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An Analysis of Rotational Line Mating Using Computer Simulation
Published December 6, 2005
35-39

In a simulation examination, we analyzed the effect of the family size and the rate of pairing on the survival of rare genes, to keep the level of variation of the genepool and to avoid the loss of alleles.
The population size was 360 animals. In the simulation, we calculated on the basis of a discrete population. We placed the 360 animals i...nto different clusters, with 3 types of frequencies of alleles and 3 types of groups. We assumed 2, 3 or 4 alleles in 8 loci. We generated 15 generations using the same mating and selection system used in practise. The simulation was written with Scilab 2.7.2 software, and evaluated with SPSS software.
There were significant changes in the effect of family size on the genetic variation in the following cases: when the base population had the same gene frequencies in all loci, and when the gene frequencies were between 0.125-0.75. In these cases, we found that the smaller families (10 animals/cluster) were better than the larger families (30 or 90 animals/cluster). The first generation where there accured a loss of alleles was averagely earliest in larger families (90 animal/cluster). This average was 3.37 generations. When we are searched the effects of the different rates of pairing we found those cases most favourable when the ratio of males and females was 1:2 or 1:4 as compared to 1:9. The first generation where there was a loss of alleles was averagely earliest at the ratio of pairing male and females of 1:9 (the mean was 3.05 generations) when the frequency of the rarest allele was 0.0069.
The recently introduced rotating-random mating system is an eligible method for small populations for the preservation of genes.

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Coagulase-negative staphylococci in ewe udder surface and raw milk samples
Published June 1, 2021
221-225

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are among the major causes of subclinical mastitis in dairy ewe flocks. This has a financially significant impact on the ewe dairy sector and consumer health. The determination of the bacterial count, particularly CNS, is critical in terms of the quantity and quality of ovine milk. Thus, the purpose of... this study was to quantify the CNS count in the udder surface and raw milk samples of the ewe, in addition to identifying CNS strains (n=8) collected from udder surface and individual raw milk samples by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 164 samples of udder surface and raw milk originated from four sheep farms were tested. The obtained values were compared between the different farms. Furthermore, values during 2018 and 2019 in the case of Farm I were compared. Significantly higher (p<0.05) average count was observed in udder surface samples taken from Farm I (2.8±1.0 lg CFU/cm2) than that of Farm III samples (2.3±0.6 lg CFU/cm2). In the case of individual raw milk, the higher value was observed in samples derived from Farm III (3.5±0.9 lg CFU/mL), while the obtained value was significantly lower (p<0.05) in samples originated from Farm IV (1.8±0.4 lg CFU/mL). In the bulk tank milk samples, the highest mean value was 5.3±0.4 CFU/mL, and there was no significant (p>0.05) variation between farms. Coagulase-negative staphylococci counts were decreased to a certain extent in both sample types tested during 2019 except for individual raw milk derived from the Tsigai breed. The correlation between the mean CNS counts of udder surface and individual raw milk was very weak (r=0.048). Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus auricularis, and Staphylococcus equorum were identified by molecular sequencing and Staphylococcus simulans were the most frequently identified CNS species. A higher CNS count of bulk tank milk than individual raw milk indicates possible contamination during milking and storage. Therefore, further studies are required to investigate the other sources of bulk tank milk contamination to improve the hygienic quality of milk.

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Lambing Frequency in the Ile de France, Suffolk and Babolna TETRA Stocks of Babolna c.o., Szendrő
Published May 4, 2004
29-32

Lambing frequency of three different genotypes was evaluated in the breeding stock of Babolna c.o. Szendrő. Ile de France, Suffolk and Babolna TETRA breeding ewes gave the data for the further evaluation. The main aim of this research was to find out if there is any significant effect of selected parameters (registration class, lambing season,... lambing type and the years) on the lambing frequency, the period between consecutive lambings. Production parameters of 9,471 Ile de France, 1,244 Suffolk and 7,618 Babolna TETRA ewes were collected and processed. The analysis covered the period between the years 1989-1999. It was concluded that not all of the evaluated parameters had a significant effect on lambing frequency. Not all of the genotypes showed significant differences, according to the examined parameters.

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