The wild orchids growing in Hungary are some of the most decorative and interesting members of the country's flora. The majority of species are rarely spotted, and some are only found in very few habitats, though others are quite common .All the species known in Hungary are protected, and 1 1 species are strictly protected. Itis thus important...to monitor the health status of these plants, to determine what diseases affect them, what pathogens are found on them and how severely they are infected, and to take the necessary precautionary measures. Eleven of the 14 orchid species occurring in the 6rseg National Park were included in the study and the presence of microscopic fungi was detected on eight of these. Pathogenic species were found on lesser butterfly orchid (Platanthera bifolia), green-winged orchid (Orchis morio), burnt orchid (Orchis ustulara), sword-leaved helleborine (Cephalanthera longifolia), common twayblade (Listera ovata), autumn lady's-tresses (Spiranthes spiralis), western marsh orchid (Dacrylorhiza majalis) and broad-leaved helleborine (Epipactis helleborine). A detailed account is given of the symptoms of major diseases and of the microscopic traits of the pathogens. An attempt was made to determine to what extent the pathogenic fungal species found on protected orchid species influence the lives of these plants. Current knowledge on this subject is extremely deficient, as practically no data are available from Hungary.
Mycological investigations have been made since 2001 in all characteristic forest types in Central Börzsöny Mts., North Hungary. Among the near 500 macrolungi species documented 8 protected and 32 rare taxa occurred. Present paper concerns 13 of these taxa: 3 critically endangered, 7 endangered and 3 vulnerable in Hungary. Near the summarisat...ion of the European habitat preference a Hungarian habitat characterisation were made for each species based on all Hungarian documented occurrence data. Majority of the species have similar habitat preference in Hungary to the European one, but some exceptions were noted. Boletus pinophilus is a typical species of deciduous forests with acidic soil, not documented from coniferous stands. Pluteo.v umbrosus prefers undisturbed forest stands with high quantity of dead wood in Hungary and did not occur in parks. Trichoma psammopus fructified in lower altitude in deciduous and mixed forest stands (always connected with Larix). Sonic species were rarer in Hungary, than in other European countries, caused by lack of their original habitats: Boletus pinophilus, 11rclJrclloin concrescens, Tremella encephala, Tricholoma aurantium, Iwo species — Boleros torosus anti Amanita lirielopallescens — were touch common in Hungary than in Europe. Two taxa —Amanita vaginata var. alba, Tremella encephala — are new From Hungary.
As it well known the decrease of biodiversity is a large problem all over the world. In case of medicinal plants, where the huge majority of drugs are collected from natural ecosystems, the sustainable, utilization of the populations and reservation of their gene-pools has an increased interest.
In Hungary, the major background of 'in s...itu' reservation of medicinal plant species, their natural plant associations and ecosystems is the official protection by law. Successful examples are known for the controlled utilization of medicinal and aromatic plant species grown in protected areas. Assuring the naturally occuring high degree of biological and chemical diversity of species is a special task in this field: only maintenance of valuable intraspecific races can form the real genetic basis of natural biologically active compounds.
Maintenance of chemotaxonomical gardens and gene bank collections (seed banks, tissue banks) as 'ex situ' methods of reservation is carried out on an extended range in Hungary. As the required information on storage and maintenance of many medicinal and aromatic plant species is yet missing, exhaustive research is carried out at both genebanks in Hungary, which are specialized for medicinal plant reservation (RIMAP- Budakalász, SZIU- Budapest).
Beside the static conservation methods, 'quasi-production systems' are intended to assure an up-to-date and economically possible way of dynamic reservation with sustainable utilization.
Telekia speiosa (Schreb.) Baumg. is a 100-150 cm high bushy perennial, which has yellow flowers and smells good. According to the descriptions (Farkas, 1999), it can be detected in two smaller areas within Hungary, namely in the Bükk hills and on the Szatmár-Bereg Plain. By the time of writing this paper, the population around Tiszabecs has a...lready got extinct. Therefore, it is a protected relict species. It is named in honour of Sámuel Teleki, chancellor of Transylvania.Within the frame of the experiment, the Telekia speciosa (Schreb.) Baumg. was planted to places differently illuminated (sunny, semi shadow, shade), then the morphological changes brought about the various light conditions were investigated. The experiment was launched with a stock sown in October 2008. The seedlings were planted to three beds with diverse light conditions. The area of each bed was 1 m2, and ten seedlings were planted per m2. The parameters investigated are as follows: the length of leaf blade, the width of leaf blade, the length of petiole, the number of leaves per plant, and the alterations of leaves. As a result of our research, we can state that semi shadow is the optimal habitat for the plant. Under such ecological conditions the highest leaf production was observed, the leaves were species specific, healthy and big. The mean number of leaves per plant was 6.6, the mean length of blade was 16.6 cm, the mean width of blade was 13 cm, while the mean length of petiole was 14.2 cm. In the shade the plants grew poorly and the size of leaves were smaller. The mean number of leaves per plant was 4.1, the mean length of blade was 8.6 cm, the mean width of blade was 7.1 cm, and the mean length of petiole was 9.4 cm. In the sunny habitat a similarly high leaf production was observed as in the semi shadow; however, the leaves had brownish spots, they shriveled, feel rough, so they revealed a reduced aesthetical value. The mean number of leaves per plant was 6.6, the mean length of blade was 17.8 cm, the mean width of blade was 11.3 cm, and the mean length of petiole was 13.1 cm.
Three varieties of different species of annual bedding and balcony plants were examined in balcony boxes in three different places (Budapest, Solymár-Kerekhegy, Tázlár) in order to determine their tolerance to different climate conditions. The experiment proved that Celosia argentea L. var. plumosa 'Savaria' and Dichond...ra repens J. R. Forst. et G. Forst 'Silver Falls' tolerate well the Hungarian extremely dry, hot and changing climate. Nemesia Vent. 'Blue Bird' developed and flowered well only in cooler and protected conditions; therefore, this species can be offered to a more balanced climate as the western areas of Hungary and the mountains.
On the basis of a six-year experiment a method was elaborated for forcing and off-seasons growing of tulips, narcissus and gladioli under frameless plastic cover. The advantages of this cheap energy-saving method are manifested in an improved quality of flowers and essentially in the earlier flowering. With this method mostly first-class flower...s can be obtained immediately after the season of forcing in heated constructions with plastic cover, and anticipated outdoor flowering.
The possibilities of applying the method are studied on further ornamental plant species (other bulbous plants, Paeonia lactiflora, annual ornamentals).