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Rootstocks for Cherries from the Department of Fruit Science Budapest
Published August 13, 2004
63-66.

Cherry rootstock breeding started at the Department of Fruit Science, SSU Budapest by the late 50-s and the activity can be divided into three main groups. In the first stage the activity was focused on collection of native mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L.) varieties lead by L. Sebők. After evaluation in the nursery and orchard tests... there are four promising rootstock cultivars selected from this material: 'Korponay' used as self fertile seed tree, its seedlings are recommended for sour cherries. The mahaleb varieties 'Bogdány' (vigorous), 'Egervár' and 'Magyar' (medium vigour) are propagated by cuttings. The next project has started in 1979 with the aim to select self fertile mahaleb seed trees producing homogeneous seedling populations with reduced vigour. Inbred populations from isolated flowering self fertile trees were produced and planted out in 1980. The inbreeding of 'Korponay' self fertile P. mahaleb variety resulted in specimens with different fruit colour (yellow, red, black), fruit shape and size. From among them self fertile trees were selected with various growth characteristics. Seedlings of that self fertile mother trees (S2 population) were tested in seedbed, they showed homogeneous phenotype characteristics as liners in the nursery. As rootstock of 'Érdi bőtermő' sour cherry in the orchard most of the S2 lines proved to be less vigorous in comparison to SI popuplations. 'Érdi bőtermő' trees budded on certain S2 lines in the orchard are more productive than those on S1 ('Korponay' seedling). Characteristics of the S2 generation as seed tree were studied as well. We expect to get morphologically homogeneous seedling populations with different growth vigour and good productivity in the later inbred generations. In the last couple of decades the research activity concerning ground-cherry and its hybrids resulted in dwarfing rootstocks. Prunus fruticosa Pall. hybrids from the natural flora of Hungary were collected and artificial hybrids were created between P. fruticosa and mahaleb cherry. Most of them are in the initial tests, only one of them is before registration, named 'Prob', which is a dwarf rootstock for sweet cherry. By the screening of new hybrids medium vigorous or semi dwarfing and precocious rootstocks seem to be promising for the cherry industry.

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Influence of soaking periods and temperatures on germination and respiration of pea seeds
Published February 23, 2000
69-71.

Samples of 50 wrinkled-seeded pea (Piston sativum cv. ‘Farida') were soaked for 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours at temperature of 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C in distilled water before germination. Water absorption, percent of germination, vigorous seedlings and dry weight of normal seedlings were assessed after 8 days. Respiration of shor...t and long seedlings were checked by IRGA, LI-COR 6200 photosyn­thesis system. Most plants had more or less respiration but some of them already had photosynthesis. Differences in the amount of water absorbed were evident after one hour, only. Water amount was increased by increasing soaking temperatures and times. The maximum was achieved after 24 hours. Normal germination percent was not improved at any soaking time and temperature combinations but it was significantly declined at 10 °C with soaking time combinations and at 20 °C for 72 hours. The seedling vigour values were not very different at the higher soaking temperatures, but the treatments at 20 °C temperature with 8 and 24 hour soaking periods are proved to be optimal for seedling vigour. At the low soaking temperature the increase of the soaking period influenced the seedling vigour. Reduction of dry weight percent was noticeable by any soaking time related to temperature and compared with the control.

 

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Growth and productivity of plum cultivars on various rootstocks in intensive orchard
Published June 20, 2006
77-81.

Trees of three plum cultivars (Stanley, Cacanska Lepotica and Althann's Gage) were planted at Szigetcsép experimental station in Spring 1994 and trained to slender spindle with the aim to test their growth, effect of productivity under not irrigated conditions and to evaluate the adaptability of rootstock/scion combinations to intensive orchar...ds. As control, trees on Myrobalan C 162/A (P. cerasifera) seedling are planted. In the trial two rootstocks are from Slovakia: Myrobalan MY-KL-A (red leaf) and Myrobalan MY-BO-1, vegetatively propageted. Further on two French rootstocks, the Marianna GF 8-1: Marianna plum (P. cerasifera x P munsoniana) and the Sainte Julien GF 655/2 (P. insititia) were involved. The Hungarian bred plum Fehér besztercei (P. domestica), which is recommended as apricot rootstock is also tested. Rootstocks MY-BO-1 and Fehér besztercei were planted with cultivar Stanley only. Trees were planted to a spacing of 5x3 m trained to slender spindle with 3-4 permanent basal branches. After yield start (1997) trees have been pruned only in summer, after harvest. In the alleyway the natural plant vegetation is mown, the orchard is not irrigated.

Based on tree size, vigorous rootstocks are Marianna GF 8-1 and Myrobalan C 162/A seedling, medium vigorous are MY-BO-I and MY­KL-A; vegetative propageted myrobalan plums from Slovakia, while St. Julien GF 655/2 and Feller Besztercei proved to be growth reducing rootstocks. No significant difference between the rootstocks was found in turning to bearing. Under non-irrigated condition at Szigetcsép, cultivar Stanley produced the highest yield per area unit on vigorous rootstock (GF 8-1). The cultivar Althann's Gage produced the highest yield efficiency on Marianna GF 8-1 and they were healthy in the last 10 years. The symptoms of Althann's Gage trees on MY-KL-A rootstock indicate a possible incompatibility. The average fruit weight was significantly influenced by crop load on cultivar Cacanska lepotica, while no statistically proved differences were found on Stanley and Althann's Gage. The Cacanska lepotica trees produced significantly lower yield and larger fruit weight on St. Julien GF 655/2 rootstock. Adaptability to spindle training system depends on vigour of scion/rootstock combination: low or medium vigour cultivars (C. lepotica, Stanley) are good choice for spindle training systems even on vigorous rootstock; while the St. Julien GF 655/2 can be recommended only for vigorous Althann's Gage under our soil and climate conditions.

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Variability and differences of growth vigour in the set of 36 genotypes of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).
Published March 21, 2001
30-34.

Growth vigour of 36 apricot cultivars and new hybrids grafted on apricot seedling rootstock (Prunus armeniaca L.) was evaluated on the base of measurements of stem girth from the 411' to the 10th year after planting. There were differences in growth vigour of genotypes under study. In the evaluated set of genotypes the contr...ol cultivar 'Veecor may be classified as a genotype with below-average growth vigour. Only four genotypes (-Reale d'Imola-, Sanagian -Moldavskii krupnoplodnyl and 'LE-2385') were found with significantly higher growth vigour than that of control cultivar 'Veecot' in years of the end of experimental period. Two genotypes (Farmingdale', -LE-SE0-24') were found with significantly higher growth vigour only at the beginning of experimental period and one cultivar ('Vivagold-) with significantly lower growth vigour in the first four years. Genotypes with different growth vigour can be used in further breeding programmes and/or as components inhibiting or supporting the growth in indirect vegetative propagation. Within the whole experimental period, the rank of growth vigour of genotypes practically did not change. This was demonstrated by highly significant or significant coefficients of correlation existing between individual pairs of years (r=0.32+ to r=0.96++). As far as the time difference between years in individual pairs of years was higher, the correlation coefficients were lower. In individual years, variability of growth vigour was relatively low and ranged from 9.83 to 13.64%.

 

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Comparison of the growing habit of peach varieties trained to caldron and slender spindle crowns
Published May 10, 2010
55-59.

Six peach varieties (’RedMoon’, ’Early Redhaven’, ’Rich Lady’, ’Suncrest’, ’Silver King’, ’Royal Glory’) grafted on seedling stock have been trained alternatively, to caldron (kettle) and to slender spindle, are compared in dormant stage regarding their variety-specific growing habits. According to our results, marked di...fferences have been stated in vegetative vigour of varieties measured as the length, thickness and number of shoots. The caldron crowns displayed more vigour whereas the spindle trees produced more balanced and moderately growing shoots. The differences due to varieties were more conspicuous that due to the training. An intrinsic knowledge of growing habits of varieties may facilitate the development of variety-specific pruning technologies beginning with the training for crown forms.

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The impact of location, row direction, plant density and rootstock on the sunburn damage of apple cultivars
Published March 14, 2005
19-30.

The effect of row direction (N-S, E-W), plant density (conventional and intensive) and rootstock (M9, MM106 and crab apple) on the sensitivity of 41 apple cultivars to sunburn injury was studied at 6 locations (Derecske, Kálmánáaza, Nagykutas, Nagylapos, Siófok, Tornyospálca).

During the observations the cultivars had rootstock-spe...cific properties in respect of sunburn-susceptibility. Accordingly, the injury was decreased in the order: M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. The differences in sensitivity depend on the canopy of trees, caused finally by the growing vigour of rootstocks. Accordingly, the highest value of sunburn injury was observed on M9 rootstock, because this rootstock has a dwarfing effect upon the scion cultivars. Thus, vegetative area of these trees grow very slowly and the foliage is not enough compact to protect the fruit from solar radiation. The size and density of the foliage increased in the order: M9, MM 106 and crab apple seedling as rootstock. Moreover, relationships were demonstrated between the diameter of upper part of the crown, the leaf area, the number of fruits per tree and the injury of sunburn.

Authors categorized the cultivars in respect of values of sunburn incidence: 1. „Not sensitive", II. „Moderately sensitive" and HI. „Strongly sensitive" categories were constituted. Generally, Topaz and Gala cultivars showed low damage (or were free from symptoms), in contrast to this, Golden mutants suffered relatively much. The most sensitive cultivar was Jonica on all the three rootstocks. We searched for relationship between the fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn. Significant correlation was found in the cases of fruit size and the extent of cover-colour. The latter is interpreted with the fact that the best coloured fruits are found on the periphery of crown as a consequence of more intense irradiation.

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