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Preliminary Critical P-limit Values of 0.01 M CaCl2 Soil Test Procedure
Published December 4, 2001
18-21

In the last decade, the 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction procedure was tested as a multi-nutrient extractant. In 1995-97, international joint research activities were carried out within the COPERNICUS project. Detailed calibration of conventional and the 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction procedures for pH, Mg and K were published.
The amo...unt of phosphorus extracted using a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution is very low and reflects the intensity parameter of phosphorus bio-availability. As a readily desorbed P fraction of soils can reflect the soil P-supply and the CaCl2-P values are in close correlation with P-fertiliser rates and P balance. However, the effects of various soil characteristics on CaCl2-P values are different and their interpretation is difficult.
Relatively poor correlations were found between amounts of P extracted by conventional and CaCl2 soil test methods and, therefore, P limit values could not be calculated directly. To characterise the soil P supply at different sites, the CaCl2 desorbed P and the adsorbed P in a modified Baker Soil Test were also applied.
Soil test results of Hungarian long-term fertiliser experiments and recommended CaCl2-P limit values, calculated on yield effects and soil characteristics, are discussed.

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Changes of Longissimus Muscle Area and Rump Fat Thickness in Hungarian Simmental Fattening Bulls Measured Using Real-Time Ultrasound Equipment
Published March 4, 2005
11-15

The aim of the authors was to evaluate changes in the longissimus muscle area (LMA) and rump fat thickness (P8) based on real-time ultrasound scanning in the Hungarian Simmental cattle breed. Ultrasonic measurements were carried out on the same 11 Hungarian Simmental fattening bulls by Falco 100 (Pie Medical) equipment (I.: age: 357±23.47 days..., live weight: 475.55±51.40 kg; II.: age: 418±23.47 days, live weight: 555.10±54.11 kg) on two occasions. Animals were kept in small groups, on deep litter, and fed on silage and concentrate. LMA and P8 were measured on the scans, between the 12th and 13th ribs by manual outlining. Results for the investigated traits during the examinations were as follows: P8: I.: 0.373±0.154 cm, II.: 0.624±0.161 cm; LMA: I.: 65.72±5.89 cm2, II.: 71.74±8.94 cm2. During the fattening period, P8 increased significantly (I-II.: t=3.73, P<0.001). A significant positive correlation was calculated between results of measurements I. and II. in the case of LMA (r=0.71, P<0.05). Results imply the possibility of selling bulls with smaller LMA earlier, at lower body weight. Application of ultrasonic measurements in fattening technology could generate a more quality-related pricing system.

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Examination of CO2 emission of different stubbles on a chernozem soil
Published November 3, 2010
53-59

Applying alternative soil cultivation methods based on reduced disturbance of the soil more favourable conditions can be created in order to increase the organic matter content of the soil and the availability of the nutrients for the crops. In complex soil tillage experiment – in 1997 was set on – at Karcag, as the element of the investiga...tion of soil reduced and conventional tillage systems. There is close correlation between the degree and intensity of CO2-emission from the soil and the structural state and organic matter content of the soil. In order to quantify the increased CO2-emission from soil due to soil preserving cultivation systems, in situ CO2-emission of soil was measured by means of an ANAGAS 98 infrared gas analyser. The soil type of the investigated plot is meadow chernozem solonetz in the deeper layers, a soil type that is characteristic
for the Trans-Tisza Region of Hungary. In this paper the results gained from the measurement on different stubbles are published, as we consider stubbles the most suitable state when the effects of different soil cultivation systems on the microbiological activity of the soil can be compared. Experimental data provided information about the length of the time period when CO2 emission increasing effects of soil cultivation are observable. Studying the effect of different soil cultivation methods on the CO2 emission from chernozem soil is indisputably actual and needs more efforts as it can contribute to develop a more environmental friendly agricultural production. The main goal of these measurements was to determine the effect of soil cultivation technologies and certain agrotechnical elements on the factors of the soil carbon cycle.

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Coagulase-negative staphylococci in ewe udder surface and raw milk samples
Published June 1, 2021
221-225

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are among the major causes of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewe flocks. This has a financially significant impact on the ewe dairy sector and consumer health. The determination of the bacterial count, particularly CNS, is critical in terms of the quantity and quality of ovine milk. Thus, the purpose of... this study was to quantify the CNS count in the udder surface and raw milk samples of the ewe, in addition to identifying CNS strains (n=8) collected from udder surface and individual raw milk samples by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 164 samples of udder surface and raw milk originated from four sheep farms were tested. The obtained values were compared between the different farms. Furthermore, values during 2018 and 2019 in the case of Farm I were compared. Significantly higher (p<0.05) average count was observed in udder surface samples taken from Farm I (2.8±1.0 lg CFU/cm2) than that of Farm III samples (2.3±0.6 lg CFU/cm2). In the case of individual raw milk, the higher value was observed in samples derived from Farm III (3.5±0.9 lg CFU/mL), while the obtained value was significantly lower (p<0.05) in samples originated from Farm IV (1.8±0.4 lg CFU/mL). In the bulk tank milk samples, the highest mean value was 5.3±0.4 CFU/mL, and there was no significant (p>0.05) variation between farms. Coagulase-negative staphylococci counts were decreased to a certain extent in both sample types tested during 2019 except for individual raw milk derived from the Tsigai breed. The correlation between the mean CNS counts of udder surface and individual raw milk was very weak (r=0.048). Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus auricularis, and Staphylococcus equorum were identified by molecular sequencing and Staphylococcus simulans were the most frequently identified CNS species. A higher CNS count of bulk tank milk than individual raw milk indicates possible contamination during milking and storage. Therefore, further studies are required to investigate the other sources of bulk tank milk contamination to improve the hygienic quality of milk.

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Utility of Winter Wheat According to Visual and Microbiological Fusarium Infection, as Well as Toxin Examination
Published November 26, 2003
26-34

In 1998 the Fusarium infection was studied visually and microbiologically and also F-2, T-2, HT-2, DAS and DON contamination were measured using 22 winter wheat samples. The correlation between the different parameters of 22 wheat samples were determined by regression analysis. According to our results we can state the following.
There is no... significant connection between the results of visual, microbiological and toxicological examinations. This means that no certain conclusion can be drawn about the toxin contamination of samples – which is a determining factor of its utility – based on the visual symptoms and the plate dilution method.
Our results indicate however – though it is not proven statistically – that those samples in which the Fusarium infection did not exceed the limit of the standard, also had low toxin contamination, therefore they can be used as components of forage.
It is a considerable problem, however, that according to the visual qualification, such samples are excluded from the later utilisation, wherein the toxin contamination does not justify such action. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the toxin content of those samples which show high infection by visual symptoms. To reducing the number of expensive toxin examinations it would be advisable to change the currently used 0,5% limit which is indicated in the standard for a higher value of infection, for example to 2%, as recommended by Mesterházy (1998).

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Regional interactions of bioenergy utilization
Published November 20, 2011
159-162

The backwardness of the rural areas compared to the cities poses a problem all over Europe. In Hungary, a relatively small size of the population lives in the capital, more than 80% of Hungarians live in rural cities or villages. The tension between the countryside and the cities is rather intensified and the symbiotic correlation would need to... be restored. Many people migrate from the countryside, especially young adults, as they have no opportunities to find a job in their hometowns. This phenomenon poses big risks because getting a job is usually difficult everywhere and because fitting into a new environment always involves a lot of difficulties.

Non-renewable energies are restricted and they will not be accessible after reaching a certain limit. People’s everyday activities and the functioning of the economy presuppose the availability of the necessary amount of energy. In the future, a solution that provides the longterm stability of energy for the world will become increasingly necessary. There is a huge potential in bioenergy, more specifically in biomass. The building of biomass plants and putting them into operation creates jobs in the rural spatial environments: a locally available resource that can help in creating the energy safety of the country and the reduction of the dependence on import. The production of energy crops or the crops whose purpose of use is energy could help in strengthening the multifunctional character of agriculture and it can represent a source of income for those living off agriculture under the current uncertain conditions.

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Sour cherry as a functional food
Published February 25, 2014
41-47

The antioxidant capacity of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ cultivars were determined by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity) and photochemiluminescence method. In sour cherry, the most antioxidant effects of natural bioactive... compounds are anthocyanins. Our results show that the photochemiluminescence method out of applied assays is ratheris suitable to determine the antioxidant capacity of red soft fruits and tart cherries. The correlation is good between the determined anthocyanin concent by this technic and pH-differential spectrophotometry. However, both FRAP and DPPH assays are inaccurate.

The anthocyanin composition of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ ’Csengődi csokros’ sour cherry varieties were analised. There are big differences between the accumulation of anthocyanan compounds of cultivars. ’Csengődi csokros’ produce melatonin in large quantity. On the evidence of the results, we can say that the hungarian sour cherry cultivars are suitable for functional food development.

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Examination of drought stress of two genotype maize hybrids with different fertilization
Published May 20, 2020
53-57

In the growing season of 2019, we analysed stress resulting from climatic factors on maize hybrids of different genotypes, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the physiological responses of each hybrid, which might support the elaboration of a cost-effective irrigation plan.

Our experiments were carried out at... the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil in a small-plot long-term field trial with strip plot design. In the scope of the experiment, N-fertilizer doses were applied as basic fertilizer and top-dressing in addition to the non-fertilized (control) treatment. The 60 and 120 kg N/ha doses applied as basic fertilizers in the spring were followed by top-dressing in the V6 phenophase with a +30 kg N/ha dose. Measurements were carried out with the involvement of the Renfor early (FAO 320) and Fornad (FAO 420) late maturity hybrids-

The stomata of the plants became more and more closed with the progression of the phenological phases; their stomatal conductance decreased. However, the hybrids responded differently to environmental stress. In the case of the Renfor hybrid, the highest conductance (669 mmol/m2-s) was recorded in the V12 phenophase with the 150 kg N/ha treatment. The stomata were more open due to the high turgor pressure, allowing plants to evaporate properly. The plant was in its worst physiological condition on 2nd July, at the time of the appearance of the last leaf in the case of the 120 kg N dose (224 mmol/m2-s). The value measured in the V12 phenophase has already shown that the stomata were closing due to the self-regulating system of the plant. It would have been necessary to dispense irrigation water following the measurement. This confirms the finding that water stress can be prevented by measuring stomatal conductance.

In the case of the Fornad hybrid, stomatal conductance was the highest on 12th June (630 mmol/m2-s) in the 90 kg N/ha treatment and it was the lowest (183 mmol/m2-s) in VT (emergence of the last leaf) phenophase in the 60 kg N/ha treatment. In this case, the appropriate time for applying irrigation water would have been early July, when the conditions for the plants were still adequate. Subsequently, the stomata began to close due to a reduction of the water resources available to them.

There was a significant correlation between soil moisture and stomatal conductance, as well as between temperature and stomatal conductance.

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Effect of Storage on Fruitquality of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca)
Published December 6, 2005
164-169

The quality of a product is determined by numerous characteristics. As quality characteristics are polygenic, they cannot be improved easily. Moreover, there often is a negative correlation between the different parameters in the case of apricot. The firmness of fruits decreases with increasing size. The year effect also has a great influence o...n the expression of the potential quality of the given cultivar.
Our examinations were carried out in 2004 at Boldogkőváralja, in the cold storage plant of the Northcot Ltd. We monitored the development of fruits from fructification until harvest, and also the quality changes during storage. 100 fruits were observed from each cultivar directly after harvest. We measured height, width, weight, firmness, dry matter content and seed weight. From each cultivar, 100 fruits were stored, of which 25 fruits were observed each week. The value and the dynamics of the changes in the parameters compared to the values at harvest varied greatly for the different cultivars. Strong correlations between the parameters have not been found within one cultivar either. The heavier fruits did not lose more weight, either in absolute value or relatively, than the lighter fruits. The increase in the firmness of fruits was not accompanied with a desirable decrease in the dry matter content.

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The possibility of use of the 0,01 M CaCl2 and Baker- Amacher extractants for the determination of plantavailable potassium
Published November 2, 2009
7-15

The Hungarian fertilizing recommendation systems use AL soil test for the evaluation of potassium supply. The 0.01 M CaCl2 is a definitely milder extractant, it extracts the easily soluble and exchangeable potassium amount. Its European introduction was already taken into consideration in 1994. The research project on this topic is s...tarted in several european countries, also in Hungary at the Department of Agricultural Chemisty of Agricultural University of Debrecen. Another advantage this multielement method is that the different element-ratios can also be calculated.
The Baker-Amacher extractant’s principle is that it contains a known amount of K, P, Mg in the CaCl2 solution. During the soil extraction adsorption and desorption process take place, so the adsorption or desorption can be calculated from the original and the final concentrations.
In this paper we introduce the results of comparing analysis of the samples (n=630) from Soil Information and Monitoring System. Our aim was to measure the use of new extractants beside conventional extractant (AL) for the evaluation of K-supply would be reasonable.
It can be stated that there is a medium close relationship (r=0.75) between AL-K and 0.01 M CaCl2-K. My calculations confirmed the results of  former examinations, and proved that the two extractants don’t extract and change the same rate of K-fractions. We found that regression  between 0.01 M CaCl2 and AL depend on texture classes, pH classes, amount of lime, and organic matter content of soils.
Comparing the relations between AL and Baker-Amacher we find relatively loose correlation (r=0.45). We stated that there are K-fixing soils among soils considered to be well supplied with potassium by AL. This might be caused by the high amount of mineral clay and the quality of mineral clay. We stated that the dK averages show that the Hungarian nutrient-supply categories characterize generally well K-supplement of soil.
It can be stated that it would be necessary to use new extractants to specify evaluation of plant available K. We found that the 0.01 M CaCl2 and Baker-Amacher extractants could complete usefully the AL procedure and could help effective potassium fertilization.

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Determination of the validation parameters of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (iCP-mS): response curve linearity in the case of arsenic and selenium
Published July 31, 2012
67-71

In the field of elemental analysis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) have the best sensitivity that means the lowest limit of detection, subsequently their applicability for the detection of essential and toxic elements in foods and foodstuffs is prominent. For the most elements could be measured the detection limit is betw...een μg kg-1 (ppb) and ng kg-1 (ppt) e.g. for arsenic and selenium.

Considering an analytical task (sample type, analytes and their concentration, pretreatment procedure etc.) the applicability of an analytical method is determined by its performance characteristics. The purpose of validation is to ensure that the method would be used fulfills the requirements of the given task. In this article we describes one of the performance characteristics, the linearity, and the whole validation procedure aims measurement of arsenic and selenium in foodstuffs by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Thermo XSeries I.); but because of the limited number of pages the results are demonstrated only for arsenic.

The linearity of calibration was evaluated in three concentration ranges (0.1–1 μg l-1; 1–10 μg l-1; 10–50 μg l-1), with nine line-fit possibilities (without weighting, weighting with absolute or relative deviation; with or without forcing the curve through blank or origin) and different methods (graphical examination, correlation coefficient, analysis of variance).

The best method to ensure the linearity of correspondence between signal and concentration was the ANOVA test. In view of calibrations it was found that the range of 10–50 μg l-1 could be regarded as linear with four line-fit possibilities, and was non-linear between 0.1–1 μg l-1 and 1–10 μg l-1.

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Determining the antioxidant compounds of beer
Published June 30, 2018
5-10

The increasing consumption of beer indicates the necessity of the thorough analysis of its composition. In this study, the total phenolic content, flavonoid content and colour intensity of 24 beer samples have been determined. The samples contained pale barley, dark barley, pale wheat and dark wheat beers. The aim of the study was to determine ...the amount of the antioxidant compounds in beer, as well as to find correlation between different beer types and the above mentioned parameters.

Dark barley samples contained phenolic compounds in the highest concentrations, and it can also be concluded that dark beers contain phenolic compounds and flavonoids in higher concentrations than pale beers in the case of barley and wheat samples.

According to the performed statistical analysis, these beer types cannot be differentiated based on the analysed parameters. The highest percentage of correctly classified samples could be observed in case of dark barley samples, but this value has only been 75%, and the total result of correctly classified cases was only 41.7%. The analysis of more samples and parameters is required to carry out a successful differentiation.

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A szervetlen-C és a szerves-C mennyiségének változása egy homoktalajban, meszezés hatására
Published March 27, 2002
8-10

The effect of liming on different organic and inorganic carbon forms in soil was studied in a pot experiment on acidic sandy soil (pH(H2O)=4.38; pH(KCl)=3.42). We used three kinds of liming doses (which were signed M1, M2, M3,). M1 was half of the M2 dose; M2 was the calculated lime dose and M3 was one and the half dose of M2. Lime (CaCO3) was ...mixed into the soil in powdery form. In addition to liming treatments, a uniform N, P and K treatment (1-1-1g N, P2O5 and K2O per pot) was given. Water supply was set up to 75% field water capacity of soil. Pots were watered daily. During the vegetation period soil and plant (oats; Avena sativa L.) samples were taken from each treatment three times (after 6-10-15 weeks). We determined inorganic- and total-C of the soil by Vario EL element analyser (based on dry combustion method) and calculated the organic-C.
The conclusions can be summarized as follows:
– Liming treatments had a significant positive effect on the soil-pH and caused quantitative change of different carbon forms of soil.
– Increasing tendency of liming doses caused more intensive changes in inorganic- and organic-C forms of soil.
– A significant correlations was found between the soil pH and the inorganic-C fraction of soil.
– A decreasing correlation was found between the vegetation period and the organic-C fraction.

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Methods for the examination of the role of the time factor in managerial and organizational processes
Published May 23, 2006
24-32

managerial efficiency. The system of investigations is in accordance with the method elaborated and applied by the Department of Management Science of UD, CAS, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development (Berde, 2003). This method involves questionnaire interviews and corporate data collection. The first part of the questionnaire co...ntains data with respect to the company, while the second part focuses on the manager being interviewed. The third part is a closed, directed interview-based preference assessment. I aim to assess the sample at my disposal in order to test the research model.
In the course of the assessment of questionnaires, I apply descriptive statistical methods for the assessment of the personal and professional features of the managers interviewed and the characteristics of the companies. In the case of questions substantively concerning the time factor – resource, managerial function, reaction time, and impact assessments – I carry out hypothesis testing. I draw up a zero hypothesis, whose appropriateness I test by means of statistical methods. I usually apply rank correlation for the evaluation of the relationship between the variables measured on an ordinal scale in my investigations. This can be applied if not the exact values of the given variables, but only their order in one respect or another is known. If the group building criterion is two-variable Mann-Whimey, if a multi-variable Kruskal-Wallis trial can be applied, which, after the rank transformation, gives information about the acceptance or refusal of the Ho hypothesis through the average of the ranks. The model also contains the managers’ evaluation of the time factor in management work.

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Comparative examination of a mineral fertiliser and a bacterial fertilizer on humic sandy soil
Published December 15, 2010
111-116

In our pot experiment, the impact of a bacterial fertilizer, Bactofil® A10 and a mineral fertilizer Ca(NO3)2 applied in different rates was studied on some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics of a humic sandy soil (Pallag). Perennial rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.) was used as a test-plant. Samples were collec...ted four and eight weeks after sowing in each year. The experiment was set up in 2007-2009 in the greenhouse of
the UD CASE Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science. The available (AL-extractable) nutrient contents of soil, among the microbial parameters the total number of bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, the sacharase and urease enzyme activity, as well as the soil respiration rate were measured.
Statistical analyses were made by means of the measurements deviation, LSD values at the P=0.05 level and correlation coefficients were calculated. Results of our experiment were summarised as follows:
− The readily available nutrient content of humic sandy soil increased as affected by the treatments, in case of the available (AL-extractable) phosphorus and potassium content the higher value was measured in high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatment.
− The treatments had also positive effect on several soil microbial parameters studied. The higher-dosage mineral fertilizer treatments had a beneficial effect on the total number of bacteria, cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria. No significant differences were obtained between the effect of treatment in case of the total-number of bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi and nitrifying bacteria.
− On the sacharase enzyme activity the artificial fertiliser treatments proved to be unambiguously stimulating, the urease activity significantly increased on the effect of the lower-dosage Ca(NO3)2 artificial fertilizer treatment. 
− The soil respiration increased in all treatments in related to the amounts applied, significantly increased in the highest rate of Ca(NO3)2 fertilizer addition. 
− Some medium and tight positive correlations were observed between the soil chemical and microbiological parameters studied in case of both nutrient sources. 
Summarizing our results, it was established that the organic and all the mineral fertilizer treatments had beneficial effects on the major soil characteristics from the aspect of nutrient supply. In majority of the examined soil parameters (AL-extractable phosphorus- and potassium, total number of bacteria, number of cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, activity of sacharase enzyme) the high rate of Ca(NO3)2 mineral fertilizer treatment proved to be more stimulating, but at the same time the high rate bacterium fertilizer resulted in significant increases in
the nitrate-N content, the AL-potassium content of soil, the total number of bacteria, the number of cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria and the urease enyme activity. 
Our examinations showed that the mineral fertilizer treatments proved to be more stimulating on most of the soil parameters studied but according to our results, it was established that Bactofil is efficiently applicable in the maintenance of soil fertility and the combined application of
mineral fertilizer and bacterium fertilizer may be a favourable opportunity – also in aspect of the environmental protection – in maintaining soil fertility.

 

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Effect of Soil Covering on the Soil Enzyme Activity of Integrated Orchard
Published September 22, 2004
20-29

The purpose of our experiments is to discover the effect of different soil cover matters (agrofoil and black polyethylene) on the activity of some enzymes (phosphatase, saccharase, urease, catalase, dehydrogenase) occuring in soil. Soil samples were taken from a cider apple plantation of the Fruit Producing Research and Advisory Kht Újfehért.... The enzyme activity was measured according to Krámer and Erdei (1959a), Kuprevič and Tsherbakova (1956), Kuprevič et al. (1966), Frankenberger and Johanson (1983), Mersi and Schinner (1991). Soil moisture content was by conventional (drying chamber) method measured during every sampling and enzyme activity was transpolated to absolute dry soil. Results were estimated by mathematical methods (variation analysis, correlation counting). Soil samples were taken by trials 5 times (in every two months) a year in the vegetation period from March to November.
By recording the monthly changes of the enzyme activity we have observed the following. The activity of the phosphatase was generally the highest in May and the lowest in November. Depending on the trials, high values were also measured in March and September. The activity of the saccharase was generally the highest in November and the lowest in June, but at the same time peaks even occured in May and September. The highest urease avtivity was measured in September and November, and the lowest activity in May and July, also depending on the trials. In the year 2000, after a deep point in March, the activity of the catalase was the highest in November or by certain trials in September. In 2001, the lowest activity was also measured in March, but the highest activity appeared in November in case of one-minute trial, and in May in consequence of two-minute trial. Finally the activity of dehydrogenase was the highest in November and the lowest in July apart from the model years.
There were essential differences in rainfall of the two experimental years which was reflected in the enzyme activities. There was a poor positive significant relationship between soil moisture content and enzyme activity values in case of phosphatase, saccharase, urease (r=0,426; 0,480; 0,396) respectively. In case of catalase1 (r=0,518), catalase (r=0,556), dehydrogenase (r=0,559) we obtained a medium strong positive relationship between soil moisture content and enzyme activity values. By evaluating the effect of different trials in case of every examined enzyme significantly higher values were detected in soils covered by agrofoil (a porous black polyethylene) than in soils covered by black polyethylene or in uncovered soils. Moreover, the soil covered by black polyethylene showed significantly higher enzyme activities (besides phosphatase) than the control soil. Thus soil-covering meant statistically significant advantages in enzyme activity as opposed to uncovered soil proved.

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Applicability of hyperspectral technology for in situ phytoremediation
Published October 10, 2008
71-78

The characterization of heavy metal polluted abandoned mining sites is a complicated assignment due to the variable spatial distribution of the pollutants, therefore complex integrated method is required in order to assess precisely the amount and the distribution of the contaminants. The examined area is flotation sludge reservoir of abandoned... Pb-Zn mining site with serious heavy metal contamination. located in Gyöngyösoroszi, Northern Hungary.
The hyperspectral image of the flotation sludge is obtained by using a Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer DAIS 7915, in the frame of DLR HySens first Hungarian hyperspectral flight campaign (21/08/2002). Parallel to the flight campaign heavy metal content of soil samples were examined from the area of the flotation sludge. The analysis of hyperspectral data was verified by the examination of mine tailing samples by FPXRF (Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry) (NITON XL-703).
Determinations of heavy metal containing minerals are based on the spectral profiles of the pixels of the area with using USGIS standard spectral profiles of the examined materials (galena, pyrite, sphalerite, goethite and jarosit).

Applying the Spectral Angle Mapper with BandMax classification the distribution of minerals (galena, pyrite, sphalerite, goethite, jarosit) in the area was defined. The mineral formation occurs especially at the levees and the barren places of the Szárazvölgyi flotation sludge reservoir. Based on the statistic results of the samples, principal component analysis and correlation coefficient between the different metal content of the samples were calculated. The highest correlations were found between Pb-Zn, Fe-Zn and between Fe-Pb. This prove the results of the principal component analysis, where usually Pb, Zn, Fe introduce the main component.

Canopy analysis was also carried out with the hyperspectal image in order to classify the differences between vegetation types at the Szárazvölgy flotation sludge reservoir and analyse the applicability of it. Supervised classification methods were used to distinguish 8 vegetation types based on the spectral properties of the area. The results of the classifications were compared to a ground truth image, based on ortophoto, topographic map, and GPS based field data collection. According to results of the comparison, the paralellpiped classification method is proved to be appropriate method based on the overall accuracy of canopy classification, which was 54% due to heterogeneity of the vegetation. 

The results of hyperspectral data and FPXRF analysis suggest that Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals have similar spatial distribution in the examined and barren area.

Based on this study hyperspectral remote sensing is likely to be an effective tool for the characterization and modeling the distribution of Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals at the examined heavy metal polluted sites. Further more, based on the vegetation analysis plant species for phytoremediation can be defined.

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Using crop analysis in the precision nutrient supply system of maize
Published November 13, 2012
183-186

The effect of the N, P and K supplies of soil on the grain yield and N, P and K status of maize was studied in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment between 2001 and 2008 and nutrient supply limit values were determined to plant analysis. Based on the interaction between the N concentrtion of maize leaves measured at the beginnig of tass...eling and grain yield, the satisfactory limit value of N supply to reach 10–14 t ha-1 yield was between 2.0–4.0%. Leaf analysis at the beginning of tasselling indicated that better P and K supplies were associated with a higher P and K concentration in the maize leaves. Correlation analysis on the P concentration of the maize leaves and the grain yield showed that at a grain yield level of 10–14 t ha-1 a P concentration of 0.20–0.37% represented a satisfactory P supply level. The satisfactory K supply limit value to reach 10–14
t ha-1 grain yield was 1.5–2.6%.

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Interaction of yield stability and year in major agricultural crops
Published September 7, 2001
41-46

The effect of hydro-meteorological extremities on plant cultivation is the result of the correlation of many factors. These may increase or decrease the effects of hydro-meteorological extremes. The degree of this variance depends on the professionality of treatments, on the quality of the applied technique and technology and also on the soil...s water management characteristics.
The water management characteristics of Hungary’s arable land are mainly unfavorable or medium. In the past two decades the conditions of originally good soils, from a water management aspect, have significantly deteriorated in the critical 0-60 cm soil layer. This is mainly due to unprofessional land use, a lack of deepening cultivation and neglected organic cultivation. At the same time, hydro-meteorological extremities occur more frequently and the sensibility of plant cultivation has increased.
The sensibility of plant cultivation is type and location specific, yet, it also effects both the quality and quantity of the result.
The stability analysis, which covered the period of four decades and incorporated 6-7 agro-ecological areas proves and highlights the following:
• Winter wheat only reacted to extensive cultivation and unfavorable environmental conditions to a small degree. On the other hand, the effect of hydro-meteorological extremities increases.
• The stability analysis of maize, which is sensitive to cultivation technology and the location of cultivation, proved just the opposite. Good soil and adequate technology significantly reduces the effect of any particular year.
• From the years examined, the most favorable proved to be the one with average precipitation. Maize reacted to both extremities in a similar way. Winter wheat reacted to more precipitation with less yield.
• The yield quality of winter wheat was negatively effected by drought. The negative effect of precipitation is limited to the period of ripening and harvest, so the likelihood of such an effect is not significant.
• The yield of sunflower – due to pests – significantly reduces in years with high precipitation, while a difference between dry and average years cannot be pinpointed out. The oil content in both dry years and in years with high precipitation is evident, compared to years with average precipitation.
• The root yield of sugar beet is reduced by drought while the sugar content depends on soil characteristics and climatic extremities. A difference could also be noted by location, whether in Western Hungary and on the Great Plain. Great sugar content can be achieved in years with high precipitation in Western Hungary, while the same result occurred with average precipitation on the Great Plain. Drought did not have a positive effect on sugar content in either location.

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Nitrogen Supplying Capacity of Brown Forest Soil under Different Cropping Practices and 0.01 M CaCl2 Soluble Organic Nitrogen
Published October 11, 2006
17-23

The best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary is the Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, which was established in 1929, and is still in use to study the effects of organic manure treatment, to develop models, and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. In th...is respect, Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of green, straw and farmyard manure, as well as data sets for scientific research.
Although commonly ignored, the release of nitrogen by root and green manure crops has a significant impact on soil organic matter turnover. The design of sustainable nitrogen management strategies requires a better understanding of the processes influencing nitrogen supplying capacity, as the effects of soil organic matter on soil productivity and crop yield are still very uncertain and require further research. In the treatments of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, nutrients removed from soil through plant growth and harvesting are replaced either by fertilisers and/or organic manure. Data can be used to study the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems and its effect on the 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content of soil.
The aim of this paper is to present data on the nitrogen supplying capacity of brown forest soil from Westsik’s crop rotation experiment and to study its correlation with hundredth molar calcium-chloride soluble organic nitrogen. The main objective is to determine the effects of root and green manure crops on the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems. The nitrogen supplying capacity was calculated as a difference of plant uptake, organic manure and fertiliser supply.
The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen test has proved reliable for determining the nitrogen supplying capacity of soils. Brown forest soils are low in organic matter and in the F-1 fallow-rye-potato rotation, the nitrogen supplying capacity was 15.6 kg/ha/year. 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content was as low as 1.73 mg/kg soil. Roots and green manure increased the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil by more than 100%. This increase is caused by lupine, a legumes crop, which is very well adapted to the acidic soil conditions of the Nyírség region, and cultivated as a green or root manure crop to increase soil fertility.

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The occurrence and phenology of moth pests in different granary of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
Published November 10, 2010
70-75

The aims of my studies were the followings: primarily to find correlation between the conditions of granary and the occurrence of moth pests. Secondly I studied the effect of disinfection on individual numbers in the population of moths. My studies were started in May 2009 in six different places of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. Indianmeal mot...h (Plodia interpunctella) and Mediterranean Flour Moth (Ephestia kuehniella) traps with pheromone were installed in four repetitions as well as Angoumois Grain Moth (Sitotroga cerealella) traps in also four repetitions. Control traps without attractant were also placed at every place.
From my researches, it became clear that the disinfection alone is not enough to protect cereals from moths. As in the case of crop protection, we need to apply integrated pest management.
We have to make differences between preventive protections from moth pests and the elimination of them by chemicals.
Up to my opinion, the regular checking and cleaning of the granary are important as well as the prognosis of the possible occurrence of moths. The prognosis is considered important because the studied moths do not feed at the adult stage or only at a low level. However, the caterpillars coming from the eggs placed by females can cause a significant damage in the stored cereals.
The studied sex pheromone traps are proved to be useful for the reduction of number of moths since the traps caught lots of them. These traps are relatively cheap because only the temporarily changes of pheromones increase the cost.

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Applicability of precision weed detection technologies
Published February 10, 2013
163-168

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In an agricultural field or horticultural plantation, weeds compete with cultivated plants for water and nutrients. The transpirated water by the weeds is needed to be replaced, which saddles surplus costs on the farmer, which could reduce the profitability of crop production. The aim of the precision plant protection system is to protect cultivated plants by applying site-specific technologies and optimized herbicides combination and methods, without environmental damage. The first step of precision weed control is the scouting for weeds. Traditional and modern (passive and active remote sensing) weed surveying technologies are available to detect weeds. The examination was carried out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net of the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. The spectral-based weed detection was worked out by the Tetracam ADC broadband multispectral camera and the GreenSeeker 505 vegetation indexmeter. A strong correlation observed between vegetation indices and weed coverage. Based on the collected data, weed maps are created in appropriate software environment, thus the spatial distributions of the weeds are determined. The species level discrimination and the recognition of weed structural parameters were executed based on the 3D point cloud data by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner.

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Stability and development of Transdanubian agricultural enterprises
Published June 1, 2021
77-82

Personal fulfilment, financial security, flexibility, relationships, information, rules - these are all hallmarks of entrepreneurship. Furthermore, one more important factor should be added to the list, which enables satisfaction resulting from reliable income and self-fulfillment: this is openness. An open mind to changes, to novelties, an...d to the workforce is necessary. The central question of the present research is how to effectively develop Hungarian small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, especially in the Transdanubian region, by utilizing these factors. In addition to production, institutional and price risks, agricultural enterprises, like other sectors, are also affected by massive labour shortages and resource-intensive development objectives. In the research, primary agricultural producers, micro, small and medium-sized enterprises were surveyed through questionnaire in the second and third quarters of 2019. Using the snowball method, both the development opportunities and the risks were mapped in this sector, mostly among growers. The research results show that there is a correlation between satisfaction and development and favorable workplace relationships. These correlations were presented by demonstrating the relationship between technological development, income satisfaction, stable job creation, and the need to try new developments. However, there seems to be an invisible boundary to development in the examined field, which may stem from uncertainty, and yet, it is important to maintain development and learning activity so that the right knowledge and know-how is available to the business when needed. Since the results show that there is a lack of openness to new technologies among the farmers in the studied region, and this may pose a problem in the future in terms of meeting the expectations of precision farming, it is recommended to focus on innovation in the agricultural sector in Hungary.

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The Effect of Soil Coverings on Cellulose Decomposition Activity of Sandy Soil
Published November 26, 2003
15-20

The purpose of our experiments is to discover the effect of different soil cover matter (agroszövet and black polyethylene) on actual (under field circumstances) and potential (under laboratory circumstances) cellulose decomposition activity. In our field research, the Unger-test was used, and in laboratory research, the Petkov-Markova method ...was applied. In the first year of the experiment (2000) actual cellulose decomposition activity was significantly higher in covered than in the uncovered soil both in spring and autumn. The difference between the two treatments was significant only in spring. In the spring of 2001 black polyethylene showed significantly the lowest, activity, while in autumn the agroszövet (a porous black polyethylene) showed significantly the highest activity. In the autumn of 2001 the soil covered by black polyethylene gave non-significant,and the soil covered by agroszövet gave a significant higher activity value than the control. Averaging the two experimental years (2000-2001), the actual cellulose decomposition activity was significantly higher in covered soils both in spring (with 30-39%) and in autumn (with 34-69%). Moreover, in autumn a significantly higher value was detected under agroszövet than in any other treatment. The difference between the effect of treatments was not significant. In 2000, the potential cellulose decomposition activity was the highest in soil covered by agroszövet in spring, but in autumn higher activity value was detected in every covered soil than in the control. In the spring of 2001, every covered soil showed a lower, but in autumn a higher, potential cellulose decomposition rate than the control. The activity decreased significantly 27 (agroszövet) and 45 (black polyethylene) percent in spring, and increased no- significantly 8 (agroszövet) and 4 (black polyethylene) percent in autumn. During the two experimental years, we observed on average lower potential cellulose decomposition activity (15-60%) in spring and a higher one (14-43%) in autumn. Neither was significant. The dynamic of potential cellulose decomposition activity averaging 2000 and 2001 showed a slight, the actual cellulose decomposition activity an explicit non-significant upward tendency. There was a strong (r=0,189) correlation obtained between the actual and potential cellulose decomposition activity of soil, and a medium-strong (r=0,673) relationship between the soil moisture content and actual cellulose decomposition activity.

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The correlation of foreign language proficiency, employment and regional competitiveness in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary
Published July 16, 2007
74-82

Employment is one of the basic factors when evaluating a region’s competitiveness. Boosting employment figures will also increase individual income. However, the creation of jobs alone will not solve the problems of unemployment, as labour force with skills matched to labour market demands should also be available. Continuous development of t...he labour force, adjusted to recent needs in the labour market, can contribute to a region’s competitiveness. Mismatches between education and labour market requirements would be too expensive, especially for backward regions like the North Great Plain Region of Hungary. Foreign language education should also be adapted to the changing economy when selecting target languages and language skills. A workforce equipped with contemporary and needed second language skills can be an element in making a region attractive for investors. Although current trends show signs of improvement, Hungary and especially the North Great Plain Region still does not have much to offer in this respect. The paper examines the reasons for the low level of second language acquisition among Hungarians and the population of the North Great Plain Region and explores the ways foreign language knowledge could promote economic development.

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