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Opportunities for improving the nutritional value of cereal-based products
Published November 13, 2012

We set up experiments for improving the nutritional value of cerealbased products. Our aims were to decrease the energy content of bakery products with the mixing of plant originated raw materials and byproducts with high fibre contents, and we have evaluated the effect of sodium-chloride on the physical properties of bakery products. We found ...that the apple pomace, the byproduct of juice production, is excellent for increasing of fibre content of bakery products and the further aim of investigation is to develop economical ways of hygienic byproduct handling and purification. Our experiments, evaluate the bakery use of triticale, have significant achievements and the breads made from triticale flour and whole-grain are commercially available nowadays. Our investigations included the possibilities of decrease of toxin contamination of cereals and our results can form a part of risk estimation systems after further experiments .

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Rippl-Rónai’s color in the native parks: production and using of new, synthetic Wild sage color-mixture
Published February 25, 2014

The climate changes is becoming more damaging to ornamental plants. Besides ornamental species and varieties of plants on public spaces. It will be necessary to use domestic, well adaptable climate-tolerant plant species.

One field of our growing ornamental plants researches from 2001 in the Centre of Agricultural Sciences of University... of Debrecen, is studying drought patient, mainly Hungarian improved annual varieties, which are able to get acclimatized with the landscape. Moreover, we have in view to work out new, economical seedling production technologies. In the program, the excellent drought- and frost tolerant annuals and perennials belongs to the climate change tolerant plants. From the evaluated of species we want to create and spread the application. of the new types of ornamental horticulture culture.

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The role of green manure crops in Hungarian plant production
Published June 30, 2018

According to the data of KSH (Hungarian Central Statistical Office), the sowing area of cereals in the crop year 2016 was over 2.56 million ha, on which winter wheat and maize were produced in a rate of around 50–50%. Regarding these data it is obvious that the domestic cropping structure has been simplified and become unilateral. This unfavo...urable crop rotation system causes several problems. The number of Hungarian livestock decreased in the past decades. The amount of manure was 24 million tons in 1960, but only hardly 4.5 million tons of organic manure was applied in 2016. Therefore, the importance of other possibilities, alternatives for organic matter recovery have become enhanced. This is especially important from the aspect of sustainable plant production. The fact that the European Union has introduced new directives for subsidiaries in 2015 has to be noted as well.

The objective of the set experiment is to find new technological solutions that are suitable for the execution of sustainable plant production by inadequate crop rotation, organic substance recovery conditions or under more unfavourable climatic conditions.

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Effect of hail net on the water potential of an apple orchard
Published December 1, 2020

 Apple production has seen a decline in yields in recent years, primarily due to ecological factors such as drought, water stress, water scarcity, uneven rainfall distribution, frost damage and hail damage. Ecological factors that are harmful to the plant can be eliminated by human intervention, irrigation or the ...use of hail net. In our study, we investigated the positive effects of hail net on the development of plant water potential as the vegetation progressed, in non-irrigation area with temperature and humidity. Water potential values were determined using a field osmometer. Confirmed the positive effect of the ice protection net in the apple orchard of Early Gold and Golden Reinders. Our results were supported by statistical analyzes our results.

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Advancement of a Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Selection System
Published October 11, 2006

All the research in Hungary and other countries in Europe focus on improving the quality of crops and increasing the competitiveness of production.
In this respect, we have to advance the conventional technological elements, reduce the application of pesticides and fertilizers, and produce new varieties suitable for environmentally-sound pro...duction. In our crop breeding programs, we applied conventional and biotechnological methods (embryo rescue and double haploid methods) in order to get somaclonal and gametoclonal variations.
We produced winter wheat lines (HP-31-95, HP-82-96) by traditional way, which have high baking qualities and high nutrient efficiency. Some diseases can limit the quantity and quality of a wheat crop. We examined several wheat diseases in our winter wheat candidates, and we found that our progenies have resistance to leaf rust.
With respect to a serious problem was the small quantity of applied fertilizers and the other externals, our research focused onto advance a common wheat selection system, with the help of it, we can handle these problems. We have summarized that our selected progenies can compete with the registered varieties with quality and environmental respect.

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Studying on the frost damage of some peach and nectarine varieties
Published May 23, 2006

To be able to grow stone fruit species, the peach and the nectarine varieties, yield stability is very relevant. However, the climate is suitable in Hungary for growing stone fruits. We have to calculate with damage. Important winter damage and spring frost damage occur in every second year on the Great Pplains. To reveal the frost tolerance of... cultivars and to clarify the differences among growing areas is the most important point of peach and nectarine production.
We, made our experiments in the winter of 2005 (January-February), at Pallag, Zsombó, Siófok, Sóskút and Szatymaz. These former places are determinant in peach and nectarine growing in Hungarian respects.
In our experiments we analyzed 10-10 fruit shoot from 82 varieties, and we measured the frost damage and the flower bud density.
The minimum and the maximum frost damage values (%) at the different growing places were 7.6-38.7 at Siófok, 6.5-31.3 at Sóskút, 34.3-100 at Szatymaz, 83.7-99.6 at Pallag and 51.9-99.6 at Zsombó. There were expressive differences between the same cultivars depending on the growing area.
The frost damage of „Suncrest” variety was 7.6% at Siófok, 8.2% at Sóskút but it was 69.8% at Szatymaz. The „Maystar” variety had 17.6% at Siófok, 12.4% at Sóskút and 87.2% frost damage at Szatymaz. In case of „Redhaven” variety the frost damage values were 16.8% at Sóskút, 54.6% at Szatymaz. We collected fruit shoots from three different heights in case of „Cresthaven” variety. In case of 1 meter height the frost damage was 74.6%, at 2 meter height 44.7%, and 25.2% at 3 meter.
We experienced also big differences in flower bud density (flower bud/10 cm) of varieties. The following cultivars had the highest flower bud density (6-7 bud/10 cm): „Suncrest”, „Meystar, „Maria Luisa” and the „Maria Bianca”, „Redhaven”, „Michellini” had the lowest flower bud density (2-3 bud/10 cm).
After our experiments we established that there were very expressive differences among the frost damage of peach and nectarine varieties from different climatic conditions and there are also big variance between the frost damage values of those fruit shoots, what were collected from different heights, but from the same variety. It conspicuous very good among our items, that difference of the flower bud density is very big among the varieties.To be able to grow peach and nectarine successfully, the suitable variety (low frost damage value, high flower bud density) and the suitable growing are is determinant.

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The effect of different bacterial fertilizers on the AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, and the biomass of the rye-grass (Lolium perenne, L)
Published December 16, 2012

In pot experiment the effect of different bacterial fertilizers on some soil properties, and the amount of plant biomass were studied. The
experiment was set up in 2010 at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, in a three replications in a random block design. The ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) was used as a test plan...t. The studied soil type was calcareous chernosem soil from Látókép. In our laboratory AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, the phosphatase enzyme activityof soil, the dry weight of rye-grass, and the phosphorus content of rye-grass were determined.
The results of the study were the following:
– The bacterial fertilizers - by basic treatments NPK - had significant positive effect on the AL- soluble phosphorus content of the soil.
– The soil phosphatase enzyme activity was increased in all cases strongly by the microbial preparations used, the greatest impact was the Bactofil A bacterial fertilizer.
– The plant educed P values significantly increased by the effect of microbial products, in addition to the fund NPK. In this case, the EM-1 and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer were the effective.
– In case of the rye-grass biomass none of the bacterial preparations used caused any significant changes, either alone or when used them with straw treatment.

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Studies on the development of food attractants catching noctuid mouths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Published November 2, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The monitoring of the most dangerous noctuid pests (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) can be performed by species specific pheromone traps. Recently the development of traps catching female moths became the main objective of the studies. We studied the synergistic effect of vine and beer as natural additive on the effectiveness of baits containing isoamyl alcohol and acetic acid in Forró and Debrecen-Ondód. The addition of vine and beer had positive effect on catches and it was significant in case of two dangerous pest species Agrotis segetum and Lacanobia oleracea. The synergistic effect was also significant with regard to the number of detected species especially in case of lower abundances and rare species.

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Application of the Collision Cell (CCT) in the ICP-MS Analytical System
Published December 6, 2005

Our laboratory has seen a sharp rise in the number of requests for the analysis of smaller and smaller concentrations of elements from foods, plants, soil, organic fertiliser, irrigation and ground water, sewage, sewage sludge, raw material of food, as well as human and animal origin samples. From the above elements the inductively coupled mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. Our method of analysis is to use our ICP-MS instrument, together with a ICP-MS with Collision Cell Technology (CCT). The CCT method has better detection limit, with 1-3 magnitudes, compared to the normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT has better detection limits mainly for the following elements in the periodical system: analysis of arsenic, selenium, germanium, vanadium and chromium. Additionally a collision cell can be applied for the analysis of silicium, sulphur, zink, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium and potassium in smaller concentrations.

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Effect of selenium supplement on proteome of chicken liver
Published December 16, 2012

The aims of the present study were to optimize a two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method to chicken liver proteome and to determine the changes of protein expression caused by selenium. Twelve broiler chicken were used in this experiment. The selenium intake was 0,2 mg/kg in the control group (6 chicken) and 4,25 mg/kg in the ...experimental group (6 chicken). Using the optimized proteomic approach, we have succesfully separated 747 proteins in the experimental group and 741 proteins in the control group. We found six proteins, wich expressed only in the samples of experimental group. Further investigations need to determine these six proteins with mass spectrometry (MS) and look for the correlation between the physiological effects of selenium and the expression of these proteins.

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Investigation of new seed mixtures in wildlife forage ground managem
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">One of the most important method of habitat development is wildlife forage ground management. Many plant species can be grown on the crop fields, as mixture, too. Use of seed mixtures has not been spread on the native wildlife forage ground, however there are many advantages of them.

The aim of the research is to examine the role of the different plant species, seed mixtures in the game feeding, the savouriness of the plants of crop fields, as well as ascertain which seed mixtures are more suitable for wildlife forage ground management. On the basis of the investigation it can be find out that big amount of forage can be produced on mixed crop fields. Buckwheat, corn, rape, millet and white lupine proved to be the most beloved plants. It is suitable to make such mixed forages and use widely in the native wildlife forage ground management,

– which assures better feed conditions for the game,

– which are more attractive for the game and can draw away from other areas, so prevent, reduce game damage in forestry sector and in

agriculture that is in the forest manager’s, agricultural and game manager’s interests, too.

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The role of some elicitors in inducing chilling stress resistance in apricot fruit
Published April 23, 2014

This study aimed to study the role of 2 mM salicylic acid and 0.2 mM methyl Jasmonic acid in reducing the chilling injuries on two different apricot varieties fruits (Bergarauge and Flavor cot). These treatments were applied for apricot fruit directly after harvest after measuring the zero time data. Then the fruit were stored at 1 oC for three... weeks and were examined 7 day periodically, other group of fruit was stored at 1 oC for 15 days then transport to room temperature and examined after 4 and 8 days. The fruit samples were collected at each examination time, and the measurements containing the fruit firmness (Kg cm-2), chilling and decay index, membrane electrolyte leakage, total phenol content and phenylalanine ammonia lyase mechanism (PAL) activity. The results showed that there are no obvious differences between the tested varieties and the differences may back to genetic variations and they took the same trend for most of measurement after treated with SA and MJ. SA and/or MJ treated fruit achieved low percentage of fruit softening in comparison to water treated fruit. At the same time the chilling and decay index showed that the SA and/or MJ reduced the decay or breakdown symptoms in either tested varieties. The treated fruit with those elicitor help the fruit to keep about stable phenol content while water treated fruit lose the phenol content sharply at early storage and this stable level of phenol my because of the ability of those chemical to raise PAL activity in treated fruit.

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Visualization techniques in agriculture
Published February 25, 2014

This paper describes a dynamic map representation method which provides a flexible, spectacular and cost-effective opportunity for the illustration and description of spatial data due to its parametrability, web-based publication and the free sowftare it uses in multi-user circumstances.

The tasks of the database serves and the were performed by an ASUS WL-500 G Premium v2 router and a 80 GB hard disk. The database contains the measured data of the nitrogen fertilisation experiment established on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The tests showed that the generation time of the processor which was run through the router did not significantly increase. Therefore, the configuration developed by us is suitable for users who do not wish to invest into a large and expensive server, but they still want to view their data quickly and easily, as well as to reach them from anywhere.

The available data were not sorted into a database which was performed with Quantum GIS in a way to have an optimum database structure which is adjusted to the expected areas of use and the expected running speeds were also taken into consideration. The processor which processes the database items was written in PHP language. The main role of the processor is that it produces a KML file real time which is suitable for viewing with a given map viewer client (e.g. Google Earth). This application makes it possible to view information related to geographical objects, values stored in the database or those calculated by the processor on a map in 2D or 3D in a versatile way.

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Evaluation of mineral element content of beetroot during the different stages of the growing season
Published September 5, 2018

In modern nutrition, bioactive materials of different vegetables are especially important to be researched. The experiment was carried out on March 30, 2016 (sowing date). Mineral element content (B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Zn) was evaluated on the 60th, 85th and the 105th day of the vegetation period. The data are presented as the mean of... five varieties which can give the real state of these parameters of beetroot grown on lowland chernozem soil.

In the young beetroot leaves (60 days) the mineral element content was higher than in the older ones (85 days). The calcium and magnesium content of the leaves was much more favourable (10 times higher) than in the root. The potassium content of leaves has reached the amount of 5000 mg kg-1, but at the same time more than 3000 mg kg-1 was detected in the improved root. This value is favourable for the potassium supply of the human organism.

The sulphur content (1300 mg kg-1) of the leaves was the highest on the 85th day of vegetation period. Similar tendency was detected for boron content (2.45 mg kg-1), while for iron content it was higher (28.23 mg kg-1) in the younger leaves (60 days).

Finally, it can be concluded that the increased element content of beetroot leaves will be a favourable source of mineral element supply of the human organism.

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Correlation between the weather in 2017 and the productivity of maize
Published June 30, 2018
In our research we examined the effect of the hybrid, the nutrient supply, the number of plants and the abiotic factors (temperature, amount of precipitation) on the yield, crop quality and yield stability of maize. We devoted special attention to the natural nutrient utilization ability and fertilizer reaction of... maize. The experiment took place in Hajdúszoboszló on chernozem soil, on a nearly 8 ha field. The size of one plot was 206 m2; therefore, this experiment was half-industrial. We tested six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons. I analysed the correlation between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with control treatment (treatment without fertilization) and with N 80, P2O5 60, K2O 70 kg ha-1 and N 160, P2O5 120, K2O 140 kg ha-1 fertilizer treatments. The yield increasing effect of the fertilizer also depended on the number of plants per hectare to a great extent. The number of plants of the six tested hybrids was 60, 70, and 80 thousand plants ha-1.
In Hajdúszoboszló in 2017, up to October, 445.8 mm of rain fell, which is in line with the average values of 30 years, and is only 45.7 mm less than those. In 2017, the effect of increasing the plant number was slighter. Averaged over the observed fertilizer treatments and hybrids, the yield was 9.10 t ha-1 with 60 thousand plants ha-1, 9.11 t ha-1 with 70 thousand plants ha-1 and 9.12 t ha-1 with 80 thousand plants ha-1. Without fertilization, in most cases, increasing the plant number from 60 thousand plants ha-1 to 70-80 thousand plants ha-1 does not increased the yield but decreased it. With N80+PK treatment the yield changed between 8.90 and 11.27 t ha-1. The effect of increasing the plant number was just slightly observable and did not show a clear tendency. The effect of changing the plant number, even with the highest dosage of fertilizers, could not be detected adequately. In contrast with the plant number, the effect of the different fertilizer treatments was expressly traceable. Compared to the control treatment (treatment without fertilization), with N80+PK fertilizer dosage with 60 thousand plants ha-1 the yield increased by 3.36–4.99 t ha-1. The smallest demonstrable proof, i.e. the LSD5% was 0.22 t ha-1, which means that fertilization, in each case, significantly increased the yield. When analysing the effect of fertilization in the average of the hybrids and the different plant numbers, a yield of 5.61 t ha-1 could be detected, which value was 10.12 t ha-1 with N80+PK treatment and 11.61 t ha-1 with N160+PK treatment. Thus, it can be calculated that compared to the treatment without fertilization, the N80+PK treatment increased the yield by 4.51 t ha-1, while compared to the N80+PK treatment, the N160+PK treatment increased the yield by 1.49 t ha-1. In addition to agrotechnical factors, in maize production, the impact of the crop year is specifically of high importance.
The average yield of hybrids (in the average of the different fertilizer treatments) was 6.81 t ha-1 in 2015, 11.86 t ha-1 in 2016 and 9.11 t ha-1 in 2017. When comparing the yield results against the precipitation data, it is clearly visible that the amount of rain fell in the January– October period is directly proportional to the average yield of maize. The effect of the crop year can be defined in a 5.05 t ha-1 difference in the yield.
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Nutrient deficiency and effects of various nutrition technologies on crop health
Published December 15, 2019

The impacts of climate change on crop production are increasingly noticeable. Extreme weather conditions – such as devastating droughts, which occur more often – have serious effects on crop conditions, thus damaging their defence ability against pathogens and pests. Therefore, in order to achieve high-quality and high yielding crops, it is... urgent to elaborate new technologies that improve general condition of crops and prevent development of nutrient diseases. Those crops which suffer from the lack of certain nutrients are more sensitive and their tolerance against diseases are decreased. Nitrogen – as the most influencing macronutrient in yield – is also essential in maintaining crop health. Nevertheless, due to the complicated processes in soil (such as leaching, denitrification), the utilization of nitrogen is not nearly complete, therefore nitrogen stabilizers may be needed to maximize this factor. The use of these stabilizers can be promising where plants with high nitrogen content are grown, although further experiments are needed in which impacts of nitrogen stabilizers on crop protection aspects are examined as well, since there is a close correlation between exaggerated nitrogen fertilizing and sensitivity to pests. During my research I am going to examine the combined effect of foliar fertilizer and nitrogen stabilizer on crop health. Furthermore, my goal is to find clear correlation between pathogens and the different technological variants of nutrition.

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Development of a New Maize (Zea mays L.) Breeding Program
Published May 12, 2002

Genetic manipulation may not replace any conventional method in crop breeding programs, but it can be an important adjunct to them. Plant regeneration via tissue culture is becoming increasingly more common in monocots such as corn (Zea mays L.). In vitro culturability and regeneration ability of corn decreased as homozigosity increased, which ...suggested that these two attributes were controlled primarily by dominant gene action. Pollen (gametophytic) selection for resistance to aflatoxin in corn can greatly facilitate recurrent selection and screening of germplasm for resistance at a much less cost and shorter time than field testing. Integration of in vivo and in vitro techniques in maize breeding program has been developed to obtain desirable agronomic attributes, speed up the breeding process and enhance the genes responsible for them. The efficiency of anther and tissue cultures in most cereals such as maize and wheat have reached the stage where it can be used in breeding programs to some extent and many new cultivars produced by genetic manipulation have now reached the market.

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Botanical Survey of a Seminatural Saline Meadow
Published March 4, 2006

We made a botanical survey of a seminatural meadow situated in the vicinity of Hajdúnánás-Tedej in Hungary, using traditional phytocenological methods. The habitat, based on its soil-, and botanical characteristics, can be classified into the category of saline meadows. One of the landscape ecological values of this area is its mosaic-like s...tructure and, as a consequence, this habitat can be divided into six characteristic associations with blurry borderlines and characteristic overlaps. Because of its rare plant species and species richness this area can be considered to be a valuable „seed bank” and a „stepping stone” in the ecological network among the larger, intensively cultivated fields. The area can be evaluated as moderately recovered, the natural species are dominant, but there are few disturbance tolerant species. Except for the two saline associations, the high grass associations, which make up about two-thirds of the habitat, are cut once a year; therefore, the agricultural utilisation of the area and its prevention against weediness are being assured at the same time.

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Study of effects on quality of different wheat flour fraction
Published November 2, 2009

Wheat is one of the most important cereals in the world and the bread made of its flour belongs to the everyday life of human mankind.
The Hungarian standard relating to the laboratory production of wheat flour (MSZ 6367/9-1989) does not mention the type of laboratory mill used for milling, and it only builds up some general criteria, such a...s: the laboratory mill should be provided with four differently nicked barrels, a sieve with appropriate hole sizes, and also with the separated collections of the pilot flour and the bran. Our study was started at this point and the answers for the following questions were aimed to be found: do the flour patterns studied and produced with different grinding and sieving
techniques, widely used in laboratory mills of the same wheat pattern show any alterations after the impact of the formula production as regards chemical constitutions and reologic parameters. Various flours and whole grains of the wheat patterns sieved with different particle sizes were studied in this experiment. In producing this pattern two different mill types of FQC 109 and CHOPIN CD 1 as well as two different grinder types such as PERTEN 3100 and type of RETSCH 200 were applied. There were 3 different corn sizes of 160; 250; 800 μms used in the partition of the fractions. To study the differences the following  measurements were conducted: dry matter, ash, protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index, gluten expansiveness, farinographic value, falling number and amilographic rate.
The results this research confirm that the quality of wheat flour can be modified by different methods of pattern production. In all cases the differences can be explained by the flour-bran ratio, and in some of the cases the higher germ content of the fractions also played a role. The results show differences between the various types of mills and grinders, too. 

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The effect of short term storage on different winter wheat varieties rheological properties
Published March 11, 2014

The aim of storage after harvest is to protect the quality of wheat, because after-ripening occurs in the first 5–6 weeks. During this time it very important to make the optimal storage conditions.

We have carried out storage experiment with wheat samples from Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen. We analyzed the rhe...ological parameters of Lupus and GK Csillag varieties from the crop year 2011/2012. The experiment period was between July and August 2012 (24. 07. 2012., 31. 07. 2012., 21. 08. 2012.).We determined the rheological parameters (water absorption, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number) of Lupus and GK Csillag during short term storage. Our results showed that after-ripening increased the baking quality of Lupus and GK Csillag during storage.

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The effect of the queen's age on the Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) burden of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies
Published December 28, 2018

An apiary trial was conducted in 2016 August to October in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Nyírmada to evaluate the influence of queen’s age on the Varroa destructor-burden in the treatment colonies. Sixty colonies of bees belonging to the subspecies Apis mellifera carnica pannonica in Hunor loading hives (with 10 frames in the brood chamber.../deep super) were used. The colonies were treated with amitraz and the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos active ingredients. The amitraz treatment includes 6 weeks. The coumaphos treatment with Destructor 3.2% can be used for both diagnosis and treatment of Varroasis. For diagnosis, one treatment is sufficient. For control, two treatments at an interval of seven days are required. The colonies were grouped by the age of the queen: 20 colonies with one-year-old, 20 colonies with two-year-old and 20 colonies with three-year-old queen. The mite mortality of different groups was compared. The number of fallen mites was counted at the white bottom boards. The examination of spring growth of honey bee colonies has become necessary due to the judgement of efficiency of closing treatment. The data was recorded seven times between 16th March 2017 and 19th May 2017.

Data on fallen mites were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Post-Hoc Tukey-test. Statistical analysis was performed using the software of IBM SPSS (version 21.). During the first two weeks after treatments, the number of fallen mites was significantly higher in the older queen’s colonies (Year 2014). The total mite mortality after amitraz treatment in the younger queen’s colonies was lower (P<0.05) compared to the three-year-old queen’s colonies. According to Takács and Oláh (2016) although the mitemortality tendency, after the coumaphos (closing) treatment in colonies which have Year 2014 queen showed the highest rate, considering the mite-burden the colonies belongs to the average infected category. The colonial maintenance ability of three-year-old queen cannot be judged based on the influencing effect on the mite-burden. The importance of the replacement of the queen was judged by the combined effect of several factors.

During the spring-growth study (16th March–19th May) was experienced in the three-year-old queen’s colonies the number of brood frames significantly lower compared to the one- and two-year-old queen’s colonies. In the study of 17th April and 19th May each of the three queen-year-groups were varied. Therefore in the beekeeping season at different times were determined the colonial maintenance ability of queens by more factors: efficiency of closing treatment in early spring, the spring-growth of bee colonies, the time of population shift (in current study, this time was identical in each queen-year), honey production (from black locust).

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The possibility of use of the 0,01 M CaCl2 and Baker- Amacher extractants for the determination of plantavailable potassium
Published November 2, 2009

The Hungarian fertilizing recommendation systems use AL soil test for the evaluation of potassium supply. The 0.01 M CaCl2 is a definitely milder extractant, it extracts the easily soluble and exchangeable potassium amount. Its European introduction was already taken into consideration in 1994. The research project on this topic is s...tarted in several european countries, also in Hungary at the Department of Agricultural Chemisty of Agricultural University of Debrecen. Another advantage this multielement method is that the different element-ratios can also be calculated.
The Baker-Amacher extractant’s principle is that it contains a known amount of K, P, Mg in the CaCl2 solution. During the soil extraction adsorption and desorption process take place, so the adsorption or desorption can be calculated from the original and the final concentrations.
In this paper we introduce the results of comparing analysis of the samples (n=630) from Soil Information and Monitoring System. Our aim was to measure the use of new extractants beside conventional extractant (AL) for the evaluation of K-supply would be reasonable.
It can be stated that there is a medium close relationship (r=0.75) between AL-K and 0.01 M CaCl2-K. My calculations confirmed the results of  former examinations, and proved that the two extractants don’t extract and change the same rate of K-fractions. We found that regression  between 0.01 M CaCl2 and AL depend on texture classes, pH classes, amount of lime, and organic matter content of soils.
Comparing the relations between AL and Baker-Amacher we find relatively loose correlation (r=0.45). We stated that there are K-fixing soils among soils considered to be well supplied with potassium by AL. This might be caused by the high amount of mineral clay and the quality of mineral clay. We stated that the dK averages show that the Hungarian nutrient-supply categories characterize generally well K-supplement of soil.
It can be stated that it would be necessary to use new extractants to specify evaluation of plant available K. We found that the 0.01 M CaCl2 and Baker-Amacher extractants could complete usefully the AL procedure and could help effective potassium fertilization.

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Study of animal welfare status in dairy cow herds in Hungary – looking for causes of lameness
Published December 16, 2012

In the last 20–30 years lameness in cattle was found to be third the most influential disease next to mastitis and reproduction disorders. Studies have been established to explore reasons for lameness and prevention. The problem with more robust prevention plans is that knowledge and research evidence is not strong enough to run an effective ...prevention plan. The aim of the research is to look for reasons of lameness by observing number of cows on 6 farms during 2 lactations. Performance data will be put together to body condition score (BCS) and lameness scores. Other examination is focused on monitoring of 40 farms. This part of the project is more related to extension, collecting and sharing solutions for decreasing lameness. Producers are advised what kind of measures are possible to reduce occurrence of lameness. Effectiveness of those actions will be measured at the end of the study. The first preliminary results show lack in almost all preventive measures needed to be taken in minimising lameness. Those areas are related to poor facilities, lack of straw, problems with labour and basic management.

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Population date of Great Cormorant at the area of the Hortobágy Fish Farm Co.
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Hungary’s great cormorant stock did not use to be a considerable one before the 1980s. After that, their number has been rising significantly. The size of the stock now is rather stagnating or slightly growing. The presence of cormorants has been significant around ponds of the Hortobágy Fish Farm in the past few years. Due to considerable fish consumption of cormorants it is essential to know which and what kinds of units of the ponds (spawning, supply, and market) are preferred by the birds in order to see to adequate protection. The aim of our research was to discover any differences in the number of cormorants present at particular units of the fishpond system and certain ponds of equal kinds within them.

Our observations were in line with the methods used in ornithological researches. The experiment took place between April and October 2012 on a monthly basis. According to the results we found relevant differences in the number of cormorants based on the seasons and months as well. This fact was supported by statistical data. During the autumn and winter birds prefer supply and market purpose ponds while their presence here is vanishing during the summer. Relevant presence of cormorants around the area of the Old Fishponds (70 to 200 specimens) might be due to lack of disturbance and large sizes of the ponds.

Our research has great scientific relevance since it is vital to be aware of the preferred periods and areas in order to maintain effective protection; this way alerting activities can be applied in a more harmonized way. By keeping our research up as a monitoring activity, we will be able to receive more precise data later on.

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Overview of higher education funding models
Published February 25, 2014

t can be defined in the course of the review of the financing characteristics of higher education that every model has its advantageous feature which is missing from the others, at the same time; it has its weaknesses as well. None of the basic models can meet the complex requirements of the nowadays society and government, thus the choice betw...een the models have to be based on the preferences of decisionmakers and society. In most countries the combination of models are implemented, which compensate the weaknesses of the basic models, however, the models formed by the combination of different principles are neither perfect.

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