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Hungarian fruits and vegetables of high anti-oxidant activity as functional foods (Review article)
Published October 20, 2003
13-21.

Recently, projects aiming to enhance the consumption of fruits and vegetables are intensified. Experts agree in the principle of fresh vegetable foods being a valid panacea in averting risks of ailments as well as curing immune-insufficiency, inflammations, moreover, certain cancerous processes. It is generally accepted that among substances of... biological activity the anti-oxidant compounds such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, etc. have the major role in this process. Hungarian agriculture has outstanding chances in utilising its natural as well as cultivated plant resources and favourable climatic conditions. It would be, however, necessary to build up a databank of anti­oxidant substances found in fruits and vegetables and including the modifying effects of technology, growing site, variety, etc. The concept of promoting the trade of Hungarian food-specialities as "Hungaricum" needs, urgently, the aid of a databank of that kind. Some of those excellent products are for instance the sour cherry, pepper and onion. They enjoy high priority as "Hungaricum" in the EU and it should be enhanced by intense and consequent research work, which may prove their role as functional foods. The USA is the leading country in research on the anti-oxidant substances of sour cherries, and up to now more than 17 compounds have been found in Hungarian varieties among others. In pepper fruits used as vegetable and source of vitamin C, the analyses are still lacking because research of the past concentrated on the products of milled spice pepper. Onion and garlic are entirely unexplored in this respect. It should be noted that availability of these fresh products in the moderate climate is restricted to a relatively short season. For that reason, some processing and preservation methods are needed in order to use those fruits and vegetables as functional foods all around the year. The scientifically founded endeavour as a solution of the questions mentioned is stimulated by vigorous commercial interests as well as by the urgent needs of the consumers to improve their health.

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Effect of Foliar Nutrition on Post-Harvest of Onion Seed under Sandy Soil and Saline Irrigation Water Conditions
Published March 3, 2013
85-92

Foliar application has been determined to be an effective nutrients delivery strategy in vegetable and fruits. The enhancement of vegetable and fruit yields affected by foliar nutrients application has been recognized in previously conducted studies with perennial tree crops. The efficiency of foliar nutrition is dependent on soil, climate, fer...tilizer and the amount of nitrogen used. There is no sufficient information concerning cooperation of foliar nutrition with all nutrients form as well as the rates of these nutrients fertilization in vegetable
and fruit crops. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on inflorescences diameter, flower stalk length, number of seed stem /plant, weight of 1000 seed, germination percentage, seed yield, moisture content, catalase , peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content of onion seeds. The plants
sprayed with union Zn, union Mn, union feer, shams k, elga 600, boron, and amino x had the highest vegetative growth parameter, germination percent and enzyme activity. The plants sprayed with union Zn, union feer, shams K, magnesium, caboron, hummer and amino X had the highest seed yield ha-1. The seeds were stored for one year to study the effect of different commercial compounds and storage temperatures on germination, moisture content and change in antioxidant enzymes activities of onion seeds during the storage period. Storage at cold temperature showed higher germination percent, moisture content and lower malondialdehyde content than storage at room temperature. The treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer and amino x had the highest germination percent.

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High antioxidant - and anthocyanin contents of sour cherry cultivars may benefit the human health: international and Hungarian achievements on phytochemicals
Published June 20, 2006
45-47.

Evidence suggests that a diet with high fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proved that sour ch...erry (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. According to the published data, the most important biological effects of sour cherry are connected — directly or indirectly — to their endogenous antioxidant behaviour as well as to their specific pattern of anthocyanin components. In the present work, we measured the total antioxidant capacity of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties in combination with their anthocyanin-, and vitamin-C content. In 2003, twelve clones were selected and grafted from a local sour cherry population called "Bosnyák" sour cherry grown in small home gardens and farms of the village Csengod (Great-Plain Region, South Hungary). Other Hungarian sour cherry varieties, i.e. cv. Újfehértói fürtos, cv. Érdi bőterrnő, cv. Debreceni bőterrnő, cv. Csengődi and cv. Kántorjánosi served as a control.

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Selenium enriched vegetables as biofortification alternative for alleviating micronutrient malnutrition
Published April 22, 2014
75-81.

There is a very difficult equation for malnutrition and over-consumption. That means malnutrition even of vitamins and/or minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, I, Mg, Se and Zn, vitamin A) affects more than two billion people worldwide, largely due to low concentrations or poor bioavailability of the nutrients in the diet. In some developed countries in contra...st, over-consumption, particularly of over-refined cerealbased foods, has contributed to the development of an epidemic of metabolic diseases. So, producing nutritious and safe foods sufficiently and sustainably is important target at the same time challenge of modern agriculture. In the past, great efforts have focused only on increasing crop yields, but enhancing the concentrations of mineral micronutrients has become an urgent task. The main daily food source is the staple crops specially in developing countries of the world, i.e., wheat, rice, cassava, beans, sweet potato or maize. These kind of plants are often deficient in some of mineral elements. Thus, the increasing of bioavailable concentration of micronutrients in edible crop tissues (via biofortification) has become a promising strategy in modern agriculture, providing more nutritious foods, to more people, with the use of fewer lands. Biofortification of these trace elements can be achieved application with agronomic process such as soil or foliar fertilization or crop breeding even conventional technic and/or genetic engineering. This review highlight progress to date and identify challenges faced in delivering biofortified vegetable crops as well as the agronomic approaches and tools to improve crop yield and micronutrient content of food crops.

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Actual state of research concerning vitamin C as reflected in the literature (Review article)
Published March 16, 2004
7-15.

Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) being essential for many living organisms, including man, became once more into the focus of interests because of its numerous physiological effects. Its anti-scurvy and anti-oxidant properties have already been recognised since long in the human body, but it turned out gradually that it has many other functions. In ...plants, its primary importance is defense against the photo-oxidative stress.

The present review is intended to reveal some details of the artificial synthesis of vitamin C. Emphasis is put on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid in higher plants. Biosynthetic processes, translocation and accumulation are discussed in detail on the basis of recent results published in the scientific literature.

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Relationship between zinc and cadmium contents and cultivating conditions of gourmet and medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens
Published December 19, 2019
21-27.

Almoust half of the world’s population is at risk for inadequate zinc (Zn) intake, a strategic trace element that is necessary for a healthy immune system. A lack of zinc can make a person more susceptible to disease and illness. There is a need of defining additional sources of zinc in diet. Cadmium (Cd), however, and its toxicity in food ch...ain receives considerable public and scientific attention. Cd is primarily toxic to kidney and can cause bone demineralization. In many areas in the EU, intake of Cd is not far from maximum tolerable. Mushrooms are well known for accumulating metal ions such as zinc and cadmium. Objective of this study was to define relationship between cultivation systems and conditions on zinc and cadmium content in fruit bodies of Agaricus subrufescens grown on different substrates. Cultivation was performed on mushroom composts based on increasing amount of digestate from anaerobic digestion treatment processes mixed with wheat straw and paper. The Zn and Cd concentration was defined in fruiting bodies, correlated with yield, flush and element concentration in substrates. Results showed percentage of food waste digestate and other components used in experiment had influence on concentration of Zn and Cd in mushroom compost and in A. subrufescens. Zn accumulated in collected mushrooms in amounts reaching from 42.8 to 126.9 mg kg-1 Cd content ranged 2.6 to 17.9 mg kg-1. Significant correlations for Zn concentration between mushrooms and substrates showed increase of Zn in mushrooms when cultivated on substrates with higher amount of digestate.

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Foliar Nutrition and Post-Harvest of Onion Seed: Effects of storage temperatures, storage period and foliar nutrition
Published March 3, 2013
29-47.

The aim of onion bulb storage is to meet consumer demand for extended availability of onions whilst maintaining product quality. The principal biological factors leading to onion bulb deterioration are respiration, resumption of growth and pathogen attack. In onion bulbs a dormant period, when sprouting and rooting cannot be induced, is followe...d by a period of internal changes that prepare the bulb for breaking of dormancy and subsequent growth. Out of storage, the bulb then proceeds towards flowering and seed production. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on yield and yield components of onion seeds and storage The seed yield of each commercial compounds plot from previous experiment was divided into two groups, storage under room temperature and 5°C. Seeds transferred immediately after drying to Increasing Export Competition of Some Vegetable Crops Project Laboratory located in Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. The effects of storage temperature, storage period and foliar with some commercial compounds on onion seed quality were considered. Storage in 5°C had the higher germination percentage than storage in room temperature. Results indicated that as storage period increased the germination percent decreased. The treatment with boron or amica in the first season had the highest germination percentage. While, the treatment with union Zn, union feer, union Mn, boron, elga 600, caboron, amica, hummer or amino X had the highest germination percentage in the second season. Storage in 5°C resulted in higher moisture content than storage in room temperature. Regarding the effect of storage period on moisture content, the water content was significantly increased with prolongation of storage period. The lowest values of water content were recorded for treatments with union feer, shams K or boron in the first season, and union feer, shams K, boron, magnesium, shetocare or hummer in the second one. Catalase activity was significantly decreased as storage period increased. The treatment with shams K, boron, shetocare or amino X had the highest catalase activity in both seasons. Peroxidase activity was significantly decreased as storage period increased. Foliar application with boron had the highest peroxidase activity in both seasons. Seed stored in room temperature had the higher malondialdehyde content than those stored in 5°C in the second season. The malondialdehyde content increased as storage period increased. The treatment with magnesium, caboron and the control in the first season, and the treatment with magnesium and the control in the second season had the highest malondialdehyde content.

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Salt tolerance of sweet pepper seedlings
Published August 14, 2002
62-66.

Laboratory germination tests have been made with three white fruit pepper varieties and with one spice pepper in filter paper rolls wetted with KCl solutions of different concentration. Parallel tests have been conducted with the other species (lettuce, tomato, kohlrabi) to compare the salt tolerance of paprika with that of other vegetable crop...s.

In greenhouse, the action of KCl has been investigated with transplants raised in soil mixture, in rockwool and with seedlings transplanted from rockwool into soil mixture. Like the trials in the laboratory, the experiments in soil mixture have been made with other plant species, too.

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Detergent induced pollen sterility in some vegetable crops
Published March 14, 2005
85-88.

Efficacy of a popular synthetic detergent, Surf excel in some important vegetable crops viz. Okra or lady finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), chilli or red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) was evaluated for inducing male sterility and hybrid seed production. Foliar sprays ...with aqueous solutions of Surf excel (1.0 and 1.5% w/v) in these crops induced complete pollen sterility. The treated plants showed a delay in flowering, a reduction in the number of flowers and fruits/plant, number of seeds/fruit resulting in a reduction in yield/plant. However, the male sterility thus induced was successfully exploited for hybrid seed production.

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Total anthocyanine content and antioxidant density of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties
Published May 18, 2005
109-111.

Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Pru...nus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. In our work, we identified the total antioxidant activity, anthocyanine content and "antioxidant density" of sour cherry varieties named "Újfehértói fürtös", "Debreceni bőtermő", "Kántorjánosi" and "Érdi bőtermő" and those of the "Bosnyák" sour cherry clones. "Antioxidant density" is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, related to 1 Calorie.

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Enrichment trials with straw substrate to produce Agaricus bisporus (Lge., Sing.)
Published September 26, 2006
7-9.

Everywhere in the world button mushroom is cultivated on heat-treated horse manure or on a compost mixture of straw, horse manure and chicken manure. In the ZKI trials continued on straw which seemed to be a simple and cheap substrate. To improve yield the N-content of the straw was increased by mixing it with wheat bran, alfalfa flour and ProM...ycel. Enriching agents were added to the dry heat-treated straw (100 "C) at 1, 2, 3 weight per cent. All the 3 agents increased yield as related to control. The highest yield was obtained with ProMycel.

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Studies on the Tobamovirus resistance of the pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivar Greygo
Published March 21, 2001
71-75.

Resistance of the Hungarian pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivar "Gre.ygo" to Tohamoviruses has been investigated. All plants of the population of Greygo proved to be resistant to tobacco mosaic and tomato mosaic viruses (TMV, ToMV), both represent the pepper pathotypes Po of ...>Tohamoviruses. Individuals of Greygo, however, were found to be susceptible to pathotypes P12 and P123 of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV). When inoculated with the XM isolate of dulcamara yellow fleck virus (DYFV, pathotype P1) the population of Greygo segregated in resistant and susceptible plants. These results as well as inoculations of the progenies of three TMV resistant plants clearly showed, that besides the resistance allele Li the cultivar Greygo possesses also an another allele. This allele, provisionally marked by L2g behaves like to the allele L2 characteristic to Capsicum frutescens cv. . Tabasco. Determination of the identity of the allele L2g to the allele L2 needs further genetic and pathological informations. Relations between the Tohamoviruses pathogenic to pepper and the alleles of the resistance gene L are outlined for the discussion.

 

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Assessment of different rates of NPK fertilizer on the growth and yield components of two exotic okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) western urban of Sierra Leone
Published July 29, 2020
55-59.

The experiment was conducted in an Inland Valley Swamp during the dry spell of 2017 laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) three replications at the Kabala Horticultural Crops Research Centre (KHCRC) cropping site, Ogoo Farm of the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI), Freetown, Sierra Leone. Raised beds measuring... 5m x 1m (6 m2) with a 1m furrow between beds. Inter and intra row spacing of 75 cm by 50 cm with two rows per bed and two seeds per hills were directly sown. The treatments constituted NPK 15:15:15 at the rate of 0, 90, 120 and 150 kg/ha designated as T1, T2, T3 & Tand Two hybrids of okra were used as experimental materials obtained from Indo-American Hybrid Seed Company, India; Okra-WASA-HyOKR-1 and Okra-WASA-HyOKR-2. Seeds were treated with Thiram Poison for longevity. Result indicates T2 (25.2; 35.1 cm) and T4 (56.9 cm) treatments recorded tallest plant heights followed by T2 (24.0, 34.4 & 50.1 cm), while T1 (18.8, 28.4 & 33.3 cm) had the shortest plant heights at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting respectively. Similarly, T4 & T2 (38.9, 65.5 & 44.8 cm) exhibited the largest SG and T1 (21.7, 33.0 & 52.0 cm) the least values at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting. While, the widest and narrowest LA at 4, 8 & 10 Week After Planting was observed in T3 (131.3, 135.0 & 158.5 cm2) and T1 (120.8, 121.8 & 128.1 cm2). With respect to yield and yield components, the longest (22.0 cm) and heaviest (112.7 g) fruit were recorded by T3 followed by T2 (19.1 cm & 101.3 g) with T1 having the shortest (11.7 cm) and lightest (52.3 g). The width of pod in T3 (31.2 cm) was greater than the rest of treatments and as usual, T1 indicated the least value (14.6 cm) respectively. The average NP produced plant-1 was shown by T2 & T3 (4.0) with the least of fruit produced by T1 (2.0). Also, 100 seed weight, T3 (106.7 g) weighted the highest followed by T2 (103.3 g), while T1 (60.3 g) accounted for the lowest seed weight. Conclusively, the two materials are adaptable to the climatic conditions of Sierra Leone (Western area). Hence further evaluation required across vegetable growing zones.

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An investigation of genotype-environment interaction and stability for pea (Pisum sativum L) seed yield
Published February 23, 2000
53-55.

Eighteen pea breeding lines and three check cultivars were tested in two years with and without irrigation. The linear regression can explain only a small part of GEI so the use of regression technique was not possible for interpreting the data. In this case the ecovalence, stability variance and superiority measure s...tability parameters cannot describe properly the genotype's response. With the AMMI method it is possible to group properly the genotypes according to their response.

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Effects of Foliar Nutrition on Onion Seed Storage under Controlled Atmosphere
Published March 3, 2013
101-110.

Storage of fresh fruits and vegetables prolongs their usefulness. The principal goal of storage is to preserve the commodity in its most useable form for the consumer. The extension of storage life and the improvement of quality of fresh fruits and vegetables can be supplied by harvesting at proper maturity, control of post-harvest diseases, ch...emical treatments, refrigeration, controlled and modified atmospheres. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on onion seeds and storage under controlled atmosphere. The germination percentages were 85.50, 86.85, 83.75 and 82.15 for CA1, CA2, CA3 and CA4, respectively. Water content of onion seeds was significantly increased with decreasing storage temperature in all controlled atmospheres. Water content values were 4.48, 4.40, 4.55 and 4.54 for CA1, CA2, CA3 and CA4, respectively. There were significant decreases in water content with increasing exposure periods. The lowest water content was recordednfor the exposure periods of 120 and 240 days. Catalase and peroxidase activities were decreased with the decreasing of storage temperature, whereas malondialdehyde content was increased. The exposure for 120 days recorded the highest catalase activity. The highest value of peroxidase (11.72) was recorded for CA2. Peroxidase activity increased as exposure period increased until 120 days and then decreased. Cold storage temperature (5°C) showed the highest malondialdehyde content followed by room temperature. The CA2 showed the lowest malondialdehyde content compared with other controlled atmospheres. The exposure period of 120 days had the lowest malondialdehyde content.

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Impact of substrate supplemented with CaCO3 on mycelial growth, yield, morphological features and storability of fruiting bodies of black poplar mushroom Agrocybe cylindracea (DC.) Marie.
Published July 21, 2021
76-86.

Black poplar mushroom, Agrocybe cylindracea deserves special attention, due to its medicinal properties. Water and alcohol extracts from fruiting bodies of the fungus have an anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-fungal, cholesterol and triglycerides blood level lowering abilities. This mushroom is rich in proteins and vitamins, mineral elem...ents and low in fat. The aim of the experiments was to determine effect of a substrate supplementation with CaCO3 on mycelial growth, yield, morphological features and storability of fruiting bodies of four strains of A. cylindracea (DC.) Marie. The amount of additive to sawdust substrate affects rate of mycelial growth and yield of investigated strains. A. cylindracea mycelial growth was not affected by addition of CaCO3 to substrate, however a significant effect of this additive was found on yield, which was the highest with CaCO3 addition in an amount of 8 g/100 g of substrate. Carpophores characterized with the largest caps diameter, and the largest individual mass obtained of substrate enriched with CaCO3 addition of 8 g/100 g of substrate. In addition, it was found that supplementation with CaCO3 affect storability of A. cylindracea. The lowest weight loss of fruiting bodies after 3 and 7 days of storage was found with addition of CaCO3 to substrate in an amount of 4 g/100 g of substrate.

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Effects of Foliar Nutrition on Onion Seed Storage under Modified Atmosphere Packages
Published March 3, 2013
93-100

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and controlled atmosphere storage techniques to reduce the oxygen around the food are largely used for the preservation of fresh produce. There have been great technological advances in this area of preservation, particularly as it refers to improving the quality and shelf-stability of highly perishable food ...products, such as produce. Two successive winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were conducted under sandy soil conditions to study the effect of spraying with 12 commercial compounds on onion seeds storage under modified atmosphere packages. Germination percent of seeds decreased in 5°C than storage in room temperature. Germination percent of seeds was gradually decreased with increasing the storage period. Packaging treatments had a significant effect on germination percent of seeds. All the packaging treatments had the higher germination percent than the paper package (control). The highest germination percent after 12 months of storage was recorded for the treatment with non perforated polypropylene in room temperature and polyethylene and non perforated polypropylene in 5°C. Catalase activity decreased with the prolongation of storage period. The non perforated polypropylene package had the highest catalase activity. The treatment with non perforated polypropylene had the highest catalase activity after 12 months of storage in both room and 5°C temperatures. Peroxidase activity of seeds was gradually decreased with increasing the storage period. The highest peroxidase activity after 12 months of storage was recorded in non perforated polypropylene in both storage temperatures.

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Fungicide resistant Trichoderma strains causing compost infection in shiitake production
Published October 16, 2002
67-70.

Trichoderma infection represents the major problem of shiitake production in the growing house of the Research Institute at Kecskemet. Heavy infections occur mainly on the compost before spawn run. All the isolated strain belongs to the species Trichoderma harzianurn, but morphology of the colony indicates that there are more ...strains liable for the infection. Source of infection remained unclear but the Trichoderma strains can be considered as weed moulds rather than true pathogens of shiitake. All the Trichoderma isolates showed unusual high degree of resistance to fungicides.

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Changes in the Carotene Content of Nantes Type Carrots during Storage
Published August 14, 2002
72-75.

Changes in carotene content occurring during winter storage in Nantes type carrot hybrids grown on soils of different quality (sand and loam) have been investigated. The carotene content of the samples grown in a rainy year (1999) was lower than that of the samples grown in a dry year (2000). Lower carotene content was found in carrots produced... on sandy soil (Szatymaz) than on loam soil (Tordas). The increase in carotene content (2-11 mg1100 g) measured at the end of winter storage was related to the season's character.

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Changes in the Dry Matter and Sugar Content of Nantes Type Carrots during Storage
Published August 14, 2002
67-71.

Changes in the dry matter and sugar content occurring during the winter storage of Nantes type carrot hybrids grown on soils of different quality were studied in 199912000 and 200012001. The dry matter content of the varieties tested depended on the production site and on the weather conditions prevailing in the growing season. The increase in ...the dry matter content during winter storage reached 6 to 7 per cent in the crop grown in a dry year and 1.5 to 2 per cent in a rainy year. The sugar content was lower in the rainy year (1999) and on brown sand (Szatymaz) than in the rather dry year (2000) and on chernozem soil with residual forest (Tordas), respectively. The increase in sugar content (1 to 5 per cent) measured at the end of storage was related to the season's weather conditions.

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Study of genetic transformation efficiency via organogenesis and embryogenesis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Embti): effects of co-culture, temperature and kanamycin and hygromycin-based selection procedures
Published October 16, 2002
15-23.

The effects of kanamycin and hygromycin-based selection and co-culture temperature ranging from 22 to 28 °C upon eggplant transformation efficiency were evaluated. Both morphogenic pathways, somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis, were adopted using cotiledonary and hypocotyl explants, respectively. Somatic embryos were recovered in the prese...nce of both antibiotics, although lesser escapes were observed in hygromycin-supplemented medium. Indeed, selection provided by this antibiotic was more efficient compared to kanamycin, nevertheless, shoot regeneration was not observed with hygromycin. Significant difference on the frequency of cotiledonary explants displaying callus (FEC) was observed as embryogenesis was concerned, although a higher number of embryos was observed in hygromycin selective media. The frequency of explants presenting callus (FEC), embryos (FEE) and shoots or buds (FERG) did not differ statistically for the tested co-culture temperatures, although higher regenerant number was observed at 24 °C.

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Correlation between pigment contents and FRAP values in beet root (Beta vulgaris ssp. esculents var. rubra)
Published November 15, 2004
85-89.

It is well known that beetroot quality is determined mainly by the red pigment content (betacyanins) and its uniformity of the root. The effect of the most important red pigment components (betanin). the total polyphenol content and antioxidants were studied in 20 beet root varieties. Antioxidants were expressed in FRAP (ferric reducing ability... of plasma) values in pM/I.

Our results indicated a close correlation (r = 0.7799 and r = 0.7435. respectively) between betanin and total polyphenol contents of the root as well as between FRAP values.

Our measurements showed more than threefold differences in total antioxidant activity among varieties. the lowest value being 196.4 13M/1 and highest 702.57 pM/I. The corresponding betanin (16.3 and 57.8 mg/100 ml) and total polyphenol (37.5 and 85.5 mg/100 ml respectively) contents show similar differences. Based on our results it can be stated that varieties of higher betanin and poliphenol contents have higher antioxidant values as well.

Accordingly, the two compounds must have a role in the evolution of antioxidant effects.

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Reactions of some cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) lines and hybrids to zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and selection of tolerant breeding lines
Published September 13, 1999
66-68.

In the past years zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) has been appeared as a new pathogen of cucurbitaceous plants in Hungary. It caused severe disease outbreaks on the fields of pickling cucumber hybrids which are highly tolerant to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Preliminary inoculation tests have showed that all of the important pickling cucumb...er hybrids produced in Hungary were susceptible to ZYMV-P. However, a selection of Chinese Long and the breeding line I- KS 10C proved to be highly tolerant. The Fl plants of the crosses between the tolerant lines and the susceptible genotype H I were susceptible to ZYMV-P. F2 populations segregated for susceptible and tolerant individuals at a ratio of 3:1. The results strongly suggest that the resistance to ZYMV in our sources is controlled by a single recessive gene. Inoculations of the ZYMV and CMV susceptible cultivar Budai csemege and the CMV tolerant hybrid Perez Fl with the complex of ZYMV+CMV resulted extremely severe symptoms (strong mosaic and necrotic spotting of the leaves) on both cultivars. On the Chinese Long line, which is tolerant to ZYMV and CMV, respectively, the complex of the two viruses caused mild symptoms. The results show a synergistic pathological effect of ZYMV and CMV on differrent cucumber genotypes. More detailed studies on the interactions among the plant genotypes, viruses and virus strains are needed to develop cucumber hybrids that are highly resistant to the ZYMV+CMV complex.

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Efficacy of N-phenylphtalamic acid in some Solanaceae species
Published October 11, 2005
89-91.

: N-phenylphthalamic acid — Cl4H1 1 NO3 (Nevirol 60 WP) was successfully used for enhancing yield in some important vegetable crops namely, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), chilli (Capsicum annuum) and brinjal (Solanum melongena) of Solanaceae. Aqueous sprays with 0.2% and 3.0% significantly enhanced fruit... production in chilli and tomato respectively. On the other hand, various treatments in brinjal failed to enhance yield significantly. The increase in yield in both tomato and chilli is largely due to increase in the number of flowers and fruit-set percentage.

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The effect of modified bacterial virulence to host-pathogen relationship (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola)
Published May 24, 1999
53-56.

The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola is one of the most expressive biogen stressors of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Hungary. The chemical and agrotechnological defence is inefficient, so breeding is the only workable way. The conventional cultivars are susceptible to PS while most of the new industrial varieties ...have genetic resistance to the pathogen. The genetic background of resistance is, however, a complex system in the bean. Leaf resistance is a monogenic system, but this gene is not expressed in juvenile stage of the host. The pathogen species can be divided into different races. After inoculation with virulent strains, typical symptoms appeared on the leaves. To understand the details of host-pathogen relationships, there were carried out experiments using bacterial strains with altered virulence. Six transposon mutants of the PS were tested. Our main objective was to test these modified bacterial strains on bean cultivars of known genetic background. First we analysed the symptoms, and then the correlation between the symptoms and the multiplication of mutant bacteria. Three cultivars (Cherokee, Inka and Főnix) were tested.

The infection by the virulent PS isolate produced typical symptoms on the three cultivars tested. Mutant bacteria (except strain 756) did not cause any significant symptoms on the hosts. The mutant 756 induced visible symptoms on the cultivars Cherokee and Inka. On Cherokee there were small watersoaked lesions, and HR (hypersensitivity reaction) was detected on Inka, but this was restricted to some cells only (mikro HR). The rate of multiplication of the wild type strain was much higher than the multiplication of the mutants. Bacteria were detected in the cotyledons and primordial leaf, but there is not any substantial number of bacteria in leaves, except for strains 757, 1212 and 1213. The rate of multiplication of strain 756 was intermediate. These, and other experiments can help to understand the genetic background of resistance and the host-pathogen relationship in the Pseudomonas-bean pathosystem.

 

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