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Cracking susceptibility evaluation of some stone fruit species (Sour cherries – Prunus cerasus L.; Sweet cherries – Prunus avium and European plums – Prunus domestica L.) grown in Hungary
Published April 22, 2014
45-54.

The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sweet cherry growers but in some year growers of other stone fruit species had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much and heavy rainfalls in the ripening and harvesting season. Cracked stone fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia s...p. Cracked and infected fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation, they lost their market value by the destroyed fruit quality. It was decided to make a research work to determine the rain fruit cracking susceptibility of few stone fruit species (sour cherries, sweet cherries and European plums). Fruit cracking tests were occurred under laboratory conditions on the most common cultivars grown in Hungary. Furthermore we tried to find correlation between the fruit cracking and some fruit quality parameters (fruit size; total sugar content, fruit flesh firmness).

Our conclusions are the followings:
Sour cherries: There were found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sour cherry varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. Based on cracking test results under laboratory condition (immersing in distillated water) we made the grouping by cracking susceptibility of sour cherry varieties. Tested cultivars were divided three groups: very susceptible; susceptible; moderately susceptible (tolerant). Groups with varieties are: Very susceptible - ’Maliga emléke’, ’Piramis’, ’Érdi jubileum’,’Érdi nagygyümölcsû’ and ’Meteor korai; Susceptible (Sensitive) – ’Érdi bôtermô’, ’Pándy’ and Cigány 59. Moderately susceptible (tolerant) – ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’as new rereleases. The most of tested sour cherry varieties are in agreement with the literature (Apostol, 2003) and four of them (’Maliga emléke’, ’Pándy 279’, ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’) had higher average fruit weight than was mentioned in the literature (Apostol, 2003). Our fruit cracking results are in agreement with Zelinski’s (1964) and Christensen’s (1975) conclusions that there is no close relationship between fruit size and rain induced fruit cracking tendency. We found significant differences between the sugar content of tested cultivars. In contrast of Verner & Blodget (1931) our results confirm Tucker’s opinion that the sugar content is not correlation with the cracking tendency of cherry fruits (Tucker, 1934). Fruits firmness (elasticity) was measured by destructive method when juice was coming out from fruits. There were found big differences of fruit firmness and skin strength of observed cultivars. Our results are only partly agreement with Christensen’s (1996) opinion that cherry cultivars with firmer fruits are more prone to fruit cracking than softer ones. By this was seemingly we did not found close relationship between the fruit firmness and the cracking tendency of sour cherry fruits. We found that during fruits immersing in distillated water the fruit weight was increasing due to the absorbed water. Our opinion is that there is no close relationship between the scale of fruit cracking and the quantity of absorbed water. By results presented above we our opinion is that no very close relationship between the fruit cracking of sour cherries and the observed parameters (fruit size, fruit firmness, sugar content, amount of absorbed water) maybe other varietal effects and physiological characters (fruit skin structural parameters) play more important role in the fruit cracking mechanism of cherries.

Sweet cherries: Similarly to sour cherries in the case of sweet cherries we also did not find close relationship between observed fruit parameters and cracking index. It was differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sweet cherry cultivars when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. It was found that the cracking ratio of very cracking susceptible sour cherry varieties had the same or higher cracking index than observed sweet cherries. It is in contrast with the general opinion (Chistensen, 1996) that sour cherries are less prone to rain induced fruit cracking than sweet cherries. We found differences between the cracking ration and cracking dynamic of the same cultivar in different years (2006 and 2013). It is in agreement Christensen’s (1996) opinion that the year effect cause big differences in the fruit cracking of cherries.
European plums: We found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested plum varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. A shorter term (6 hours) immersing in water caused three groups by their cracking susceptibility: „Very susceptible”: ’Révfülöpi’ and ’Szarvasi’; „Susceptible”: ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’. A longer term (24 hours) immersing in water resulted only two groups with significant differences: „Susceptible group”: ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’ Similarly the cherries we did not find correlation between the fruit size and cracking susceptibility of European plum cultivars. It was based on: the big fruit sized ‘Bluefre’ and middle sized ‘Cacanska rodna’ cracked in the lowest scale, during the small sized ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’ cultivars cracked in higher scale We found positive correlations between the cracking susceptibility and total sugar content of tested plum cultivars. Cultivars with significantly lower sugar content (‘Bluefre’ and ‘C. rodna’) showed lower fruit cracking susceptibility than cultivars (’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’) with higher sugar content). We found close relationship between the relative (%) absorbed water amount and the fruit cracking susceptibility. Cultivars with higher absorbed water amount (’Szarvasi’-’Révfülöpi’-’Besztercei’) had higher cracking susceptibility.

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Fruit Quality of Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grafted on Four Different Rootstocks
Published August 13, 2004
59-62.

A rootstock trial planted at the Szigetcsep experimental station in 1989 involved the study of two cultivars- `Germersdorfi FL 45' and 'Van' -grafted on four different rootstocks — 'Colt', `MxM 14 — Brokforest', `MxM 97 — Brokgrow' and 'Saint Lucie 64' as a control. The trees were trained to the "Modified Brunner-spindle" system and came ...into bearing in 1993. The yield per tree, fruit weight and fruit diameter have been measured each year since then. The refractivity, the acid content of the fruit juice, fruit cracking after four hours' dipping in water and stone weight ratio have also been measured since 1995. In 1997 and 1998 these parameters as well as fruit cracking after 24 hours' dipping were measured. Fruit firmness and fruit colour were also estimated. In almost every observed parameter significant differences were found between the scion cultivars. Yield efficiency was significantly higher on 'NUM 14' and 'Saint Lucie 64' than on the other two rootstocks. As regards fruit weight, in both cultivars and over an average of six years, it was found that trees on low yielding tree on 'Colt' rootstock had the highest fruit weight values and on heavy producing `MxM 14' the smallest. Soluble solids content was higher on 'Colt' and `MxM 97'. No significant differences between the rootstocks were found in acid content of the fruit juice. There were significant differences between the rootstocks in fruit cracking after 4 and 24 hours' dipping in water. Seemingly with respect to cultivars and rootstocks the year has a considerable effect on fruit cracking.

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106
Fruit production and research in Hungary - An overview
Published November 15, 2004
7-11.

Hungary is traditionally a food producer country. 63% of its total land area can be cultivated. Horticulture is one of the fundamental agricultural branches. The country has a moderate continental climate, with a mean temperature of 10 °C. The average hours of sunshine ranges 1,700 to 2,100 hours. Under the geographical condition in the Carpat...hian Basin the chemical composition of the fruits has a good harmony. The total fruit acreage is 97,000 ha with a crop of 800,000 to 900,000 tons yearly. In 1982 1,934,000 tons of fruit crop were produced since then it has decreased. The most important fruits are apple, European plum, sour cherry and raspberry. The percentage of apple reaches almost up to 60%. In the new plantings sour cherry, apple and black elderberry is popular. The most important fruit-producing region is situated at the North-eastern part of the country. More than 40% of Hungary's fruit production is concentrated there. In ranking the 2nd place is taken by fruit growing area in the middle of Hungary, where the production of stone fruits and small fruits has a considerable proportion.

In the 70s and 80s of last century there was a developed research structure and wide range of research activity in Hungary. From that time the research capacity has considerably decreased first of all in the field of technological development. The main research area is fruit breeding and variety evaluation.

Fruit scientists and fruit grower specialists are held together by the Hungarian. Society for Horticultural Sciences which has a membership in ISHS. Fruit researches and scientists having academic degree are belonged to the Horticultural Board of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

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Morphological examination of Hungarian apricot rootstock varieties
Published June 20, 2006
59-63.

Apricot seedlings are one of the most widely used rootstocks in apricot growing of Hungary. The National List of Hungary contains 7 apricot seedling rootstocks varieties. The production of apricot graft on seedling rootstock takes 3 years from the seed production to the complete graft and requires more space. It is important to provide the true...ness to variety name during this process. In the genus Prunoideae not only the plant but also the stone should have typical characteristics. It seems to be useful to examine the morphology of stone. The observed varieties were 'Tengeribarack C.1300', 'Tengeribarack C.1301', 'Tengeribarack C.1650', 'Tengeribarack' C.1652', 'Tengeribarack C.145', 'Tengeribarack C.1426' and 'Tengeribarack C.2546`.1t seems to be the most suitable characteristic to make a distinction between these varieties by stone, the ratio height of stone to lateral width of stone, the ratio of height of stone to ventral width of stone, the ratio of lateral width of stone to ventral width of stone and the ratio of ventral zone to ventral width. From not measured characteristic seems to be most utilizable to make distinction: the fusion of dorsal groove margins, the shape of apex, the presence of a mucro of the apex, the shape of stalk end in lateral view and the texture of lateral surfaces.

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Selectivity of the oriental fruit moth sex pheromone trap in peach and apricot orchards
Published March 2, 2010
17-20.

One of the most important pests of the stone fruit orchards is the oriental fruit moth (Grapholitha 1110/esta B.). Chemical control targeted against the young larvae is the most effective way of protection. so the ti ming of treatments has to be based on the observation of emergence. Emergence may be monitored with sex pheromone traps.... It is already known from former publications, that the traps for oriental fruit moth are also effective in the case of the plum moth (Grapholitha f1111ebra11a Tr.), which external morphology is very similar to the oriental fruit moth. As the emergence of the oriental fruit moth in peach and apricot orchards has not been observed in detaib in Hungary, we started a s1Udy in this field. Our aim was to measure the selectivity of the sex pheromone traps. On the basis of examining more than 5000 males caught and the investigation of male genital ia. it could be established that the pheromone traps. Csalomon and Deltastop, for oriental fruit moth, caught the plum moth in the same ratio. The ratio of the oriental fruit moth and the plum moth trapped in the peach orchards was I: I . while in the apricot orchards the number of the caught plum moth males was seven times as many as that of the oriental fruit moths. Consequently, it can be established that data based on oriental fruit moth trap catches can not be used without additional investigations of genitalia for the prediction of larval hatch. The selectivity of the plum moth trap. used as a control. was acceptable in both orchards.

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113
The investigation of suitability to various purposes of industrial processing in stone fruit varieties and variety candidates
Published June 20, 2006
93-101.

In the laboratory of Conserve-technology in the Research Institute for Fruit Growing, Company of Public Utility, Cegléd, 6 sour cherry, 6 apricot, 5 peach and nectarine, 6 plum and 4 Japanese plum varieties (canned fruit, juice, dried fruit, deep frozen). The products were evaluated by organoleptic methods on a scale of 1-5 steps. The varietie...s receiving at least 4 points were listed (in brackets also the respective product was indicated): `Kántorjánosi' sour cherry (for all the three purposes), '13' variety candidate (canned and deep frozen), 'T' var. cand., (canned, deep frozen), 'Érdi bőtermő' (dried fruit), 'R' var. cand. (deep frozen); ‘Ceglédi arany', 'Ceglédi bíborkajszi', 'Magyar kajszi"C. 235' (fibrous juice); `Babygold 5', 'Redhaven' peaches, and 'Caldesi 2000' nectarine (canned); 'Stanley' plum (canned), 'Besztercei Bt, 2' (deep frozen).

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Some physical properties of sweet cherries
Published January 3, 2010
63-70.

The determination of the optimal time of the mechanical harvesting of sweet cherries has a great importance not only to prevent the fruit from mechanical injury but to find the optimal setting parameters of the harvesting machine. The primary objective of the experiments was to determine the force and work required to detach the stem from the l...imb and the fruit from the stem. Furthermore to measure the three main sizes (width, height, thickness) of the fruits in order to determine the sphericity, and also the pulp-stone ratio by measuring the mass of the fruit with the stone and then the mass of the stone. The average sizes of the fruits: width 19.62–27.76 mm, height 17.83–24.54 mm and thickness 17.30–23.60 mm. The stem length varied between 28.69 mm and 55.80 mm. The sphericity of each variety was above 90%. The average mass varied between 3.63 and 9.68 g. The stone mass turned to be between 0.27 g and 0.42 g. The stone-pulp ratio varied between 3.7%and 7.7%. The average pulp mass varied between 3.35 g and 9.32 g. The average values of maximum loads required to detach the sweet cherries from the stem varied between 3.23 N and, 4.12 N. The force required to detach the stem from the limb was 50–90% higher than the force needed to tear the fruit from the stem.

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100
Comparative study of effects of a complex fertilizer and a biostimulator on macroelement content of leaf and fruit quality on sweet cherry (Prunus avium)
Published September 19, 2007
91-94.

In this study. we are partly focusing on consumer acceptance of fruit, like fruit cracking, weight and flavours, and maturation, fruit density and content of nutrients which are undelie consumer acceptance, and important equally to the growers and marketers. the results on the dynamics of N-uptake corresponded ti thephenological phases of cherr...y and independent on the applied treatments. Younger leaves contain more N than elder due to the effective N uptake of young leaves. Based on the measurements conducted in June, the P content of leaves was in low P supply category at the control and the Benefit treatment, while was in the lower range of optimal category at Damisol treatment. According to our measurements, the K of cherry leaves decreases continuosly until September, expcept the control at which it increased from the end of June to September. the fruit weight was increased significantly by applying Benefit PZ. the best results for fruit cracing observed at Benefit treatment too. The best result for fruit density was observed at Damisol treatment.

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105
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Evaluation of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and European plum (Prunus domestica L.) varieties for making dried fruits
Published September 19, 2007
119-124.

The aim of our drying trials was to determine the drying suitability of stone fruits. The tested species were sour and sweet cherries and European plums too. Data and results of sweet cherry drying were published earlier (Klincsek et. al. 2005, 2006).This article containing results of twenty sour cherry and six European plum varieties.... Laboratory tests, drying processes and sensory testing were done at Fruit Quality Testing Laboratory of Fruit Science Department of Corvinus University of Budapest. The sensory tests and their valuations were done by the instruction of National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control. In the case of sour cherries by one year data in 2004 we divided fruits to five categories by suitability for making dried fruit. Varieties in the first two groups are the followings: most suggested for making dried, fruits: 'Meteor korai' and `Érdi jubileum'; suggested: 'IV-3-48' and `Piramis'.In the case of European plums three varieties can be suggested for making dried fruits from the six tested cultivars: ‘Révfülöpi’, Althann gage' and `Besztercei'.

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136
107
Optimization of RNA isolation from stone fruits at different ripening stages
Published March 25, 2009
101-104.

This study was conducted to select the most appropriate RNA isolation method that can be used successfully in case of stone fruits. The changing pattern of gene expression during the ripening process of stone fruits may elucidate the molecular background of several phenotypical or phytochemical alterations present among different genotypes. Our... laboratory aims to study the expression of genes encoding for enzymes that catalyze crucial steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. RNA isolation from fruit mesocarp is a challanging task due to high levels of sugars and polyphenolics accumulating during fruit development. Therefore, at first, the optimal techniques eligible for RNA isolation from fruit tissues at different ripening stages must be selected. Our study compares three different RNA isolation protocols and describes their potential applicability according to different fruit species and ripening stages.

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Field evaluations of 14 sweet cherry cultivars as pollinators for cv. Regina (Prunus avium, L.)
Published September 19, 2007
75-77.

In this study, the pollen of 14 sweet cherry cultivars (‘Anella’, ‘Duroni 3', 'Badacsony', 'Cristalina', 'Ferbolus', 'Ferrovia',

'Georgia', 'Hudson', 'Kordia', 'Sam', 'Schneiders’, ‘Spate’, ‘Knorpelkirsche', 'Skeena', 'Summit', 'Sylvia') was used to fertilize the emasculated flowers of sweet cherry cv. 'Regina'. Fruit set ...was assessed three times during fruit development: 14 May, 30 May and 27 May 2007. We observed full incompatibility among the 14 cultivars for cv. 'Cristalina', which is in the same S-allele group as cv. 'Regina'. After analysis of our data, we have results about fertilization efficiency of the cultivars. Most of the evaluated cultivars are inadequate to fertilize cv. 'Regina' to a sufficient degree. There were two exceptions, cv. 'Sam' and cv. 'Skeena', where percentage of ripened fruits was above 20%. These two cultivars can guarantee such a pollination, which ensures ample quantity of ripened fruits. Results of this study have proved three other cultivars to be quite good pollinators for cv. 'Regina'. In conclusion, ideal pollinators for cv. 'Regina' could be — apart from above-mentioned two cultivars, 'Sam' and 'Skeena' — cvs. 'Sylvia' and 'Bianca', which was suggested by more literature sources.

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Strategy of the sour cherry verticum in the Northern Great Plain Region Hungary (Analytic study)
Published October 11, 2005
7-31.

Sour cherry growing and consumption grows dynamically around the world. The present volume of 1 million tons will incerase within 10 years with 20-30, or even with 50%. In the world wide sour cherry production, Europe is a decisive factor, i.e. 2/3 of the volume is grown there. Prominent capacities are concentrated in East-Central Europe, mainl...y Poland, Germany and Hungary. In the future, new concurrent exporters are expected on the European market as Turkey, Iran, Serbia-Montenegro. Hungarian sour cherry production has rich traditions, so the growing techniques and the assortment of sour cherry varieties make Hungary a „Great Power" on this field. Fresh fruit and products developed from sour cherry represent values distinguished as „Hungaricum" on the markets. Sour cherry growing and the path of its products are one of the „pulling branches" of Hungarian fruit growing. Sour cherry occupies 15% of area for fruit growing and 40% within the stone fruits. Sour cherry was grown widely in Hungary, it was grown everywhere as for utilizing waste areas. This is the main reason that yields are low as a mean of 15 000 ha and the volume is low (50-60 000 tons) only. To that poor figure the heavy infections of Monilia contributed substantially in the last couple of years. The two most valid arguments of using the present varieties as the best solution are 1) the cross bred new varieties, and 2) the selections of local, traditional varieties, which substituted the earlier dominant 'Pándy meggy' variety, which had a good quality but yielded poorly. Sour cherry growing of Hungary shifted from the dry regions of the country toward the cooler and more humid regions, where the weather excesses secure a less risky production. The most decisive region is the Norther Great Plain Region comprising Szabolcs­Szatmar-Bereg county, where more than the half of the Hungarian sour cherry volume is produced, and which is bound to increase its production in the future. The majority of sour cherry produced in Hungary is processed, moreover, an important fraction of the exported fresh fruit is also used by the industry. The main importer of Hungarian sour cherry is Germany. The industry manufactures mainly canned products, a smaller fraction will be processed to other products. The expected volumes of sour cherry grown in Hungary in the next 5 and 10-year-period was estimated from data based on the ratio of young plantations, predicted consequences of the global climatic changes, phytosanitary aspects, furthermore, on the development of the technological level. In the region, the volume grown within 5 years, 40 000 t/year will increase within 10 years to 55 000 t/y. The processing in Hungary is not sufficiently differenciated, which is attributed partly to the characters of the varieties, partly to the weaknesses of the processing industry. One of the reasons is the suitability of varieties mainly for canning products. Processed sour cherry products could not be sold at the same price levels achieved by concurrent sour cherry growing countries. The vertical structure of the path of products of sour cherry disposes of adequate processing capacity being ready to be developed or there is sufficient intention of making investments for the purpose of manufacturing special sour cherry products. Significant tasks of development are actual in the field of the ecological and biological conditions of production. Volume and yield security as well as the maturity time and diversification of processing possibilities are the main endeavours in widening the assortment of varieties to be grown in the near future. The main objective in growing techniques is the modernization of phytotechnical procedures, and new solutions of methods of mechanical harvesting and related technical innovations are necessary in the sour cherry verticum. A key question is the effectiveness of phytosanitary procedures with special reference to the Monilia fungus and to the cherry fruit fly as the most important pest. There are two points of break through in the Hungarian sour cherry verticum. On the one hand, meeting the increasing demands in fuits for fresh consumption, on the other hand, the diversification of processed sour cherry products and their introduction to the markets. Both are aiming to increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian sour cherry. For that purpose, outstanding varieties and excellent as well as internationally recognised fruit qualities are ready to be utilized. The most susceptible problems of the Hungarian sour cherry verticum are associated with marketing, alliance of the grower-and processor organisations and their co-operation because no overall integration within the sour cherry verticum has been established yet. Most urgent necessity as well as possibility of changes are felt in the Northern Great Plain Region.

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Pollen morphology of fruit species
Published June 6, 2000
49-57.

Size and surface morphology of pollen has been studied in 87 twit varieties of 10 fruit species during the period of 1990-1995. No preceding work of that type came to our knowledge, yet.

The samples comprised a wide variety of cultivars included male sterile, self-incompatible, partially self-fertile stone fruits, diploid and hexaploid ...plums, diploid and triploid apples.

The large number of species and varieties facilitated the comparison of items within and between the respective species.

It was stated that the size, shape and surface morphology of pollen is genetically determined and those data, combined with other variety characters, are suitable for the classification and distinction of varieties.

In assessment of pollen size and shape, their moisture content is crucial. The major diameter of the swollen pollen as well as the length and width of the dry grains are characteristic to species and/or to variety.

The width and shape changes largely with moisture content. Large grains are proper to quince, apricot, peach and almond, medium sizes are found in apple, sweet cherry, sour cherry, European plum, whereas small size is typical to Japanese plums.

The low number of varieties studied does not allow conclusions concerning differences within pears, quinces and almonds as species. In the rest of species, valid differences have been registered as between varieties.

Within species, as apple and plum, the effect of ploidy (i.e. number of chromosomes) was expressed in the size of their pollen. In stone fruit species, the correlation between size. of anthers and size of pollen grains was positive.

Genetic relations between the self-fertile sour cherry varieties of the Pándy type (Debreceni bőtermő, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös) as well as the self-incompatible apricots of "giant" fruit size are supposed to be analysed by pollen studies but there did not turn out any decisive conclusion, yet. Other characters also should be considered.

The assembly of pollen characters is decisive in the determination of the variety. The ratio of empty pollen grains, the grain size and the density as well as the size of the pits on the surface are best suited to distinguish pollen lots.

 

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Development in intensive orchard systems of cherries in Hungary
Published September 19, 2007
76-86.

High density central leader systems, the so called "spindle trees" are spreading in intensive stone fruit orchards established for hand picking in Hungary. Results of Brunner (1972, 1990) and Zahn (1967, 1996) inspired the researchers to implement their theories into practice under our climate and special soil conditions. For ...sweet cherry it is essential to apply an orchard system appropriate for hand picking because of the European market requirements. In intensive sweet cherry orchards two new training and orchard systems are developed and adapted to environmental conditions in Hungary based on previous inventions. The first step of the development is represented by modified Brunner-spindle, which applies the delayed heading of the central leader and the sectorial-double-pruning system from Brunner (1972), resulting intensive orchard of 600-800 trees/ha density, planted on standard vigour rootstocks. Modified Brunner-spindle trees are developed with a central leader and wide-angled branches on it. Light bearing wood is positioned on the central leader and wide-angled branches. During training, shoots for branches are bent or a sectorial double pruning is used. The growth of central leader is reduced by delayed heading, and the strong upright shoots are pinched in summer. Based upon tree size spacing of 5 m between row and 2.5-3 m between trees is recommended, tree height is around 3.5-4 m. This training system is useful for hand-picking; 60-70% of the crop can be harvested from ground. Modified Brunner-spindle is suitable for either standard or moderate vigorous rootstocks. The cherry spindle is an intensive orchard planted with 1250-2300 trees per hectare and it is recommended for sweet and sour cherries on semi dwarf to vigorous rootstocks, depending on soil fertility and quality. Trees are 2.5-3.5 m high, 75-80% of the crop can be harvested from the ground. Permanent basal scaffolds are developed on the basis of the canopy to counteract the stronger terminal growth. The tree is headed only once, after planting, from the following year the central leader grows from the terminal bud. The central leader developed from the terminal bud results moderated growth in the upper parts of the tree head. The strong upright shoots that may develop below the terminal bud are pinched to 3-4 leaves in the summer or removed entirely. The weaker, almost horizontal shoots growing from the central leader form fruiting twigs in the following year if their terminal bud is not removed. Brunner's double pruning is used only once or twice on the permanent basal branches because of its good branching effect. Trials on various rootstocks are running to find optimum spacing and fruiting wood management. The training and pruning guidelines are discussed in the paper. The average crop of bearing years is around 20-30 t/ha depending on site and cultivars. This new system is spreading in Hungary, around 70 ha sweet and sour cherry orchards are trained according to our guidelines.

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183
147
Bud-, flower- and fruit-density in stone fruits
Published October 20, 2003
59-69.

In 164 varieties of five stone fruit species, counts of flower buds, flowers and fruits set have been performed, regularly, between 1982 and 2002. The critical number and sample size has been determined for the purpose to estimate the yielding potential of peach plantations. For a rapid test, 10 shoots per variety are recommended. In sour cherr...y and peach varieties, the number and ratio of leaf and flower buds has been assessed on bearing shoots of different length.

The typical flower bud density of 129 peach varieties varies, as a rule, between 0.13 and 1.10 bud/cm. Three groups of flower-bud-densities could be distinguished: low (0-0.40 bud/cm), intermediate (0.41-0.60 bud/cm), high (more than 0.60 bud/cm). About 62% of varieties belong to the intermediate group. Negative correlation has been found between flower density and relative fruit set, whereas positive correlation between flower density and fruit yield.

The results are utilised in the description and choice of varieties, moreover, in choosing of optimal pruning policies. Varieties of high flower bud densities are recommended to be preferred for growing sites with frequent late frosts. Abundantly yielding varieties of low vegetative vigour are to be pruned more severely than those characterised by low yields, vigorous growth and low flower density. Sour cherry varieties, which are inclined to grow "whips" ought to be stimulated to grow longer shoots (40-50 cm per year), than varieties woid of that tendency (30-40 cm).

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127
Floral biology of tree fruit rootstocks
Published April 19, 2006
153-161.

The modern nursery industry requires seed sources of a high quality and regular quantity year by year. Besides the seed sources of processed cultivars (Bartlett pear, Shipley, Elberta peach) special seed orchards are planted with selected seed trees producing high quality and genetically determined seed (hybrid seed or inbred lines). Seedlings ...are still the most common commercial source of rootstocks for stone fruits (almond, apricot, peach, plum, prune and walnut). Although clonal rootstocks are spreading, usage of seedlings is still predominant at stone fruits and nuts. For successful seed production and planning of seed orchard the knowledge on floral biology, flower fertility, pollination, blossom time of trees (selected clone or cultivars) used for seed production is essential. In this field very little systematic research was carried out most of the papers were published in the second half of the 20th century. Our mini review gives an overview on the importance of flower fertility in the mating systems applied in seed orchards, and the research results on floral biology of fruit tree rootstocks propagated by seed (Prunus avium, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus insititia, Prunus amygdalus, P persica, P amygdalopersica, Pyrus pyraster, Pyrus communis and Pyrus betulifolia) over the last decades.

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Possibilities of blossom and twig blight management in organic stone fruit production
Published May 10, 2010
103-105.

In this study, possibilities of environmentally-benign plant protection against blossom and twig blight were summarized for organic stone fruit orchards. Symtomps of Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey) were described and then cultivar susceptibility to blossom and twig blight was discussed. Several sustainable plant protection methods we...re selected and discussed in details such as mechanical, agrotechnical, biological, and other non-chemical control possibilities (stone powders, plant extracts and restricted chemical materials).

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Commercial varieties of European plums grown in Hungary, a comparison of promising foreign varieties with the widely grown traditional ones
Published July 26, 2012
15-22.

Observations and investigations performed in laboratory at several growing sites over a period of many years are summarised on established plum varieties as well as on new promising ones concerning their marketing value. The ripening period of plum varieties was enlarged substantially with the appearance of new varieties of extra late maturity ...(‘Elena’, ‘Tophit’, ‘Presenta’). The new varieties did not alter the traditional colour, more or less long, violet or blue character of the plum. The most known type, ‘Besztercei szilva’ with its accustomed taste was followed by the new varieties ‘Katinka’, ‘Tegera‘, ‘Hanita’ and ‘Presenta’. The fruit size are largely of the medium category, except the early ripening small ‘Katinka’, whereas the larger and attractive (~60 g) fruits are represented by the late ripening ‘Tophit’ and ‘Empress’. The stone/fruit ratio was lowest in 3% (‘Tophit’) and 6% (‘Besztercei Bt. 2’, ‘Hanita’, ‘Jojo’, ‘ ‘Čačanska rana’) at the other end of the scale. The width and thickness of the fruit fl esh between 28 mm (‘Besztercei szilva’) and 43-44 mm (‘Empress’, ‘Tophit’). The fi rmness of the fruit fl esh excelled in the late maturity varieties ‘Presenta’ and ‘Tophit’ (~4 kg/cm2). Water soluble solids were 12-13 Brix% (‘Čačanska rana’, ‘Katinka’, ‘Silvia’) and 20 Brix% (‘Presenta’, ‘Tophit’), whereas titrated acids are found between 0.2% (‘Besztercei Bt. 2’) and 1.2% (‘Tegera’).

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Association of varieties in stone fruit plantations
Published June 6, 2000
29-33.

In the majority of Hungarian orchards of stone fruits, the planting distance is 6-7 m x 4-5 m. As many of the current varieties are self-incompatible, planting designs are applied to provide for adequate pollinisers. As long as differences in blooming time are small, i.e. 3-5 days at most, overlaps of blooming of the associated varieties are su...fficient for fruit set.

In sour cherry, one leading variety, Pándy, is self-incompatible and requires two polliniser varieties at least (Ciganyneggy or some sweet cherry varieties). Pándy is, moreover, cross-incompatible with the varieties Debreceni bőtermő, Kántorjánosi and Újfehértói fürtös being all of them self-fertile as most of new varieties recommended, by the way, for being planted to monovarietal blocks.

Among European plums there are varieties registered as male sterile, self-incompatible, parially self-fertile and self-fertile, respectively. For the purpose of cross pollination, the choice of two varieties, at least, to be associated to any variety belonging to the first three groups, is recommended. The number of rows in blocks planted to self incompatible or male-sterile varieties should not be higher than 2-(4). Inter-incompatibility has been observed within the currently recommended assortment, between the varieties Cacanska najbolja and Stanley, only. Chinese-Japanese plums are scarcely represented in Hungarian plantations. Variation of blooming time in varieties is somewhat more pronounced, i.e. 5-8 days. There is but a weak tendency to self-fertility, thus practically, all varieties are considered as self-incompatible, thus the planting of two-row blocks for each of three varieties, at least, are recommended to be associated.

Self-incompatibility and partially self-fertile apricot varieties are recommended to be combined with two polliniser varieties, at least, each planted to two-row blocks. The varieties Ceglédi óriás, Ligeti óriás, Nagykőrösi óriás and Szegedi Mammut are mutually inter-incompatible. Most of the peach varieties grown in Hungary are self-fertile, thus they are planted to large blocks, each. On sites threatened by late spring frost, it is recommended to plant (monovarietal) blocks of 4-6 rows at most. Cross-pollination may increase fruit set even in self-fertile varieties.

 

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94
127
Brown rot blossom blight of pome and stone fruits: symptom, disease cycle, host resistance, and biological control
Published May 19, 2008
15-21.

In this paper, important features of symptoms, biology and biological disease management are summarised for brown rot blossom blight fungi of pome and stone fruit crops (Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia mali). Firstly, European brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa is discussed highlighting the blossom ...epidemiology features, then host susceptibility of the most important stone fruit species including several Hungarian and international cultivars. At the end of this chapter, recent biological control possibilities against Monilinia laxa are also included. Secondly, American brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola is discussed. Symptoms, biological features of blossom blight and host susceptibility of flowers to Monilinia fructicola are demonstrated. Finally, the symptoms and the biology of the least frequent species, Monilinia mali are shown.

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364
490
Possibilities of brown rot management in organic stone fruit production in Hungary
Published June 20, 2006
87-91.

In this study, possibilities of environmentally-friendly plant protection against two brown rot species was summarized for organic stone fruit orchards. Symtomps of the two most important brown rot species (Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey and Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey) were described an...d then cultivar susceptibility to brown rot was discussed. Several sustainable plant protection methods were selected and discussed in details such as mechanical, agrotehcnical, biological, and other control possibilities (elemental sulphur, lime sulphur and copper).

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115
172
Conditions and outlooks of growing stone fruits
Published January 3, 2010
91-98.

Conditions and outlooks of growing stone fruits

113
128
Incidence of fungal diseases on leaves of apricot and plum cultivars in Hungary
Published March 19, 2007
29-31.

In this two-year study, incidence of Polystigma rubrum on plum, and Apiognomonia erytrostoma on apricot were evaluated on several stone fruit cultivars in Hungary. Results showed that most apricot cultivars expressed symptoms caused by A. erytrostoma, graded between 2 and 3 (10-50%) by the end of the summer in 2005 an...d 2006. The most tolerant apricot cultivars were Budapest and Mandulakaj­szi while the most susceptible ones were 'Magyar kajszi' and 'Piroska'. Assessments made on plum showed that most of the plum cultivars were tolerant or lowly susceptible to P. rubrum such as 'Ageni', 'Althann ringló', 'Bluefre', 'Cacanska najbolja', 'Silvia', 'Ruth Gerstetter', 'Tuleu gras' and 'Utility'. The most susceptible plum cultivars to P. rubrum were 'Besztercei clones' and 'Debreceni Muskotály'.

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106
103
Utilisation of data raised in blooming phenology of fruit trees for the choice of pollinisers of plum and apricot varieties
Published March 16, 2004
35-41.

Information concerning the blooming time of stone fruit varieties is, first of all, an important condition of finding suitable pollinisers securing adequate fruit set. For that purpose, varieties are assigned to blooming-time-groups. Depending on the number (3 or 5) of the groups, i.e. the length of intervals separating the groups established, ...pollenisers are to be chosen for self-incompatible and partially self-fertile varieties belonging to the same blooming-time-group. The mutually most overlapping blooming periods of the respective varieties should be found by raising data of their blooming phenology, i.e. dynamics, which is compared by drawing their phenograms and calculating blooming (V) indices. Variety combinations have to be checked, however, concerning mutual fertility relations of the respective pairs of varieties. That is most important in the case of Japanese plums because of the abundant incompatible combinations. Synchronous blooming has been determined by assigning the varieties to blooming-time-groups, or comparing overlaps of blooming phenograms, or by blooming (V) indices. Synchronous blooming phenology has been studied in European plum varieties (111 varietiy combinations) Japanese plums (156 variety combinations) and apricots (153 variety combinations) under Hungarian conditions, over several seasons. In determining overlaps, the less favourable season has been considered as decisive. Polliniser combinations have been chosen with at least 70% synchronous blooming. Blooming time of varieties is an important part of the variety descriptions. Blooming dates may serve also for the estimations of frost risk or security of yield.

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86
95
Incidence of virus fungal diseases on three stone fruits cultivars in Hungary
Published May 10, 2010
107-109.

In this two-year study, incidence of Polystigma rubrum on plum, and Apiognomonia erytrostoma on apricot were evaluated on several stone fruit cultivars in Hungary. Results showed that most apricot cultivars expressed symptoms caused by A. erytrostoma, graded between 2 and 3 (10-50%) by the end of the summer in 2005 and 2006. The most tolerant a...pricot cultivars were Budapest and Mandulakajszi while the most susceptible ones were ’Magyar kajszi’ and ’Piroska’.Assessments made on plum showed that most of the plum cultivars were tolerant or lowly susceptible to P. rubrum such as ’Ageni’, ’Althann ringló’, ’Bluefre’, ’Cacanska najbolja’, ’Silvia’, ’Ruth Gerstetter’, ’Tuleu gras’ and ’Utility’. The most susceptible plum cultivars to P. rubrum were ’Besztercei clones’ and ’Debreceni Muskotály’.

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