. Additionally not only are we lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields, but the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption hab...its and, often the lack of quality products.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up in 2003 and 2004, in two years of significantly different precipitation, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, from which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
In Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However the effect of irrigation depends on the crop year. In a draughty year, like in 2003, irrigation could increase the yield by 10%, while in a more favourable wet year, the improving effect of irrigation was low.
Recently, test day models (TDM) began to be increasingly used for the genetic evaluation of dairy cattle. The main advantage of the TDM compared with the 305 days lactation yield models is that more effects can be used in the evaluation. Therefore, the TDM is more accurate than the lactation models. The main disadvantage is the increased comput...ational requirement, but this can be offset by improvements in computer capabilities.
The topic of this paper is the use of a fix regression test day model to estimate the inheritabilities of test day data from Hungarian Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. The inheritability was 0.26 for milk production, 0.2 for fat production, 0.24 for protein production and 0.06 for the somatic cell count.
Fatty acid composition of some vegetable oils, like wheat germ, walnut, peanut, hempseed, linseed, sunflower-seed, olive, rapeseed, grape seed or pumpkin seed, analysed at Food Science Institute of Debrecen University, are summarised here. The effect of heat treatments usually used in Hungarian cuisine was examined in this paper.The influence o...f different fatty acids on human health is also reviewed.
The localization of fruit trees, the topology of the branch structure and the spatial structure of the canopy are important to plan sitespecific agro-ecological and production technology projects in an orchard. The currently used instruments and technologies – in the precision agriculture – give opportunities to obtain these informations. T...he examinations were carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer. The collected spectral data were completed with the 3D point cloud by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner. The laser impulse data and the vegetation index values were integrated in a unified 3D system. The integration of the two special data collection system provides new opportunities in the development of precision production technology system. The results could be directly used in phytotechnology, water management, plant protection and harvesting in orchards. Our elaborated method can supply digital high spatial accuracy guidance data for development of the automated machines, which could provide some new developmental way in the immediate future.
In pot experiment the effect of different microbial inoculants and their combinations with NPK fertilizer and wheat straw on some soil properties (physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters) were studied. The experiment was set up in 2011 at the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random b...lock design. The studied soil type was calcareous chernozem soil from Debrecen (Látókép) with ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) test plant.
At the end of the experiment in our laboratory the nitrate-nitrogen content of soil, the AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the urease enzyme activity of soil, the total number of bacteria and the number of microscopical fungi were determined.
The results of the study were the following:
– The straw treatment and the straw + biofertilizer combinations influenced positively the nitrate content of soil.
– The NPK fertilization and the straw+bacterial fertilizer combinations had significant positive effect on the AL-soluble phosphorus content of the soil.
– The biofertilization and the straw+biofertilizer combinations stimulated the AL-soluble potassium content of soil occasionally.
– The total number of bacteria was influenced by the NPK fertilization, the bacterial fertilization and the straw+bacterial fertilizer combinations significantly.
– In case of the number of microscopic fungi caused in some cases significant changes the NPK+bacterial fertilizer and straw+bacterial fertilizer combinations.
– The soil urease enzyme activity was increased in all cases strongly especially by the straw+bacterial preparation combinations.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Businesses operating in the region – adopting to local conditions – mostly pursue agricultural activities. Their R+D activity is rather moderate and largely focuses on development, moreover, the range of innovative businesses is relatively significant, which businesses – before long – will become potential partners for institutions of higher education (especially for Debrecen University).
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to analyse the problems caused by the unfavourable (dry and wet) weather and its consequences in the R1 growth stage of maize (Zeamays L.), as well as their management and the alternatives of preventing yield reduction by using agrotechnical measures fertilisation, irrigation), also, we wanted to examine whether the Chl content measured in the R1 growth phase provides reliable prediction of yield per hectare.