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A tárolási feltételek hatása a kukorica Fusarium fertőzöttségére és toxin szennyezettségére
Published March 27, 2002
28-32

Corn samples harvested in 1997, 1998 and 1999 from different soil types were stored at different conditions (temperature, moisture content, state of kernels) for six months. The Fusarium contamination was examined by plate dilution method and the amount of mycotoxins (F-2, T-2, HT-2, DON, DAS) were determined applying HPLC method immediately af...ter harvesting and in the third and sixth month of storage. The aim of our study was to find correlation between the ecological factors, storage conditions and the examined parameters mentioned above, as well as to prove them statistically. According to the examinations carried out after harvesting we could state that the soil type had no effect on the parameters. Analysing the effect of the years we found considerable differences. The Fusarium infection of corn samples in 1998, while the toxin contamination in 1999 was the highest. The results of storage experiment show that year (number of microscopic fungi, F-2, T-2, HT-2, DAS and total toxin content) and moisture content of kernels (F-2, T-2, and total toxin content) have a significant effect on the examined parameters. We could prove the effect of temperature on the T-2 content (samples with natural moisture content) and DON content (samples with 14% moisture content). Higher values were found at higher temperature storage. The ratio of damaged kernels influenced the DON concentration in the non- wetted samples and the number of microscopic fungi in the wetted samples.

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112
White rust species (Chromista, Peronosporomycetes, Albuginales, Albuginaceae) on common weeds in Hungary
Published June 2, 2015
30-33

The obligate plant parasite fungi in the family Albuginaceae are responsible for causing white rust diseases on weeds and they are rather common worldwide. Weedy plants with characteristic symptoms have been collected in 2014 and 2015 on location Hajdú-Bihar and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok counties in Hungary. The determination of the species were b...ased on the morphological characters both pathogens and hosts. Albugo candida was determined on shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) is a host for Wilsoniana portulacae. The fungus Wilsonia bliti (syn.: Albugo bliti), the causal agent of white rust disease was found on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus).

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Variability examination of photosynthetic pigment content and specific leaf area in individual maize (Zea mays L.) plants
Published June 30, 2018
153-157

Currently, maize is one of the most important crops (Zea mays L.) both globally and in Hungary. We compared physiological parameters of a maize genotype – p9903 – at two different experimental sites in a field experiment. Furthermore, we examined these parameters’ variability in individual plants on the leaves with different ages. Absolut...e chlorophyll content of the leaves were analysed, separately that of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. We also measured the absolute carotenoid contents of leaves. Furthermore, we calculated these photosynthetic pigments’ content ratio. Specific leaf area (SLA) and dry matter weight were also measured in order to characterise plant production. The results obviously reflect the decreasing in the efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus on the low yield site. Otherwise, we identify significant differences only in certain cases of leaves.

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Preliminary Critical P-limit Values of 0.01 M CaCl2 Soil Test Procedure
Published December 4, 2001
18-21

In the last decade, the 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction procedure was tested as a multi-nutrient extractant. In 1995-97, international joint research activities were carried out within the COPERNICUS project. Detailed calibration of conventional and the 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction procedures for pH, Mg and K were published.
The amo...unt of phosphorus extracted using a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution is very low and reflects the intensity parameter of phosphorus bio-availability. As a readily desorbed P fraction of soils can reflect the soil P-supply and the CaCl2-P values are in close correlation with P-fertiliser rates and P balance. However, the effects of various soil characteristics on CaCl2-P values are different and their interpretation is difficult.
Relatively poor correlations were found between amounts of P extracted by conventional and CaCl2 soil test methods and, therefore, P limit values could not be calculated directly. To characterise the soil P supply at different sites, the CaCl2 desorbed P and the adsorbed P in a modified Baker Soil Test were also applied.
Soil test results of Hungarian long-term fertiliser experiments and recommended CaCl2-P limit values, calculated on yield effects and soil characteristics, are discussed.

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Dieback of apricot plantations caused by 'Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum' in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county (Northern-Hungary)
Published November 10, 2010
34-41

Plant diseases caused by phytoplasmas have increasing importance in all over the world for fruit growers. Lately, phytoplasma diseases occur on many fruit varieties and responsible for serious losses both in quality and quantity of fruit production. In the long-run these diseases cause destruction of fruit trees. The apricot phytoplasma disease... (Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum) was first reported in Europe in 1924 from France. In 1992 the disease has also been identified in Hungary. On the base of growers' signals serious damages of "Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum" Seemüller and Schneider, 2004 (formerly: European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma) could be observed in different stone fruit plantations in the famous apricot-growing area nearby Gönc town, Northern-Hungary. Field examinations have been begun in 2009 in several stone fruit plantations in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County mainly in Gönc region which is one of the most important apricot growing regions in Hungary, named “Gönc Apricot Growing Area”. Our goals were to diagnose the occurrence of Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum on stone fruits (especially on apricot) in the North-Hungarian growing areas by visual diagnostics and confirm data by laboratory PCR-based examinations. All the 28 collected samples were tested in laboratory trials and at 13 samples from apricot, peach, sour cherry and wild plum were confirmed the presence of phytoplasma (ESFY). On the base of observations it seems evident that the notable losses caused by "Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum" is a new plant health problem to manage for fruit growers, especially apricot producers in Hungary. 

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56
Promising Leuce poplar clones in sandy ridges between the rivers Danube and Tisza in Hungary: a case study
Published May 23, 2019
111-113

An intensive integrated research and development work has been carried out on the improvement of Leuce poplars including primarily the native white poplar (Populus alba L.) and its natural hybrid grey poplar (Populus × canescens). More than 70 percent of the Leuce poplar stands can be found on calcareous sandy sites in the Danube–Tisza regio...n, so they play a significant role in the poplar management of this part of the country. The most important task ahead of Hungarian poplar growers is to improve the quality of poplar stands and plantations based on selecting new clones and cultivars. The growth and yield of four promising Leuce poplar clones was evaluated on a marginal site in central Hungary. The clones ‘H 425-4’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L.), and ‘H 758’ (Populus alba L. Mosonmagyaróvár 124) seem to be suitable for wood production, while the ‘H 427-3’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L. cv. Bolleana) and ‘H 422-9’ (Populus alba L. × Populus grandidentata (Michx)) clones (with decorative stem form) could be better used for tree lines and ornamental plantations.

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Mitochondrial DNA-based diversity study of Hungarian brown hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778)
Published March 23, 2016
23-29

The brown hare being an important game species which is widespread across the European continent has been in focus of many population genetic studies. However only a few comprising researches can be found on the diversity of Central-European populations.

The aim of our large scale long term ongoing study is to fill this gap of informati...on on the species by describing the genetic history and structure of the brown hare populations of the area using both mitochondrial DNA markers and genomic skin and hair colour regulating genes.

This article gives forth a part of our results concerning the mitochondrial DNA diversity of Hungarian brown hares based on amplification of a 512 bp long D-loop sequence. N=39 tissue or hair samples have been collected from 15 sampling sites on the Hungarian Great Plain. We have described a high level of haplotype diversity (Hd=0.879±0.044) based on a 410 bp alignment of our sequences. We have found 17 haplotypes within our sample set with the nucleotid diversity of π=0.01167±0.0022. Our ongoing research shows high genetic diversity for the brown hare in the studied region and a second alignment with 156 sequences downloaded from GenBank indicates a geographic pattern of haplotypes among the studied populations though these results need confirmation by our further analyses.

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Effect of different lysine-metabolized energy ratio on performance of meat-type geese
Published August 29, 2017
39-42

The aim of the experiment was to determine, how the different ratios of the digestibility lysine/ metabolized energy (0.82, 0.87, 0.91 g DLYS/MJ AMEn) of the feed influence the performance of geese. There were 150 goslings (3 treatments, 5 cages/treatments, 10 birds/cages). The experiment has started and finished at the age of 3 and 9 weeks, re...spectively.
The results of the experiment showed, the different ratios of DLYS/AMEn (0.82, 0.87, 0.91 g DLYS/MJ AMEn) did not influence the performance of young geese. Better growth performances were found for the 0.91 g DLYS/AMEn feed (feed intake, body weight gain, feed and energy conversion rate). This treatment coincided with high feeding costs. Based on these results we need more models and farm experiments to prove this tendency.

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Evaluating changes in nitrogen and sulphur content in a soil-plant system in a long-term fertilization experiment
Published December 1, 2020
77-85

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of long term NPK fertilization (considering that S containing superphosphate was supplied for 26 years of experiment, but since 9 years S has not used any longer) on sulphur- and nitrogen content and N/S ratio of winter wheat. The second objective of this work was to determine the chang...es of the amount of the different nitrogen and sulphur fraction in chernozem soil in a long term fertilization experiment. The third aim of the work was to determine if a relationship could be established between the studied parameters. Based on our results, it can be stated that the sulphur containing superphosphate supplied in the period of 1984-2010 has no longer significant effect on total sulphur content of plant in 2018. The NPK fertilization treatments had positive effect on total nitrogen content of winter wheat. In general, increasing NPK doses resulted in significantly higher nitrogen. The effect of irrigation applied in previous years has no statistically significant effect on the sulphur and nitrogen content of wheat. The wheat grain produced in our experiment, especially in fertilized treatments showed S deficiency. Analysing the changes of CaCl2 soluble nitrate-N and total N of the soil, it can be stated that the effect of increasing fertilizer doses clearly appears in these parameters, because the treatment with increasing fertilizer doses resulted higher CaCl2 soluble N forms compared to the control treatment in soil. These values increased until flowering stage of wheat and after that a slightly decrease was observed as a result of higher N uptake of plant. In overall, it can be stated, that the effect of superphosphate on measured sulphur fraction is prevailed. With increasing fertilizer doses higher sulphate content was detected in soil, but the sulphate content measured in different soil extractant is not enough for the wheat in this experiment area. Studying the correlation between the measured parameters of plant and soil, it can be concluded, that the relationships between nitrogen in the plant and in the soil is stable, and did not change during the growing season. The correlation between plant S and soil S varied in the measured periods and the r value was low in most cases. At the stage of flowering the highest r value was found between KCl-SO4 and plant S. In the stage of ripening the strongest correlation was detected between KH2PO4-SO4 and grain S content.

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Wheat cleaning and milling technologies to reduce DON toxin contamination
Published December 15, 2019
89-95

Mycotoxicosis caused by Fusarium fungi holds a huge risk considering economic and food safety issues worldwide. By applying milling technologies, we attempted to reduce the concentrates of DON toxin, as it is the most often found toxin in wheat.

The processes of sieving, aspiration and combination had been used on wheat with high DON to...xin concentration. As a next step, grains were sorted using a horizontal cylinder separator, assorted by an optical and a gravity separator, and finally, the products were scoured and ground. The contamination level of the wheat and flour samples were defined by the HPLC-MS method.

Regarding the results, it can be stated that toxin concentration was most effectively reduced by optical separation and scouring, and by applying these milling techniques, food safety can be increased significantly.

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Effect of molybdenum treatment on the element uptake of plants in a long-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012
121-125

Molybdenum as a constituent of several inmportant enzymes is an essential micorelement. It can be found in all kind of food naturally at low level, however, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high level of the metal in plants. Our study is based on the long-term field experiments of Nagyhörcsök, where ...different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Plant samples were collected from the experiment station to study the behaviour of elements: uptake by and transport within the plants, accumulation in different organs, phytotoxicity and effects on the quantity and quality of the crop.
In this work we present the effect of molybdenum treatment on the uptake of other elements. Molybdenum is proved to be in an antagonist relationship with copper and sulphur, while molybdenum-phosphorus is a synergist interaction.
However, in most of the plants we studied increasing molybdenum-treatment enhanced cadmium-uptake. We have found the most significant cadmium-accumulation in the case of pea, spinach and red beet.

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HPLC-MS analysis of the active ingredients of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) bee feeding syrup
Published December 28, 2018
61-65

Apiarists let prepare by bee honey products containing medicinal drugs. Our aim was to prove that the active ingredients originated from the herbs are also present in the bee products. This publication focuses only to the chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) containing feeding syrup and the difference between the various syrup phases. To fulfil th...is task, we developed a method analysing the non-volatile components of the syrup using the flowers of chamomile. The method involves a filtration followed by HPLC-MS analysis. The analyses and the data evaluations proved that the non-volatile components of the herb were transferred to syrup. As the characteristic components of certain herbs could be identified also in the syrup, it is obvious that the components responsible for the medicinal effects are also transferred.

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Evaluation of water balance in apple and pear trees
Published October 5, 2010
193-198

A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant constitutes the foliage. The canopy is an important factor
of plant growth. On one hand the canopy absorbs the solar energy, which is necessary for the photosynthesis, on the other hand accumulates
the absorbed nutrients by the roots, and the most of the water-l...oss happens through the foliages. The determination of the full canopy is not
an easy target. In our research we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree
(leaf length and maximum width) and the data of ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and
fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of
fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees.

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7
Effect of Moringa leaf extract and set size on the bulb weight, diameter and yield of onions (Allium cepa L.)
Published December 1, 2020
127-131

 Studying the use of natural extracts or biostimulants in improving vegetable plants is the current needs as an alternative way to the use of chemical products. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) as a natural growth regulator on bulb diameter, weight and y...ield of onions ‘Texas Early White’ cultivar. Therefore, three concentrations (control, 2%, 4% and 6%) of MLE and three different onion set sizes [small (3±1 g/set), medium (6±1 g/set), and large (10±1 g/set)] were prepared in a randomized complete block design with three replications and plant spacing 20×15 cm. MLE was applied as a foliar spray directly onto the plants with the amount of 25 ml/plant every two weeks from sprouting to maturity. The achieved results indicate that the interaction of foliar spray with moringa leaf extract 4% and large set size of 10±1 g/set gave the highest value of the total yield 4802.7 g m-2, while the lowest yield 1531 g m-2 was recorded in the interaction of control and the smallest set size of 3±1 g/set. Also, a significant difference was recorded in bulb diameter separately. Thus, the largest bulb diameter 68.90 mm was obtained from the planting of the largest set size 10±1 g/set with 4% of MLE while the smallest bulb diameter 38.40 mm was recorded from the smallest set size 3 ±1 g/set with control treatment. Similarly, a significant effect was recorded in both set size and MLE separately. The highest bulb diameter 58.71 mm was achieved in the planting of the largest sets 10±1 g/set, while the lowest diameter was 42.12 mm in the planting of the smallest set size 3 ±1 g/set. Similar results were recorded for the bulb weight and total yield. The concentration of 4% MLE produced the highest bulb weight 99.74 g/bulb and yield 3324.5 g m-2, while the lowest bulb weight and yield was obtained in the control treatment 55.61 g/bulb, and 1869.3 g m-2. Consequently, the results indicate the positive effect of Moringa leaf extract which can be applied as a natural substance in the form of foliar spray at critical growth stages to improve the growth and yield of dry onions.

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Results of the sensory analysis of precision maize production
Published May 23, 2019
59-62

This research was carried out in 2018, at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen in a moderately warm and dry production area, on deep humus layered medium-hard calcareous chernozem soil. In the scope of the research, the chlorophyll content of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined under field circumstances by means of loc...al sensory measurements and we were looking for correlation between the obtained values and the amount of yield. Our measurements were carried out with Minolta SPAD-502 and GreenSeeker devices at 3 measurement times (4 leaf stage, 10 leaf stage and silking). It was found that phenological phases had an effect on the obtained SPAD and NDVI values and were in a slightly significant correlation with the yield. The most significant correlation was found between the results obtained during silking and the amount of yield. This may be because the least time has passed between the measurement time and harvest. Results obtained during the 10-leaf stage show excessive values in each case, which can be due to a measurement error. It was found that the phenological phase had an effect on the correlation of SPAD and NDVI values and the amount of yield. As the phenological phase progressed, the correlation between the measured results and yield has increased.

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Effects of long-term K fertilization and liming on the extractable and exchangeable K contents of a Haplic Phaeosem soil
Published October 5, 2010
141-145

Effects of regular K fertilization and liming on the easily extractable K content of a Haplic phaeosem soil determined in 0.01 M CaCl2
and AL (traditional method in Hungary) were examined in the B1740 type of the National Uniformed Long-Term Fertilization Experiments
at Karcag.
Close correlation (r=0.95) was found between the 0.01 M Ca...Cl2 and ammonium lactate - acetic acid (AL) extractable K contents of
soils.
K fertilization increased the amount of 0.01 M CaCl2 and AL extractable K significantly. Liming had different effects on the amounts of
K extracted by these two methods. Liming increased the amount of AL-K and decreased the amount of CaCl2-K. CaCl2 extractable K was in
close correlation with the relative amount of exchangeable K content of the soil (K%) and the agronomic K balance. The results of regression
analysis confirmed that the CaCl2-K characterized K% and the AL-K related to the absolute amount of exchangeable K.
On the basis of the presented results it can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 is able to detect not just the increase of easily extractable K
caused by fertilization and liming but the changing of the rate of the relative amount of exchangeable K.

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1
Effect of allithiamine on the level of hyperglycaemia-induced advanced glycation end products
Published December 15, 2019
41-44

Diabetes mellitus is a rapidly growing public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hyperglycaemia, which can cause tissue injury by several mechanisms. One of these is the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). In this study, the effect of allithaimine, a fat-soluble thiamin...e derivative, was investigated on hyperglycaemia-induced AGEs levels using human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a hyperglycaemic model. HUVECs were isolated by enzymatic digestion, characterized by flow cytometer and treated 30 mM glucose plus allithaimine or thiamine or cell maintenance medium as control.  Allithiamine was synthesized and purified. The structure of the synthesized and isolated compound was verified by reverse phase HPLC and MALDI-TOF. AGEs were evaluated by ELISA. Collectively, our results indicate that allithiamine can reduce level of the hyperglycaemia-induced AGEs similar to thiamine.

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Comparison of Variability among Irradiated and Control Inbred Maize Lines via Morphological Descriptions and Some Quantitative Features
Published October 11, 2006
70-73

Knowledge of genetic diversity in breeding material is fundamental for hybrid selection programs and for germplasm preservation as well. Research has been done with nine irradiated (fast neutron) and four non-treated inbred lines. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the degree of genetic variability detected with morphological descri...ption (based on CPVO TP/2/2) in these materials, (2) to compare the genetic changes among irradiated and non-irradiated maize inbred lines (based on some quantitative features). The irradiation did not change any of the characteristics clearly in positive or negative way, which can be related to the fact that the effect of induced mutation on genetic structure cannot be controlled. From the irradiated lines we have managed to select plants with earlier ripening times and better phenotypes. We could distinguish 3 main groups by the morphological features; these results match our expectations based on pedigree data. Markers distinguishable on the phenotypic level (e.g. antocyanin colouration, length of tassels) were significant in all lines.

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The influence of fertilization on the soil characteristics of a calcareous chernozem in a long term experiment
Published November 3, 2010
47-52

In the long term fertilization experiment of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Science(CAAEC) (Debrecen Látókép), the effects of a 25-year-long fertilization were examined in terms of some chemical and microbiological properties of soil. With the growing doses of fertilizers, the available nutrient cont...ent of soil increased. At the same time the pH significantly decreased, while the hidden acidity increased. Moreover, the ratio between the soil bacteria and microscopic fungi, and the occurrence of microbes also changed. The number of sensitive physiological bacteria groups decreased dramatically. These changes indicate the reactions of living organisms; they correspond to the „resistance stage” of stress effects, but in the case of nitrifying bacteria, they reach the „exhaustion stage”.

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Effects of Site on Winter Wheat Quality 2002/2003
Published October 3, 2019
100-107

The demand of modern societies for high food quality is evident. Thus, it is important for agriculture to produce row materials that are valuable for nutrition and have favourable characteristics for food processing. For this we need a knowledge about the factors which determine the quality of products. One of the main features of plant product...ion is the “immobility”. This way the characteristics of the field influence the quality of the product, like example winter wheat, which is the main cereal in Hungary and Europe.
The Concordia Co. has charged the Central Laboratory of Debrecen University, Agricultural Centre with laboratory testing of the 2002/2003 winter wheat crop. The samples consist of thirteen winter wheat varieties from six different sites under the same cultivating conditions. Therefore, the important wheat quality factors were analysed solely against site conditions with the use of Győri’s “Z” index, which contains these parameters.
Soils were tested first. In this experiment excepting the negligible differences between the sites, there were no linear relations found between quality factors, productivity and soil features. The case is the same with the relation between precipitation, temperature and quality parameters. However, it must be noted that additional soil analyses are required to interpret the extreme results obtained from Karcag.
The calculated Győri’s Z-index shows relative stability concerning certain varieties, although considerable deviation can be found in varieties related to the sites. According to these results, it can bestated that winter wheat quality was not linearly influenced by soil and weather in the 2002/2003 vegetation period. As the same cultivation technology was used in the experiment, the index was determined by genetic features. It must be noted that these findings are relevant only to this experiment.

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Differences in Regional Development in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
170-180

An important ambition of EU regional politics is the reduction of disparities. An important strategical objective of the Commission is to terminate underdevelopment and to ensure the development of the regions based on the principles of solidarity, equity and justice. The commission has dedicated forty percent of its common budget to achieve th...ese goals. The differences in development are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, the quality and quantity of human resources, the accessibility of the region and factors influencing local quality of life.
The new spatial structure has been formed by the processes of the change of regime, the events of nineties and the economic renewal based onforeign capital investments parallel with crisis phenomenon. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation have significantly transformed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities have formed, which strengthened due to the formation of east-west slopes and local crisis zones. The outstanding improvement of the capital resulted in great regional development differences, which can be detected when examining regional distribution of gross domestic product. The Eastern part of the country was most heavily affected by the collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the Eastern markets.
It is of key importance for the region to strengthen regional competitiveness, which requires the application of consistent development-politics. Economic development is the most important, which can also draw the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. It is important to develop the processing industry, the supply networks and to ease the lack of capital it is also important to involve foreign capital. Developing agriculture plays an important role in transforming the structure of the economy. Since the conditions of the region, its traditions and long-term competitive advantages are favorable, thus can represent a greater ratio in the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting marketing, quality agricultural development and producer-retail cooperation. It is also highly important to promote development in transportation and informatics infrastructure and human resources.
In the future – based on the strength of the region – it is necessary to achieve such a consistent regional development politics, which by validating the principles of regional politics, serves the interest of utilizing regional development supports most efficiently and prevents the irreversible underdevelopment of the region and promotes fast development.

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Comparison of quality parameters of producers' and commercial honeys
Published November 2, 2009
31-39

Honey is our essential food since ancient times. In Hungary about 25 000 tons of honey are produced each year, and most of the product (80%) is exported. Hungarian honeys have excellent quality but because of scandals of honey adulteration the interest and recognition may decrease. Therefore we must elaborate a method with which the establishme...nt of adulteration is simple and cheap. In this study we concentrate on simple quality parameters which inspection is not elaborate. These parameters for example sugar- and moisture contains, proline content, electrical
conductivity, element content, pH, HMF content, degree of acidity. We examined these parameters in producers’ and commercial samples. We succeed fund parameters which characteristic of one type of honey thus we have possibility identify of honey type. For example the proline content was very low in the producers’ linden honey (mean 126 mg/kg). This value is lower than the regulation, but in case of commercial linden honey this parameter is higher than regulation. According to electrical conductivity and Potassium content is provable the type of linden honey.

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Using the principles of precision animal husbandry in fishbreeding
Published November 13, 2012
283-287

Aquaculture species such as fish, crayfish, molluscs and plats are a wide range of products, with continuously growing demand worldwide. The reasons for this is that they are cheap and easy-toraise protein sources, thus having significance in food supply especially in developing countries in tropic regions, moreover, the premium category foodst...uffs in developed high income countries are also belonging to this category. World annual total production of 164 million tons (2009) are made up of two sources: 1) marine and inland fisheries landings that are stagnating for several years and 2) aquaculture which is growing dynamically with annual 6% rate between 2000–2009. The latter is accounting for nearly 45% of the total supply due to the depleting marine stocks caused by overfishing. Aquaculture is growing continuously also because the production is safe and can
be planned well. 
Intensive fish production systems are the representatives of precision animal production, several types exist and widespread worldwide. The modern computerized temperate water recirculation plants with several thousand m3 capacity are widespread also in Europe because they make it possible to produce even the most valuable species whole year round. A key issue in the technical/feeding outlay is to meet the demands of the cultured species the best and the operation of the system is to be safe and cost-effective. One condition for this is intensification: enable to produce more product per unit resource input or effort. The facilities need significant amount of energy, thus renewable energy sources are to be favoured for which Hungary has comparative advantages.

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Examination of the population density and sowing date of different maize genotypes in the Hajdúság region
Published July 31, 2012
111-115

The experiment was carried out 6 km from Debrecen, next to the main road 47 on a homogeneous field on brown forest soil. Five corn hybrids were tested in the trial (DKC 4795, DKC 4995, KWS Kornelius, NK Cobalt, PR37 N01) at three different sowing times (early – 5th April, average – 21st April, late – 10th ...May). At each sowing time, three different plant densities were applied (modest – 58 500 plants ha-1, average –70 200 plants ha-1, high – 82 300 plants ha-1). The agrotechnics applied
in the experiment satisfied the requirements of modern corn cultivation.

In the study, the best yield result was achieved with the early sowing time out of the three examined sowing times (11 315 kg ha-1), which was significantly different (LSD5%=495 kg) from that of the average sowing time (10 690 kg ha-1), however, there was no statistically justifiable difference between the yield results of the early and the late sowing times. There was a significant difference also between the average and late sowing time. Our results indicate that the different sowing times resulted in a different flowering times. Consequently, the stands of early and late sowing time reached this critical stadium of growth under proper climatic circumstances (precipitation: 39 mm and 136 mm, average temperature at flowering: 18.1 oC and 20.3 oC), while flowering in the case of the average sowing time of 21st April was in the first half of July and the average temperature at flowering was warmer (23.2 oC) with only 10 mm precipitation.
In the experiment, the plant density response was also examined. According to the measured data, four of the five hybrids responded badly to the increasing plant density. We found that the plant density of 58 500 plant ha-1 gave the largest yield results (DKC 4995 11 794 kg ha-1 – NK Cobalt 10 998 kg ha-1, average of five hybrids: 11 430 kg ha-1), while the lowest yields were obtained at the plant density of 82 300 plant ha-1 (KWS Kornelius 11 037 kg ha-1 – NK Cobalt 10 019 kg ha-1, average of five hybrids 10 720 kg ha-1). The difference between the two plant densities was significant (LSD5%=494 kg), however, the 70 200 plant ha-1 plant density did not show any statistical difference from neither the 58 500 ha-1 nor from the 82 300 plant ha-1 stands. When examining the data of the hybrids separately, we found that there was a significant difference between the average yield of the lowest and highest plant densities only in the case of three (DKC 4795, DKC 4995, NK
Cobalt) out of the five hybrids (DKC 4795: 11 757 kg ha-1 – 10 857 ha-1 where LSD5% =816 kg; DKC 4995: 11 794 kg ha-1 – 10 738 kg ha-1 where LSD5%=853kg; NK Cobalt: 10 998 kg ha-1 – 10 019 kg ha-1 where LSD5%=630 kg ha-1), while a  significant difference between the second and third plant densities was observed only in one case (DKC 4995: 11 726 kg ha-1 – 10 738 ha-1 where LSD5%=853 kg). In all other cases, there was no statistical difference between the different
plant densities.

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Seed biology and possibility of improvement of seed germination capacity on Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby)
Published February 25, 2014
71-76

Sida hermephrodita or Virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favourable features like fast growing a...nd resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in the beginning phase of domestication therefore it has a serious disadvantage: the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seeds/acre instead of 10–20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a available, basically wild Sida population. In the first stage of our experiments we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenous or endogenous infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65 oC, 80 oC, 90 oC), from 29,3% to 46% germinated from those samples which were collected from the population of Sida hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5–10% without treatment and rinsed using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46%) after the hot water operation in spite of the previous studies. We discovered that apparently there are close relationship between the seed fresh weight or water uptake capability and the percentage of infection. Following these recognition we modified our technique,in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight/or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we filtered the floating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sunk seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination).

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