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Basic Research for the Development of Fertiliser Spreaders
Published October 11, 2006
52-57

The knowledge of the physical characteristics of fertiliser particles is essential for the constructors and operators of fertiliser distributors. Among physical characteristics, the most important are the frictional and aerodynamic properties for the description of particle movement. Adjustable angled slopes, shearing boxes and various rotating... disks are used to identify frictional properties. We have developed a high precision shearing box with digital force measuring cells and a distance signaller (incremental transducer) that we use for slide tests efficiently. We measured the frictional characteristics of 6 different fertilisers: the inner coefficient of friction and the coefficient of friction on ten test surfaces most commonly used in machinery, and we specified the relationship between displacement, loading and the coefficient of friction. We can conclude that the material of the frictional surface significantly influences the force of friction.
However, our experience tells us that the shearing box is not suitable for the measurement of the inner friction, since the examined particles slide on the metal surface of the shearing box in a growing extent in the course of displacement, so it does not measure the real inner friction. Therefore, in our experiment we have developed rotating shearing equipment with a constant shearing surface to identify the inner friction. We tested the equipment with fertilisers and we identified the inner frictional characteristics of 6 different fertilisers. With the developed rotating shearing apparatus we could measure the real inner friction of the particles.
To identify the aerodynamic characteristics of granules, wind tunnels and free-fall tests are used. An elutriator have been developed for our investigation. We have used fertilisers for testing the measuring equipment and we have identified the aerodynamic characteristics of 6 different fertilisers.

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European Funds and the Evaluation of Their Application in the Northern Great Plain Region
Published December 6, 2005
191-198

Presently, the process of regionalization is slowly progressing in Hungary. The regional institutional system is young and the institutional experiences are limited. The Hungarian regional development agencies are operated with a limited number of personnel and their budget is only a fraction of EU regional agencies of similar size. There is no... unequivocal cooperation between regional development agencies and county development agencies. In the absence of these, the strategical objectives of the region cannot be aligned and the application of consistent development policies cannot be achieved. In the past five-six years the supports from EU Pre-Accession Funds, along with the new tools of regional development policies, have all contributed to the development of the North Great Plain Region. Phare projects – beside supporting development – have played a significant role in forming the approach of individuals who are actively involved in regional development, in promoting cooperation among cross-border and other regions, as well as in preparing the regions to accept EU structural funds. Prior to the May 1st, 2004 EU accession of Hungary, the North Great Plain Region received 24-25% in direct regional development funds in the Nineties. The support per capita in the case of TFC, TEKI and CÉDE has exceeded the national average. The North Great Plain Region has received support from investment type agricultural supports, the Employment Fund and the Touristical Directives that well exceeded the national average, from the sectoral resource funds. However, the applicants of the North Great Plain Region have received little support in the case of environmental, water management and especially road development supports. About 200 applications have been submitted for the SAPARD calls nationally, 32 of these were from the North Great Plain Region. The significance of cooperation among sub-regions is demonstrated by the fact that, except for 15 settlements in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, all have submitted an application. The efforts of inhabitants is highlighted by the high number of submitted applications, as well as by the significant degree of own contribution. Still, the GDP of the North Great Plain Region has not increased, the rate and tendency of unemployment does not sufficiently reflect the positive effect of supports. The Regional Development Directive has provided support for the development of many small- and medium size enterprises, but their effect did not ensure a sustained economic growth.
The greatest difficulty is that the number of dedicated professionals who are skilled in regional politics and regional development is few. However, advantages of our EU accession can only be exploited if a group of highly skilled professionals is provided on local, county, regional and national level as well. Thus, we need a group of professionals who are informed about the European Union, the EU support forms and most of all about the operation of Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds to establish the suitable institutional background for professionally handling the funds obtained from the EU, to prepare the professional documents to access the funds and to generate development projects to efficiently use the funds as well as establishing connections with the institutions of the EU. Appropriate share from funds coming from the EU is only possible if the country, certain regions, counties and sub-regions can achieve rapid results in the areas listed above.

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